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Chapter 22 : Biosynthesis of the Branched-Chain Amino Acids

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Abstract:

Branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis has been most thoroughly characterized in ; hence, most of the information in this chapter is from studies of . The novel mechanisms for biosynthesis in other gram-positive genera are also described. In addition, the organization of the genes responsible for isoleucine, valine, and leucine biosynthesis and proposed regulatory mechanisms for expression of those genes is elucidated and compared with those for the corresponding genes in the gram-negative bacterium . The chapter illustrates the major pathways for the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids in vegetatively growing cells. In some of the intermediates in branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis, specifically the branched-chain keto acids, are the immediate precursors of synthesis of the branched-chain fatty acids that are an integral part of the cell membrane. The chapter also talks about the regulation of and gene expression. A brief overview of what occurs in is presented first, and then what occurs in is described. The genetic organization and regulation of the and genes are significantly different in grampositive and gram-negative bacteria. As in , cells increase expression of the and genes when there is a need for the branched-chain amino acids. Much more investigation is needed before the complete story of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis in the gram-positive bacteria is known.

Citation: Fink P. 1993. Biosynthesis of the Branched-Chain Amino Acids, p 307-317. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch22

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Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Biosynthetic pathways for isoleucine, valine, and leucine formation in . Enzymes catalyzing the reactions and genes encoding the enzymes are indicated.

Citation: Fink P. 1993. Biosynthesis of the Branched-Chain Amino Acids, p 307-317. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch22
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Comparison of deduced amino acid sequences of the (), biosynthetic (), and E. coli biodegradative () threonine deaminases. C1 to C5 and R1 to R7 are the catalytic and regulatory domains, respectively, described by Taillon et al. ( ).

Citation: Fink P. 1993. Biosynthesis of the Branched-Chain Amino Acids, p 307-317. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch22
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Maps of the and chromosomes showing the locations of genes that function during branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis.

Citation: Fink P. 1993. Biosynthesis of the Branched-Chain Amino Acids, p 307-317. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch22
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Nucleotide sequence of the upstream regulatory region of the gene. Underlined sequences represent the -35 and -10 segments of the promoter, +1 indicates the transcription start site, and dots signify the Shine-Dalgarno site before the ATG start of the ilvB open reading frame. Arrowheads indicate regions of inverted repeats occurring in transcripts that originate at the promoter. These sequences can form potential stem-and-loop structures A:B and C:D (shown in Fig. 5 ).

Citation: Fink P. 1993. Biosynthesis of the Branched-Chain Amino Acids, p 307-317. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch22
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Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Predicted secondary structure of the terminator that occurs in the untranslated leader transcript upstream of the gene cluster. Structure shown is the hairpin A:B, the terminator, which was identified in Fig. 4 . C and D represent inverted repeats (arrows) that are capable of base pairing and might interfere with the terminator structure. The base change that occurs in segment A of one mutant, , is indicated.

Citation: Fink P. 1993. Biosynthesis of the Branched-Chain Amino Acids, p 307-317. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch22
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Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

Nucleotide sequence of the DNA upstream of the gene. Dots indicate the Shine-Dalgarno site preceding the ATG start codon. Arrowheads indicate a region of DNA that can potentially form a stem-and-loop structure. Codons in the amino-terminal end of the coding region that are specific for leucine are underlined.

Citation: Fink P. 1993. Biosynthesis of the Branched-Chain Amino Acids, p 307-317. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch22
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