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Chapter 9 : Vibrios in the Environment: Viable but Nonculturable

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Abstract:

The anecdotal information that persisted for 100 years maintained that the only reservoir of toxigenic O1, the epidemic strain of cholera, was the human intestinal tract and that this strain was taxonomically separate from non-O1, also known as “nonagglutinable vibrios” and found in aquatic, predominantly estuarine environments. The autochthonous nature of Ol is an important factor in the epidemiology of cholera and is significantly so in endemic areas. The first extensive studies of salinity and temperature relationships using microcosms were reported by Singleton and coworkers who used O1 strain LA4808, isolated during the 1978 El Tor cholera outbreak in Louisiana, and nine other clinical or environmental strains, including both O1 and non-O1 . Anwarul Huq and coworkers demonstrated that associated with planktonic live copepods survived longer, i.e., remained culturable, in laboratory microcosms than exposed to dead copepods or to sp., a blue-green alga used to feed live copepods. In this study, cells of were enumerated by plate count, and it was found that the organisms could be cultured on plates for up to 336 h. The study was carried out with divers in the Chesapeake Bay region of the United States and at the Black Sea off the coasts of Russia and Ukraine. O1 was isolated by culture and detected in seawater and from swabs of the ears, noses, and throats of divers by the fluorescent-antibody method when culture was unsuccessful.

Citation: Colwell R, Huq A. 1994. Vibrios in the Environment: Viable but Nonculturable , p 117-133. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch9

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Figures

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Figure 1

Cells of O1 (ATCC 14035) stained with acridine orange by the AODC method.

Citation: Colwell R, Huq A. 1994. Vibrios in the Environment: Viable but Nonculturable , p 117-133. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch9
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Cells of O1 (ATCC 14035) stained with acridine orange after 6 h of incubation with nalidixic acid and yeast extract according to Kogure's DVC method.

Citation: Colwell R, Huq A. 1994. Vibrios in the Environment: Viable but Nonculturable , p 117-133. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch9
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Cells of O1 (569B) stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated with monoclonal antibody employing the direct fluorescent-antibody method.

Citation: Colwell R, Huq A. 1994. Vibrios in the Environment: Viable but Nonculturable , p 117-133. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch9
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Figure 4

Hypothetical model for transmission of in nature. Modified with permission (Huq et al., p. 262, M. Yasuno and B. A. Whitton, ed., Tokai University Press, Tokyo, 1988).

Citation: Colwell R, Huq A. 1994. Vibrios in the Environment: Viable but Nonculturable , p 117-133. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch9
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