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Chapter 8 : Non-O Group 1 Strains Not Associated with Epidemic Disease

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Abstract:

O-group 1 and non-O1 give identical reactions in standard biochemical assays; differentiation is based on expression of the O1 antigen and agglutination with O1 antisera. The O1 biosynthetic gene cluster in (VcRfb) contains ca. 20 kb of DNA. strains can also be classified on the basis of enzyme electrophoretic patterns (zymovar analysis). Non- O1 strains can produce a polysaccharide capsule, and some preliminary data suggest that a number of different capsular types exist; in the future, capsular typing may provide a useful means of classifying strains. It is also possible that typing systems for non-O1 could be based on the analysis of outer membrane protein profiles or chromosomal restriction patterns for rRNA or other critical genes. While seafood remains an important vehicle of infection for sporadic non-O1 disease outside of the United States, it is clear that transmission can also occur through other routes. The gastroenteritis associated with non-O1 can range from mild illness to profuse, watery diarrhea comparable to that seen in patients with epidemic cholera. Current data suggest that there are subsets of strains that are able to cause sporadic human disease: strains that colonize and produce either cholera toxin (CT) or NAG-ST have been associated with diarrhea, while heavy encapsulation appears to be a prerequisite for septicemia.

Citation: Morris, Jr. J. 1994. Non-O Group 1 Strains Not Associated with Epidemic Disease, p 103-115. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch8

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Electron photomicrograph of thin sections of non-O1 NRT-36S stained with polycationic ferritin, showing heavy encapsulation.

Citation: Morris, Jr. J. 1994. Non-O Group 1 Strains Not Associated with Epidemic Disease, p 103-115. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch8
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

species implicated as a cause of human disease

Citation: Morris, Jr. J. 1994. Non-O Group 1 Strains Not Associated with Epidemic Disease, p 103-115. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 2

Sources of non-O1 submitted for species confirmation to the Centers for Disease Control through 1985

Citation: Morris, Jr. J. 1994. Non-O Group 1 Strains Not Associated with Epidemic Disease, p 103-115. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 3

Frequency distribution of oyster samples positive for non-O1 by month of harvest: FDA study of oyster shell stock in the United States

Citation: Morris, Jr. J. 1994. Non-O Group 1 Strains Not Associated with Epidemic Disease, p 103-115. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 4

Symptoms of volunteers ingesting non-O1 NRT-36S

Citation: Morris, Jr. J. 1994. Non-O Group 1 Strains Not Associated with Epidemic Disease, p 103-115. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch8

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