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Chapter 5 : Nontoxigenic O1 Infections in the United States

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Abstract:

During the past two decades, strains of nontoxigenic (NT) O1 have been isolated in several countries, including Bangladesh, Guam, Brazil, Peru, Japan, England, and the United States. This chapter summarizes the available epidemiologic, microbiologic, and clinical information on NT O1 isolates from humans in the United States received by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) between 1977 and 1991. NT of O group 1 is biochemically and serologically indistinguishable from toxigenic O1, the cause of epidemic cholera, but does not produce cholera toxin (CT). The elevated levels of cyclic AMP in the mucosal cells of the small bowel cause a cascade that ultimately results in hypersecretion of chloride and bicarbonate into the intestinal lumen and hence a net osmotic efflux of water. NT O1 isolates were associated with a broad spectrum of illnesses. Symptoms recorded in medical records and epidemiologic reporting forms showed that 6 (43%) of 14 patients were hospitalized but that none died. Public health practitioners should regard NT O1 as a potential human pathogen but not as a pathogen with the same lethality and epidemic potential as toxigenic O1.

Citation: Rodrigue D, Popovic T, Wachsmuth I. 1994. Nontoxigenic O1 Infections in the United States, p 69-76. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch5

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Clinical and Public Health
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Outer Membrane Proteins
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Vibrio cholerae
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Figure 1

Seasonal distribution and isolation sites of 14 NT O1 infections, United States, 1977 to 1991.

Citation: Rodrigue D, Popovic T, Wachsmuth I. 1994. Nontoxigenic O1 Infections in the United States, p 69-76. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch5
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Laboratory characteristics of 14 NT O1 isolates, United States, 1977 to 1991

Citation: Rodrigue D, Popovic T, Wachsmuth I. 1994. Nontoxigenic O1 Infections in the United States, p 69-76. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 2

Genotypic characteristics of NT O1 strains

Citation: Rodrigue D, Popovic T, Wachsmuth I. 1994. Nontoxigenic O1 Infections in the United States, p 69-76. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 3

Features of 14 patients from whom NT O1 was isolated, United States, 1977 to 1991

Citation: Rodrigue D, Popovic T, Wachsmuth I. 1994. Nontoxigenic O1 Infections in the United States, p 69-76. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 4

Symptoms of 10 patients with NT O1 isolated from stool

Citation: Rodrigue D, Popovic T, Wachsmuth I. 1994. Nontoxigenic O1 Infections in the United States, p 69-76. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch5

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