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Chapter 13 : The Krebs Citric Acid Cycle

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Abstract:

The citric acid cycle (CAC) has several functions in aerobic bacteria. Together with the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDHC), it completely oxidizes pyruvate and provides membrane-bound respiratory systems with reducing equivalents. An overview of the biochemistry and genetics of CAC enzymes in is presented in this chapter. , being a strict aerobe, runs a complete CAC, as is demonstrated by enzyme activity measurements with cell extracts or purified enzymes and by the ability of this bacterium to grow on most of the intermediates of the CAC as sole carbon source. 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (ODHC) belongs to the same family of enzymes as PDHC. Present knowledge of this enzyme, has been acquired from studies involving various mutants. The prosthetic groups of SQR and some of their properties are presented in this chapter. The occurrence of larger and smaller types of malate dehydrogenase seems not to be correlated with gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria as citrate synthase and succinate thiokinase are. Little information on the genetics of malate dehydrogenase in gram-positive bacteria is available, but mutants defective in this CAC enzyme have been isolated.

Citation: Hederstedt L. 1993. The Krebs Citric Acid Cycle, p 181-197. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch13

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Figure 1

Krebs CAC with anaplerotic reactions. ACN, aconitase; CS, citrate synthase; FUM, fumarase; ICDH, isocitrate dehydrogenase; MAL, malie enzyme; MDH, malate dehydro-genase; ODHC, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex; PDHC, pyravate dehydrogenase complex; PYC, pyruvate carboxylase; SDH, succinate dehydrogenase (succinate:men-aquinone reductase); STK, succinate thiokinase.

Citation: Hederstedt L. 1993. The Krebs Citric Acid Cycle, p 181-197. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch13
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Chromosomal localization of CAC genes in . See Table 1 for details and references.

Citation: Hederstedt L. 1993. The Krebs Citric Acid Cycle, p 181-197. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch13
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Reaction sequences of the 2-oxo acid dehydroge-nase multienzyme complexes. Lip, lipoic acid; TPP, thiamine PP; CoASH, free, reduced CoA; −SCoA, oxidized, covalently bound CoA; R, acyl group.

Citation: Hederstedt L. 1993. The Krebs Citric Acid Cycle, p 181-197. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch13
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Genes for CAC enzymes of

Citation: Hederstedt L. 1993. The Krebs Citric Acid Cycle, p 181-197. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 2

Properties of PDHC from different organisms

Citation: Hederstedt L. 1993. The Krebs Citric Acid Cycle, p 181-197. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 3

Molecular data on succinate:quinone reductase from gram-positive bacteria compared with data for and mammalian cells

Citation: Hederstedt L. 1993. The Krebs Citric Acid Cycle, p 181-197. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 4

Localization and characteristics of prosthetic groups of succinate:menaquinone reductase

Citation: Hederstedt L. 1993. The Krebs Citric Acid Cycle, p 181-197. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch13

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