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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on three species, , , and , only the first of which features in the analysis just given of 16S rRNA sequences. It summarizes three important aspects of their biology: the molecular bases of pathogenesis, solventogenesis, and polysaccharide hydrolysis. Approximate estimations of genome size are also available for Spp. , , , , and . A dominant selective marker was an essential prerequisite for the development of gene transfer systems, and streptococcal antibiotic resistance genes represented an obvious choice. has much more advanced molecular genetics than all the other pathogenic Clostridia. There is an extensive literature on polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from Clostridia. The cellulases from are the most studied, but another thermophilic species, , and mesophilic species such as and are now attracting attention. The attenuated strains that will result from this research may well find application as live vaccines in human and especially veterinary medicine. Finally, it would be misleading to leave the impression that the many genetic tools currently available for use in and have reached the same degree of sophistication as those currently employed in .

Citation: Young M, Cole S. 1993. , p 35-52. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch3

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Gene Expression and Regulation
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Transcription Start Site
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Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis
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16s rRNA Sequencing
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Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Combined physical and genetic maps of the chromosome of CPN50. The 3,600-kbp genome is divided into 100-kbp segments. Restriction sites for (A), (F), (M), (?), and (S) are indicated on the outside of the circle, as are the positions of clusters of rare restriction sites (SacII-SacII-SmaI-SmaI-NruI-SmaI-NruI) (R), which correspond to the locations of the 10 operons. Genetic markers that have been assigned to the map are indicated on the inside of the circle (see references , and for further details).

Citation: Young M, Cole S. 1993. , p 35-52. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch3
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

ABE fermentation in (modified from that given in reference ). Enzymes are indicated by numbers as follows (numbers in bold circles denote enzymes whose genes have been cloned in ): 1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-NAD oxidoreductase; 2, lactate dehydrogenase ( ); 3, pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase; 4, NADH-ferredoxin oxidoreductase; 5, NADPH-ferredoxin oxidoreductase; 6, hydrogenase (cloned from [155]); 7, phosphate acetyltransferase; 8, acetate kinase; 9, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase; 10, ethanol dehydrogenase ( ); 11, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (thiolase) ( ); 12, acetoaceryl-CoA-acetate-butyrate-CoA transferase ( ); 13, acetoacetate decarboxylase ( ); 14, 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase ( ); 15, crotonase; 16, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase; 17, phosphate butyryltransferase ( ); 18, butyrate kinase ( ); 19, butyraldehyde dehydrogenase; 20, butanol dehydrogenase ( ). P, phosphate.

Citation: Young M, Cole S. 1993. , p 35-52. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch3
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Genetic features of some species of

Citation: Young M, Cole S. 1993. , p 35-52. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 2

Cloned clostridial toxin genes

Citation: Young M, Cole S. 1993. , p 35-52. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 3

Cloned genes concerned with fermentative metabolism

Citation: Young M, Cole S. 1993. , p 35-52. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch3

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