1887

Chapter 3 :

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818388/9781555810535_Chap03-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818388/9781555810535_Chap03-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter focuses on three species, , , and , only the first of which features in the analysis just given of 16S rRNA sequences. It summarizes three important aspects of their biology: the molecular bases of pathogenesis, solventogenesis, and polysaccharide hydrolysis. Approximate estimations of genome size are also available for Spp. , , , , and . A dominant selective marker was an essential prerequisite for the development of gene transfer systems, and streptococcal antibiotic resistance genes represented an obvious choice. has much more advanced molecular genetics than all the other pathogenic Clostridia. There is an extensive literature on polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from Clostridia. The cellulases from are the most studied, but another thermophilic species, , and mesophilic species such as and are now attracting attention. The attenuated strains that will result from this research may well find application as live vaccines in human and especially veterinary medicine. Finally, it would be misleading to leave the impression that the many genetic tools currently available for use in and have reached the same degree of sophistication as those currently employed in .

Citation: Young M, Cole S. 1993. , p 35-52. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch3

Key Concept Ranking

Gene Expression and Regulation
0.528013
Transcription Start Site
0.52622443
Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis
0.4090423
16s rRNA Sequencing
0.40699878
0.528013
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Combined physical and genetic maps of the chromosome of CPN50. The 3,600-kbp genome is divided into 100-kbp segments. Restriction sites for (A), (F), (M), (?), and (S) are indicated on the outside of the circle, as are the positions of clusters of rare restriction sites (SacII-SacII-SmaI-SmaI-NruI-SmaI-NruI) (R), which correspond to the locations of the 10 operons. Genetic markers that have been assigned to the map are indicated on the inside of the circle (see references , and for further details).

Citation: Young M, Cole S. 1993. , p 35-52. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

ABE fermentation in (modified from that given in reference ). Enzymes are indicated by numbers as follows (numbers in bold circles denote enzymes whose genes have been cloned in ): 1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-NAD oxidoreductase; 2, lactate dehydrogenase ( ); 3, pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase; 4, NADH-ferredoxin oxidoreductase; 5, NADPH-ferredoxin oxidoreductase; 6, hydrogenase (cloned from [155]); 7, phosphate acetyltransferase; 8, acetate kinase; 9, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase; 10, ethanol dehydrogenase ( ); 11, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (thiolase) ( ); 12, acetoaceryl-CoA-acetate-butyrate-CoA transferase ( ); 13, acetoacetate decarboxylase ( ); 14, 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase ( ); 15, crotonase; 16, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase; 17, phosphate butyryltransferase ( ); 18, butyrate kinase ( ); 19, butyraldehyde dehydrogenase; 20, butanol dehydrogenase ( ). P, phosphate.

Citation: Young M, Cole S. 1993. , p 35-52. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818388.chap3
1. Abraham, L. J.,, D. I. Berryman,, and J. I. Rood. 1988. Hybridization analysis of the class P tetracycline resistance determinant from the Clostridium perfringens R-plasmid, pCW3. Plasmid 19:113120.
2. Abraham, L. J.,, and J. I. Rood. 1985. Cloning and analysis of the Clostridium perfringens tetracycline resistance plasmid, pCW3. Plasmid 13:155162.
3. Abraham, L. J.,, and J. I. Rood. 1985. Molecular analysis of transferable tetracycline resistance plasmids from Clostridium perfringens. J. Bacteriol. 161:636640.
4. Abraham, L. J.,, and J. I. Rood. 1987. Identification of Tn4451 and Tn4452, chloramphenicol resistance transposons from Clostridium perfringens. J. Bacteriol. 169: 15791584.
5. Abraham, L. J.,, and J. I. Rood. 1988. The Clostridium perfringens chloramphenicol resistance transposon Tn4451 excises precisely in Escherichia coli. Plasmid 19:164168.
6. Abraham, L. J.,, A. J. Wales,, and J. I. Rood. 1985. Worldwide distribution of the conjugative Clostridium perfringens tetracycline resistance plasmid, pCW3. Plasmid 14:3746.
7. Allen, S. P.,, and H. P. Blaschek. 1988. Electroporation-induced transformation of intact cells of Clostridium perfringens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:23222324.
8. Allen, S. P.,, and H. P. Blaschek. 1990. Factors involved in the electroporation-induced transformation of Clostridium perfringens. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 70:217220.
9. Andersch, W.,, H. Bahl,, and G. Gottschalk. 1983. Level of enzymes involved in acetate, butyrate, acetone and butanol formation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Eur. J. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 18:327332.
10. Aubert, J. P.,, P. Béguin,, and J. Millet,. 1993. Genes and proteins involved in cellulose and xylan degradation by Clostridium thermocellum, p. 412422. In M. Sebald (ed.). Genetics and Molecular Biology of Anaerobic Bacteria. Springer-Verlag, New York.
11. Azeddoug, H.,, J. Hubert,, and G. Reysset. Stable inheritance of shuttle vectors based on plasmid pIM13 in a mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum. J. Gen. Microbiol. 138:13711378.
12. Bahl, H.,, W. Andersch,, and G. Gottschalk. 1982. Continuous production of acetone and butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum in a two-stage phosphate limited chemostat. Eur. J. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 15:201205.
13. Bahl, H.,, G. Burchhardt,, A. Spreinat,, K. Haeckel,, A. Wienecke,, B. Schmidt,, and G. Antranildan. 1991. α -Amylase of Clostridium thermosulfurogenes EM1: nucleotide sequence of the gene, processing of the enzyme, and comparison to other α -amylases. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:15541559.
14. Bahl, H.,, G. Burchhardt,, and A. Wienecke. 1991. Nucleotide sequence of two Clostridium thermosulfurogenes EM1 genes homologous to E. coli genes encoding integral membrane components of binding protein-dependent transport systems. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 81:8388.
15. Bahl, H.,, and G. Gottschalk. 1984. Parameters affecting solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in continuous culture. Biotechnol. Bioeng. Symp. 14:215223.
16. Bahl, H.,, and G. Gottschalk,. 1988. Microbial production of butanol/acetone, p. 130. In H. J. Rehm, and G. Reed (ed.). Biotechnology, vol. 6b. VCH Verlagsgesell-schaft, Weinheim, Germany.
17. Ballongue, J.,, J. Amine,, E. Masion,, H. Petitdemange,, and R. Gay. 1985. Induction of acetoacetate decarboxylase in Clostridium acetobutylicum. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 29:273277.
18. Ballongue, J.,, R. Janati-Idrissi,, H. Petitdemange,, and R. Gay. 1989. Correlation between solvent production and level of solventogenic enzymes in Clostridium acetobutylicum. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 67:611617.
19. Bannam, T. L.,, and J. I. Rood. 1991. The relationship between the Clostridium perfringens catQ gene product and chloramphenicol acetyltransferases from other bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:471476.
20. Béguin, P. 1990. Molecular biology of cellulose degradation. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 44:219248.
21. Béguin, P.,, M. Rocancourt,, M. C. Chebrou,, and J.-P. Aubert. 1986. Mapping of mRNA encoding endoglucanase A from Clostridium thermocellum. Mol. Gen. Genet. 202:251254.
22. Bennett, G. N.,, and D. J. Petersen,. 1993. Cloning and expression of Clostridium acetobutylicum genes involved in solvent production, p. 317343. In M. Sebald (ed.). Genetics and Molecular Biology of Anaerobic Bacteria. Springer-Verlag, New York.
23. Berenger, J. F.,, C. Frixon,, J. Bigliardi,, and N. Creuzet. 1985. Production, purification, and properties of thermostable xylanase from Clostridium stercorarium. Can. J. Microbiol. 31:635.
24. Berryman, D. I.,, and J. I. Rood. 1989. Cloning and hybridization analysis of ermP, a macrolide-lincosa-mide-streptogramin B resistance determinant from Clostridium perfringens. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:13461353.
25. Bertram, J.,, A. Kuhn,, and P. Dürre. 1990. Tn916-induced mutants of Clostridium acetobutylicum defective in regulation of solvent formation. Arch. Microbiol. 153:373377.
26. Bertram, J.,, M. Strätz,, and P. Durre. 1991. Natural transfer of conjugative transposon Tn916 between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 173:443448.
27. Binz, T.,, H. Kurazono,, M. Wille,, J. Frevert,, K. Wernars,, and H. Niemann. 1990. The complete sequence of botulinum neurotoxin type A and comparison with other clostridial neurotoxins. J. Biol. Chem. 265:91539158.
28. Blaschek, H. P.,, and M. Solberg. 1981. Isolation of a plasmid responsible for caseinase activity in Clostridium perfringens ATCC 3626B. J. Bacteriol. 147:262266.
29. Boyd, M. J.,, M. A. Logan,, and A. A. Tytell. 1948. The growth requirements of Clostridium perfringens BP6K. J. Biol. Chem. 174:10131025.
30. Bréfort, G.,, M. Magot,, H. Ionesco,, and M. Sebald. 1977. Characterization and transferability of Clostridium perfringens plasmids. Plasmid 1:5266.
31. Brehm, J. K.,, A. Pennock,, H. M. S. Bullman,, M. Young,, J. D. Oultram,, and N. P. Minton. 1992. Physical characterization of the replication origin of the cryptic plasmid pCBlOl isolated from Clostridium butyricum NCIB 7423. Plasmid 28:113.
32. Brehm, J.,, G. Salmond,, and N. Minton. 1987. Sequence of the adenine methylase gene of the Streptococcus faecalis plasmid pAMβ l. Nucleic Acids Res. 15:3177.
33. Bronnenmeier, K.,, C. Ebenblchler,, and W. L. Stauden-bauer. 1990. Separation of the cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes of Clostridium stercorarium. J. Chromatogr. 521:301310.
34. Bronnenmeier, K.,, K. P. Rücknagel,, and W. L. Stauden-bauer. 1991. Purification and properties of a novel type of exo-l,4-β -glucanase (avicelase-II) from the cellulolytic thermophile Clostridium stercorarium. Eur. J. Bio-chem. 200:379385.
35. Bronnenmeier, K.,, and W. L. Staudenbauer. 1988. Resolution of Clostridium stercorarium cellulase by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 27:432436.
36. Bronnenmeier, K.,, and W. L. Staudenbauer,. The molecular biology and genetics of substrate utilization in Clostridia. In D. R. Woods (ed.), The Clostridia and Biotechnology, in press. Butterworths, Boston.
37. Brown, D. P.,, L. Ganova-Raeva,, and P. Youngman. 1992. Personal communication.
38. Canard, B.,, and S. T. Cole. 1989. Genome organization of the anaerobic pathogen Clostridium perfringens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:66766680.
39. Canard, B.,, and S. T. Cole. 1990. Lysogenic phages of Clostridium perfringens: mapping of the chromosomal attachment sites. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 66:323326.
40. Canard, B.,, T. Gamier,, B. Lafay,, R. Christen,, and S. T. Cole. 1992. Phylogenetic analysis of the pathogenic anaerobe Clostridium perfringens using the 16S rRNA sequence. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 42:312314.
41. Canard, B.,, T. Gamier,, B. Saint-Joanis,, and S. T. Cole. Molecular genetic analysis of the nagH gene encoding the hyaluronidase (Mu toxin) of Clostridium perfringens. Submitted for publication.
42. Canard, B.,, B. Saint-Joanis,, and S. T. Cole. 1992. Genomic diversity and organisation of virulence genes in the pathogenic anaerobe Clostridium perfringens. Mol. Microbiol. 6:14211429.
43. Cary, J. W.,, D. J. Petersen,, E. T. Papoutsakls,, and G. IV. Bennett. 1988. Cloning and expression of Clostridium acetobutylicum phosphotransbutyrylase and butyrate kinase genes in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol 170:46134618.
44. Cary, J. W.,, D. J. Petersen,, E. T. Papoutsakls,, and G. N. Bennett. 1990. Cloning and expression of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 acetoacetyl-coenzyme A:acetate/butyrate:coenzyme A-transferase in Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:15761583.
45. Cato, E. P.,, W. L. George,, and S. M. Finegold,. 1986. Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL, p. 11411200. In S. P. H. A. Sneath,, S. N. Mair,, M. E. Sharpe,, and J. G. Holt (ed.), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2. The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore.
46. Chauvaux, S.,, P. Béguin,, J.-P. Aubert,, K. M. Bhat,, L. A. Gow,, T. M. Wood,, and A. Bairoch. 1990. Calcium-binding affinity and calcium-enhanced activity of Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase D. Biochem. J. 265:261265.
47. Chen, G.-F. T.,, and M. Inouye. 1990. Suppression of the negative effect of minor arginine codons on gene expression; preferential usage of minor codons within the first 25 codons of the Escherichia coli genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 18:14651473.
48. Clark, S. W.,, G. N. Bennett,, and F. B. Rudolph. 1989. Isolation and characterization of mutants of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 deficient in acetoacetyl-coenzyme A:acetate/butyrate:coenzyme A-transferase (EC 2.8.3.9) and in other solvent pathway enzymes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55:970976.
49. Cole, S. T.,, and T. Gamier,. 1993. Molecular genetic studies of UV-inducible bacteriocin production in Clostridium perfringens, p. 248254. In M. Sebald (ed.), Genetics and Molecular Biology of Anaerobic Bacteria. Springer-Verlag, New York.
50. Collins, M. E.,, J. D. Oultram,, and M. Young. 1985. Identification of restriction fragments from two cryptic Clostridium butyricum plasmids that promote the establishment of a replication-defective plasmid in Bacillus subtilis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 131:20972105.
51. Contag, P. R.,, M. G. Williams,, and P. Rogers. 1990. Cloning of a lactate dehydrogenase gene from Clostridium acetobutylicum B643 and expression in Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:37603765.
52. Coughlan, M. P. 1985. The properties of fungal and bacterial cellulases with comment on their production and application. Biotechnol. Genet. Eng. Rev. 3:39109.
53. Coughlan, M. P.,, K. Hon-naml,, H. Hon-naml,, G. Ljungdahl,, J. J. Paulin,, and W. E. Rigsby. 1985. The cellulolytic enzyme complex of Clostridium thermocellum is very large. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 130:904909.
54. Creuzet, N.,, J. F. Berenger,, and C. Frixon. 1983. Characterization of exoglucanase and synergistic hydrolysis of cellulose in Clostridium stercorarium. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 20:347350.
55. Creuzet, N.,, and C. Frixon. 1983. Purification and characterization of an endoglucanase from a newly isolated thermophilic anaerobic bacterium. Biochimie 65:149156.
56. Datta, R.,, and J. G. Zeikus. 1985. Modulation of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by carbon monoxide and organic acids. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49:522529.
57. Dixon, B. 1990. Anaerobes at work. Bio/Technology 8:591.
58. Doremus, M. G.,, J. C. Linden,, and A. R. Moreira. 1985. Agitation and pressure effects on acetone-butanol fermentation. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 27:852860.
59. Dove, C. H.,, S. Z. Wang,, S. B. Price,, C. J. Phelps,, D. M. Lyerly,, T. D. Wilkins,, and J. L. Johnson. 1990. Molecular characterization of the Clostridium difficile toxin A gene. Infect. Immun. 58:480488.
60. Duncan, C. L.,, E. A. Rokos,, C. M. Christenson,, and J. I. Rood,. 1978. Multiple plasmids in different toxigenic types of Clostridium perfringens: possible control of beta toxin production, p. 246248. In D. Schlessinger (ed.), Microbiology1978. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
61. Duncan, C. L.,, D. H. Strong,, and M. Sebald. 1972. Sporulation and enterotoxin production by mutants of Clostridium perfringens. J. Bacteriol. 110:378391.
62. Dürre, P., Transposons in Clostridia. In D. R. Woods (ed.), The Clostridia and Biotechnology, in press. Butterworths, Boston.
63. Dürre, P.,, A. Kuhn,, and G. Gottschalk. 1986. Treatment with allyl alcohol selects specifically for mutants of Clostridium acetobutylicum deficient in butanol synthesis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 36:7781.
64. Dürre, P.,, A. Kuhn,, M. Gottwald,, and G. Gottschalk. 1987. Enzymatic investigations on butanol dehydrogenase and butyraldehyde dehydrogenase in extracts of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 26:268272.
65. Eisel, U.,, W. Jarausch,, K. Goretzki,, A. Henschen,, J. Engels,, U. Weller,, M. Hudel,, E. Habermann,, and H. Niemann. 1986. Tetanus toxin: primary structure, expression in E. coli. EMBO J. 5:24952502.
66. Eklund, M. W.,, F. T. Poysky,, L. M. Mseitif,, and M. S. Strom. 1988. Evidence for plasmid-mediated toxin and bacteriocin production in Clostridium botulinum type G. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:14051408.
67. Eklund, M. W.,, F. T. Poysky,, S. M. Reed,, and C. A. Smith. 1971. Bacteriophage and the toxigenicity of Clostridium botulinum type C. Science 172:480482.
68. El Kanounl, A.,, A. M. Junelles,, R. Janati-Idrissl,, H. Petitdemange,, and R. Gay. 1989. Clostridium acetobutylicum mutants isolated for resistance to the pyruvate halogen analogs. Curr. Microbiol. 18:139144.
69. Elton, R. A. 1973. The relationship of DNA base composition and individual protein composition in microorganisms. J. Mol. Evol. 2:263276.
70. Fairweather, N. F.,, and V. A. Lyness. 1986. The complete nucleotide sequence of tetanus toxin. Nucleic Acids Res. 14:78097812.
71. Fairweather, N. F.,, V. A. Lyness,, D. J. Pickard,, G. Allen,, and R. O. Thomson. 1986. Cloning, nucleotide sequencing, and expression of tetanus toxin fragment C in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 165:2127.
72. Fujii, N.,, K. Kimura,, T. Yashiki,, T. Indoh,, T. Murakami,, K. Tsuzuki,, N. Yokosawa,, and K. Oguma. 1991. Cloning of a DNA fragment encoding the 5'-terminus of the botulinum type E toxin gene from Clostridium butyricum strain BL6340. J. Gen. Microbiol. 137:519525.
73. Garnier, T.,, B. Canard,, and S. T. Cole. 1991. Cloning, mapping and molecular characterization of the rRNA opérons of Clostridium perfringens. J. Bacteriol. 173: 54315438.
74. Garnier, T.,, and S. T. Cole. 1986. Characterization of a bacteriocinogenic plasmid from Clostridium perfringens and molecular genetic analysis of the bacteriocin-encoding gene. J. Bacteriol. 168:11891196.
75. Garnier, T.,, and S. T. Cole. 1988. Complete nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of the bacteriocino-genic plasmid, pIP404, from Clostridium perfringens. Plasmid 19:134150.
76. Garnier, T.,, and S. T. Cole. 1988. Identification and molecular genetic analysis of replication functions of the bacteriocinogenic plasmid pIP404 from Clostridium perfringens. Plasmid 19:151160.
77. Gamier, T.,, and S. T. Cole. 1988. Studies of UV-inducible promoters from Clostridium perfringens in vivo and in vitro. Mol. Microbiol. 2:607614.
78. Garnier, T.,, S. F. J. Le Grice,, and S. T. Cole,. 1988. Characterization of the promoters for two UV-inducible transcriptional units carried by plasmid pIP404 from Clostridium perfringens, p. 211214. In A. T. Ganesan,, and J. A. Hoch (ed.), Genetics and Biotechnology of Bacilli, vol. 2, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego.
79. George, W. L., 1989. Antimicrobial agent-associated diarrhea and colitis, p. 661678. In S. M. Finegold, and W. L. George (ed.), Anaerobic Infections in Humans. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego.
80. Gerischer, U.,, and P. Durre. 1990. Cloning, sequencing, and molecular analysis of the acetoacetate decarboxylase gene region from Clostridium acetobutylicum. J. Bacteriol. 172:69076918.
81. Gerischer, U.,, and P. Dürre. 1992. mRNA analysis of the ade gene region of Clostridium acetobutylicum during the shift to solventogenesis. J. Bacteriol. 174:426433.
82. Gerwig, G. J.,, P. de Waard,, J. P. Kamerling,, J. F. G. Vliegenthart,, E. Morgenstern,, R. Lamed,, and E. A. Bayer. 1989. Novel O-Iinked carbohydrate chains in the cellulase complex (cellulosome) of Clostridium thermocellum. J. Biol. Chem. 264:10271035.
83. Gerwig, G. J.,, J. P. Kamerling,, J. F. G. Vliegenthart,, E. Morag,, R. Lamed,, and E. A. Bayer. 1991. Primary structure of O-linked carbohydrate chains in the cellulosome of different Clostridium thermocellum strains. Eur. J. Biochem. 196:115122.
84. Gilkes, N. R.,, B. Henrissat,, D. G. Kilburn,, R. C. Miller,, and R. A. J. Warren. 1991. Domains in microbial β -1,4-glycanases: sequence conservation, function, and enzyme families. Microbiol. Rev. 55:303315.
85. Gimenez, J.,, J. Foley,, and B. R. DasGupta. 1988. Neurotoxin type E from Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium butyricum; partial sequence and comparison. FASEBI. 2:A1750.
86. Granum, P. 1990. Clostridium perfringens toxins involved in food poisoning. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 10:101112.
87. Granum, P. E.,, and G. S. A. B. Stewart,. 1993. Molecular biology of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, p. 235247. In M. Sebald (ed.), Genetics and Molecular Biology of Anaerobic Bacteria. Springer-Verlag, New York.
88. Graves, M. C.,, G. T. Mullenbach,, and J. C. Rabinowitz. 1985. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Clostridium pasteurianum ferredoxin gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:16531657.
89. Graves, M. C.,, and J. C. Rabinowitz. 1986. In vivo and in vitro transcription of the Clostridium pasteurianum ferredoxin gene. Evidence for "extended" promoter elements in Gram-positive organisms. J. Biol. Chem. 261:1140911415.
90. Grépinet, O.,, M. C. Chebrou,, and P. Béguin. 1988. Nucleotide sequence and deletion analysis of the xyla-nase gene (xynZ) of Clostridium thermocellum. J. Bacteriol. 170:45824588.
91. Grossman, A. D.,, J. W. Erickson,, and C. A. Gross. 1984. The htpR gene product of E. coli is a sigma factor for heat-shock promoters. Cell 38:383390.
92. Gruss, A.,, and S. D. Ehrlich. 1989. The family of highly interrelated single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid plasmids. Microbiol. Rev. 53:231241.
93. Hächler, H.,, B. Berger-Bächi,, and F. H. Kayser. 1987. Genetic characterization of a Clostridium difficile erythromycin-clindamycin resistance determinant that is transferable to Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:10391045.
94. Hächler, H.,, F. H. Kayser,, and B. Berger-Bfichi. 1987. Homology of a transferable tetracycline resistance determinant of Clostridium difficile with Streptococcus (Enterococcus) faecalis transposon Tn916. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:10331038.
95. Hall, J.,, G. P. Hazlewood,, P. J. Barker,, and H. J. Gilbert. 1988. Conserved reiterated domains in Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanases are not essential for catalytic activity. Gene 69:2938.
96. Hancock, K. R.,, S. J. Reid,, J. D. Santangelo,, and D. R. Woods. Cloning and sequencing of a gene from Clostridium acetobutylicum that shows homology to the Bacillus sporulation gene, spoIID. Submitted for publication.
97. Hanna, P. C.,, A. P. Wnek,, and B. A. McClane. 1989. Molecular cloning of the 3' half of the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin gene and demonstration that this region encodes receptor-binding activity. J. Bacteriol. 171:68156820.
98. Hartmanis, M. G. N.,, and S. Gatenbeck. 1984. Intermediary metabolism in Clostridium acetobutylicum: levels of enzymes involved in the formation of acetate and butyrate. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 47:12771283.
99. Hauser, D.,, M. W. Eklund,, H. Kurazono,, T. Binz,, H. Niemann,, D. M. Gill,, P. Boquet,, and M. R. Popoff. 1990. Nucleotide sequence of Clostridium botulinum CI neurotoxin. Nucleic Acids Res. 18:4924.
100. Hazlewood, G. P.,, M. P. M. Romanlec,, K. Davidson,, O. Grepinet,, P. Béguin,, J. Millet,, O. Raynaud,, and J.-P. Aubert. 1988. A catalogue of Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase, β -glucosidase and xylanase genes cloned in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 51: 231236.
101. Heefher, D. L.,, C. H. Squires,, R. J. Evans,, B. J. Kopp,, and M. J. Yarns. 1984. Transformation of Clostridium perfringens. J. Bacteriol. 159:460464.
102. Henkin, T. M.,, F. J. Grundy,, W. L. Nicholson,, and G. H. Chambliss. 1991. Catabolite repression of α -amylase gene expression in Bacillus subtilis involves a transacting gene product homologous to the Escherichia coli lacI and galR repressors. Mol. Microbiol. 5:575584.
103. Henrissat, B.,, M. Claeyssens,, P. Tomme,, L. Lemesle,, and J.-P. Mornon. 1989. Cellulase families revealed by hydrophobic cluster analysis. Gene 81:8395.
104. Higgins, C. F.,, C. J. Dorman,, and N. Ni Bhriain,. 1989. Environmental influences on DNA supercoiling: a novel mechanism for the regulation of gene expression, p. 421432. In K. Drlica, and M. Riley (ed.), The Bacterial Chromosome. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
105. Holck, A.,, H. Blom,, and P. E. Granum. 1990. Cloning and sequencing of the genes encoding the acid soluble spore proteins from Clostridium perfringens. Gene 91: 107111.
106. Hunter, S. E. C.,, I. N. Clarke,, D. C. Kelly,, and R. W. Titball. 1992. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin gene and its expression in Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 60:102110.
107. Husemann, M. H. W.,, and E. T. Papoutsakls. 1989. Enzymes limiting butanol and acetone formation in continuous and batch cultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 31:435444.
108. Husemann, M. H. W.,, and E. T. Papoutsakls. 1989. Comparison between in vivo and in vitro enzyme activities in continuous and batch fermentations of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 30: 585595.
109. Hyun, H. H.,, and J. G. Zeikus. 1985. Regulation and genetic enhancement of glucoamylase and pullulanase production in Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum. J. Bacteriol. 164:11461152.
110. Iwanejko, L. A.,, M. N. Routledge,, and G. S. A. B. Stewart. 1989. Cloning in Escherichia coli of the entero-toxin gene from Clostridium perfringens type A. J. Gen. Microbiol. 135:903909.
111. Janati-Idrissi, R.,, A. M. Junelles,, A. El Kanounl,, H. Petitdemange,, and R. Gay. 1987. Selection de mutants de Clostridium acetobutylicum defectifs dans la production d'acetone. Ann. Microbiol. (Inst. Pasteur) 138:313323.
112. Jannière, L.,, C. Bruand,, and S. D. Ehrlich. 1989. Structurally stable Bacillus subtilis cloning vectors. Gene 87:5361.
113. Janssen, P. J.,, W. A. Jones,, D. T. Jones,, and D. R. Woods. 1988. Molecular analysis and regulation of the glnA gene of the gram-positive anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum. J. Bacteriol. 170:400408.
114. Jarvis, E. D.,, R. L. Widom,, G. La Fauci,, Y. Setoguchi,, I. R. Richter,, and R. Rudner. 1988. Chromosomal organization of rRNA operons in Bacillus subtilis. Genetics 120:625635.
115. Jauris, S.,, K. P. Rücknagel,, W. H. Schwarz,, P. Kratzsch,, K. Bronnenmeier,, and W. L. Staudenbauer. 1990. Sequence analysis of the Clostridium stercorarium celZ gene encoding a thermoactive cellulase (avicelase-I): identification of catalytic and cellulose-binding domains. Mol. Gen. Genet. 223:258267.
116. Jenkins, L. S.,, and W. D. Nunn. 1987. Genetic and molecular characterization of the 0genes involved in short-chain fatty acid degradation in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 169:4252.
117. Johnson, J. L.,, C. H. Dove,, S. B. Price,, T. W. Sickles,, C. J. Phelps,, and T. D. Wilkins,. 1988. The toxin A gene of Clostridium difficile, p. 115123. In J. M. Hardie, and S. P. Borriello (ed.). Anaerobes Today. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, United Kingdom.
118. Johnson, J. L.,, and B. S. Francis. 1975. Taxonomy of the Clostridia: ribosomal ribonucleic acid homologies among species. J. Gen. Microbiol. 88:229244.
119. Jones, D. T.,, A. van der Westhuizen,, S. Long,, E. R. Allcock,, S. J. Reid,, and D. R. Woods. 1982. Solvent production and morphological changes in Clostridium acetobutylicum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43:14341439.
120. Jones, D. T.,, and D. R. Woods. 1986. Gene transfer, recombination, and gene cloning in Clostridium acetobutylicum. Microbiol. Sci. 3:1922.
121. Jones, D. T.,, and D. R. Woods. 1986. Acetone-butanol fermentation revisited. Microbiol. Rev. 50:484524.
122. Junelles A.-M.,, R. Janati-Idrissi,, A. El Kanounl,, H. Petitdemange, and R. Gay. 1987. Acetone-butanol fermentation by mutants selected for resistance to acetate and butyrate halogen analogues. Biotechnol. Lett. 9:175178.
123. Kim, A. Y.,, and H. P. Blaschek. 1989. Construction of an Escherichia coli-Clostridium perfringens shuttle vector and plasmid transformation of Clostridium perfringens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55:360365.
124. Kim, A. Y.,, and H. P. Blaschek. 1991. Isolation of a filamentous viruslike particle from Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIB 6444. J. Bacteriol. 173:530535.
125. Kim, B. H.,, P. Bellows,, R. Datta,, and J. G. Zeikus. 1984. Control of carbon and electron flow in Clostridium acetobutylicum fermentations: utilization of carbon monoxide to inhibit hydrogen production and to enhance butanol yields. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48:764770.
126. Kimura, K.,, N. Fujii,, K. Tsuzuki,, T. Murakami,, T. Indoh,, N. Yokosawa,, and K. Oguma. 1991. Cloning of the structural gene for Clostridium botulinwn type C1 toxin and whole nucleotide sequence of its light-chain component. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:11681172.
127. Kohring, S.,, J. Wiegel,, and F. Mayer. 1990. Subunit composition and glycosidic activities of the cellulase complex from Clostridium thermocellum JW20. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:37983804.
128. Lamed, R.,, and E. A. Bayer,. 1988. The cellulosome concept: exocellular/extracellular enzyme reactor centers for efficient binding and cellulolysis, p. 101116. In J. P. Aubert,, P. Béguin,, and J. Millet (ed.), FEMS Symposium No. 43: Biochemistry and Genetics of Cellulose Degradation. Academic Press, London.
129. Lamed, R.,, J. Nalmark,, E. Morgenstern,, and E. A. Bayer. 1987. Specialized cell surface structures in cel-lulolytic bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 169:37923800.
130. Lamed, R.,, E. Setter,, and E. A. Bayer. 1983. Characterization of a cellulose-binding, cellulase-containing complex in Clostridium thermocellum. J. Bacteriol. 156: 828836.
131. Lamed, R.,, E. Setter,, R. Kenig,, and E. A. Bayer. 1983. The cellulosome: a discrete cell surface organelle of Clostridium thermocellum which exhibits separate antigenic, cellulose-binding and various cellulolytic activities. Biotechnol. Bioeng. Symp. 13:163181.
132. Landick, R.,, V. Vaughn,, E. T. Lau,, R. A. VanBogelen,, J. W. Erickson,, and F. C. Neidhardt. 1984. Nucleotide sequence of the heat shock regulatory gene of E. coli suggests its protein product may be a transcription factor. Cell 38:175182.
133. Lee, S. F.,, and C. W. Forsberg. 1987. Isolation and some properties of a β -D-xylosidase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:651654.
134. Lee, S. F.,, C. W. Forsberg,, and J. B. Rattray. 1987. Purification and characterization of two endoxylanases from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:644650.
135. Lesklw, B. K.,, M. J. Bibb,, and K. F. Chater. 1991. The use of a rare codon specifically during development? Mol. Microbiol. 5:28612867.
136. Leslie, D.,, N. Fairweather,, D. Pickard,, G. Dougan,, and M. Kehoe. 1989. Phospholipase C and haemolytic activities of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin cloned in Escherichia coli: sequence and homology with Bacillus cereus phospholipase C. Mol. Microbiol. 3:383392.
137. Lin, W. J.,, and E. A. Johnson. 1991. Transposon Tn916 mutagenesis in Clostridium botulinum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:29462950.
138. Long, S.,, D. T. Jones,, and D. R. Woods. 1984. The relationship between sporulation and solvent production in Clostridium acetobutylicum P262. Biotechnol. Lett. 6:529534.
139. Long, S.,, D. T. Jones,, and D. R. Woods. 1984. Initiation of solvent production, clostridial stage, and endospore formation in Clostridium acetobutylicum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 20:256261.
140. Luczak, H.,, H. Schwarzmoser,, and W. L. Stauden-bauer. 1985. Construction of Clostridium butyricum plasmids and transfer to Bacillus subtilis. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 23:114122.
141. Lynd, L. R.,, J. H. Cushman,, R. J. Nichols,, and C. E. Wyman. 1991. Fuel ethanol from cellulosic biomass. Science 251:13181323.
142. Mahony, D. E. 1974. Bacteriocin susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens: a provisional typing schema. Appl. Microbiol. 28:172176.
143. Mahony, D. E., 1979. Bacteriocin, bacteriophage and other epidemiological typing methods for the genus Clostridium, p. 130. In T. Bergan, and J. R. Norris (ed.). Methods in Microbiology, vol. 13. Academic Press, Inc., New York.
144. MakoCf, A. J.,, S. P. Ballantine,, A. E. Smallwood,, and N. F. Fairweather. 1989. Expression of tetanus toxin fragment C in E. coli: its purification and potential use as a vaccine. Bio/Technology 7:10431046.
145. Makoff, A. J.,, M. D. Oxer,, M. A. Romanos,, N. F. Fairweather,, and S. Ballantine. 1989. Expression of tetanus toxin fragment C in E. coli: high level expression by removing rare codons. Nucleic Acids Res. 17: 1019110202.
146. Mathupala, S.,, B. C. Saha,, and J. G. Zelkus. 1990. Substrate competition and specificity at the active site of amylopullulanase from Clostridium thermohydrosul-furicum. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 166:126132.
147. Mattsson, P. M.,, and P. Rogers: 1989. Identification of some transposon insertion sites in the chromosome of Clostridium acetobutylicum after transfer of the tetracycline resistance transposon Tn916 from Streptococcus faecalis, abstr. 0-39, p. 311. Abstr. 89th Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol.
148. McClane, B. A.,, P. C. Hanna,, and A. P. Wnek. 1988. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. Microb. Pathog. 4:317323.
149. McDonel, J. L., 1986. Toxins of Clostridium perfringens types A, B, C, D and E, p. 477517. In F. Dorner,, and J. Drews (ed.), Pharmacology of Bacterial Toxins. Perma-gon Press, Oxford.
150. Melasniemi, H.,, M. Paloheimo,, and L. Hemiö. 1990. Nucleotide sequence of the α -amylase-pullulanase gene from Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum. J. Gen. Microbiol. 136:447454.
151. Mermelstein, L. D.,, N. E. Welker,, G. N. Bennett,, and E. T. Papoutsakls. 1992. Expression of cloned homologous fermentative genes in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Bio/Technology 10:190195.
152. Meyer, C. L.,, J. K. McLaughlin,, and E. T. Papoutsakls. 1985. The effect of CO on growth and product formation in batch cultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Biotechnol. Lett. 7:3742.
153. Meyer, C. L.,, and E. T. Papoutsakls. 1989. Increased levels of ATP and NADH are associated with increased solvent production in continuous cultures of C. acetobutylicum. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 30:450459.
154. Meyer, C. L.,, J. W. Roos,, and E. T. Papoutsakls. 1986. Carbon monoxide gassing leads to alcohol production and butyrate uptake without acetone formation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 24:159167.
155. Meyer, J.,, and J. Gagnon. 1991. Primary structure of hydrogenase I from Clostridium pasteurianum. Biochemistry 30:96979704.
156. Minton, N. P. 1992. Personal communication.
157. Minton, N. P.,, J. K. Brehm,, J. D. Oultram,, T.-J. Swinfield,, and D. E. Thompson,. 1988. Construction of plasmid vector systems for gene transfer in Clostridium acetobutylicum, p. 125134. In J. M. Hardie, and S. P. Borriello (ed.), Anaerobes Today. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom.
158. Minton, N. P.,, J. K. Brehm,, T.-J. Swinfield,, S. M. Whelan,, M. L. Rodger,, N. Bodsworth,, and J. D. Oultram,. Clostridial cloning vectors. In D. R. Woods (ed.), The Clostridia and Biotechnology, in press. Butterworths, Boston.
159. Minton, N. P.,, and D. J. Clarke (ed.). 1989. Clostridia. Biotechnology Handbooks, vol. 3. Plenum Publishing Co., New York.
160. Minton, N. P.,, and J. G. Morris. 1981. Isolation and partial characterization of three cryptic plasmids from strains of Clostridium butyricum. J. Gen. Microbiol. 127:325331.
161. Minton, N. P.,, and J. D. Oultram. 1988. Host-vector systems for gene cloning in Clostridium. Microbiol. Sci. 5:310315.
162. Mishra, S.,, P. Béguin,, and J.-P. Aubert. 1991. Transcription of Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase genes celF and celD. I. Bacteriol. 173:8085.
163. Monot, F., and J. M. Engasser. 1983. Production of acetone and butanol by batch and continuous culture of Clostridium acetobutylicum under nitrogen limitation. Biotechnol. Lett. 5:213218.
164. Monot, F.,, J. M. Engasser,, and H. Petitdemange. 1983. Regulation of acetone butanol production in batch and continuous cultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Biotechnol. Bioeng. Symp. 13:207216.
165. Morag, E.,, E. A. Bayer,, and R. Lamed. 1990. Relationship of cellulosomal and noncellulosomal xylanases of Clostridium thermocellum to cellulose-degrading enzymes. J. Bacteriol. 172:60986105.
166. Morag, E.,, I. Halevy,, E. A. Bayer,, and R. Lamed. 1991. Isolation and properties of a major cellobiohydrolase from the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum. J. Bacteriol. 173:41554162.
167. Morris, J. G. 1988. Oxygen toxicity; protective strategies. FEMS Symp. 44:8498.
168. Mullany, P.,, M. Wilks,, I. Lamb,, C. Clayton,, B. Wren,, and S. Tabaqchali. 1990. Genetic analysis of a tetracycline resistance element from Clostridium difficile and its conjugal transfer to and from Bacillus subtilis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 136:13431349.
169. Mullany, P.,, M. Wilks,, and S. Tabaqchali. 1991. Transfer of Tn916 and Tn976δ E into Clostridium difficile: demonstration of a hot-spot for these elements in the C. difficile genome. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 79:191194.
170. Narberhaus, F.,, and H. Bahl. 1992. Cloning, sequencing, and molecular analysis of the groESL operon of Clostridium acetobutylicum. J. Bacteriol. 174:32823289.
171. Narberhaus, F.,, K. Giebeler,, and H. Bahl. 1992. Molecular characterization of the dnaK gene region of Clostridium acetobutylicum, including grpE, dnaJ, and a new heat shock gene. J. Bacteriol. 174:32903299.
172. Nieves, B. M.,, F. Gil,, and F. J. Castillo. 1981. Growth inhibition activity and bacteriophage and bacteriocin-like particles associated with different species of Clostridium. Can. J. Microbiol. 27:216225.
173. Ogata, S.,, and M. Hongo. 1979. Bacteriophages of the genus Clostridium. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 25:241273.
174. Okabe, A.,, T. Shimizu,, and H. Hayashi. 1989. Cloning and sequencing of a phospholipase C gene of Clostridium perfringens. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 160: 3339.
175. Oultram, J. D.,, A. Davies,, and M. Young. 1987. Conjugal transfer of a small plasmid from Bacillus subtilis to Clostridium acetobutylicum by cointegrate formation with plasmid pAMβ 1. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 42:113119.
176. Oultram, J. D.,, M. Loughlin,, T.-J. Swinfield,, J. K. Brehm,, D. E. Thompson,, and N. P. Minton. 1988. Introduction of plasmids into whole cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum by electroporation. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 56:8388.
177. Oultram, J. D.,, H. Peck,, J. K. Brehm,, D. Thompson,, T.-J. Swinfield,, and N. P. Minton. 1988. Introduction of genes for leucine biosynthesis from Clostridium pasteurianum into Clostridium acetobutylicum. Mol. Gen. Genet. 214:177179.
178. Oultram, J. D.,, and M. Young. 1985. Conjugal transfer of plasmid PAMβ 1 from Streptococcus lactis and Bacillus subtilis to Clostridium acetobutylicum. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 27:129134.
179. Palosaari, N.,, and P. Rogers. 1988. Purification and properties of the inducible coenzymeA-linked butyral-dehyde dehydrogenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum. J. Bacteriol. 170:29712976.
180. Petersen, D. J.,, and G. N. Bennett. 1990. Purification of acetoacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and cloning of the acetoacetate decarboxylase gene in Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:34913498.
181. Petersen, D. J.,, and G. N. Bennett. 1991. Cloning of the Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 acetyl coenzyme A acetyltransferase (thiolase; EC 2.3.1.9) gene. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:27352741.
182. Petersen, D. J.,, and G. N. Bennett. 1991. Enzymatic characterization of a nonmotile, nonsolventogenic Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 mutant. Curr. Microbiol. 23:253258.
183. Petersen, D. J.,, R. W. Welch,, F. B. Rudolph,, and G. N. Bennett. 1991. Molecular cloning of an alcohol (buta-nol) dehydrogenase gene cluster from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. J. Bacteriol. 173:18311834.
184. Phelps, C. J.,, D. L. Lyerly,, J. L. Johnson,, and T. D. Wilkins. 1991. Construction and expression of the complete Clostridium difficile toxin A gene in Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 59:150153.
185. Pich, A.,, and H. Bahl. 1991. Purification and characterization of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Clostridium acetobutylicum. J. Bacteriol. 173:21202124.
186. Pich, A.,, F. Narberhaus,, and H. Bahl. 1990. Induction of heat shock proteins during initiation of solvent formation in Clostridium acetobutylicum. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 33:697704.
187. Plant, A. R.,, R. M. Clemens,, H. W. Morgan,, and R. M. Daniel. 1987. Active-site- and substrate-specificity of Thermoanaerobium Tok6-Bl pullulanase. Biochem. J. 246:537541.
188. Podvin, L.,, G. Reysset,, J. Hubert,, and M. Sebald,. 1988. Recent developments in the genetics of Clostridium acetobutylicum, p. 135140. In J. M. Hardie,, and S. P. Boriello (ed.), Anaerobes Today. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom.
189. Poulet, S.,, D. Hauser,, M. Quanz,, H. Niemann,, and M. Popoff. 1992. Sequences of the botulinal neurotoxin E derived from Clostridium botulinum type E (strain Beluga) and Clostridium butyricum (strains ATCC 43181 and ATCC 43755). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 183:107113.
190. Reid, S. J.,, E. R. Allcock,, D. T. Jones,, and D. R. Woods. 1983. Transformation of Clostridium acetobutylicum protoplasts with bacteriophage DNA. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45:305307.
191. Reysenbach, A. L.,, N. Ravenscroft,, S. Long,, D. T. Jones,, and D. R. Woods. 1986. Characterization, biosynthesis, and regulation of granulose in Clostridium acetobutylicum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52:275281.
192. Reysset, G.,, J. Hubert,, L. Podvin,, and M. Sebald. 1988. Transfection and transformation of Clostridium acetobutylicum strain N1-4081 protoplasts. Biotechnol. Technol. 2:199204.
193. Rogers, P. 1986. Genetics and biochemistry of Clostridium relevant to development of fermentation processes. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 31:160.
194. Rogers, P.,, and N. Palosaari. 1987. Clostridium acetobutylicum mutants that produce butyraldehyde and altered quantities of solvents. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:27612766.
195. Roggentin, P.,, B. Rothe,, F. Lottspeich,, and R. Schauer. 1988. Cloning and sequencing of a Clostridium perfringens sialidase gene. FEBS Lett. 238:3134.
196. Rokos, E. A.,, J. I. Rood,, and C. L. Duncan. 1978. Multiple plasmids in different toxigenic types of Clostridium perfringens. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 4:323326.
197. Rood, J. I., 1993. Antibiotic resistance determinants of Clostridium perfringens, p. 141155. In M. Sebald (ed.). Genetics and Molecular Biology of Anaerobic Bacteria. Springer-Verlag, New York.
198. Rood, J. I.,, and S. T. Cole. 1991. Molecular genetics and pathogenesis of Clostridium perfringens. Microbiol. Rev. 55:621648.
199. Rood, J. I.,, S. Jefferson,, T. L. Bannam,, J. M. Wilkie,, P. Mullany,, and B. W. Wren. 1989. Hybridization analysis of three chloramphenicol resistance determinants from Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:15691574.
200. Rood, J. I.,, V. N. Scott,, and C. L. Duncan. 1978. Identification of a transferable resistance plasmid (pCW3) from Clostridium perfringens. Plasmid 1:563570.
201. Roper, G.,, J. A. Short,, and P. D. Walker,. 1976. The ultrastructure of Clostridium perfringens spores, p. 279296. In A. M. Baker,, J. Wold,, D. J. Ellar,, G. H. Dring,, and G. W. Gould (ed.), Spore Research. Academic Press, London.
202. Saint-Joanis, B., T. Gamier, and S. T. Cole. 1989. Gene cloning shows the alpha toxin of Clostridium perfringens to contain both sphingomyelinase and lecithinase activities. Mol. Gen. Genet. 219:453460.
203. Sakka, K.,, Y. Kojima,, K. Yoshikawa,, and K. Shimada. 1990. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of Clostridium stercorarium strain F-9 genes related to xylan hydrolysis. Agrie. Biol. Chem. 54:337342.
204. Sauer, U.,, and P. Durre. 1993. Possible function of tRNAThrACG regulation of solvent formation in Clostridium acetobutylicum. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 100:147154.
205. Sauerborn, M.,, and C. von Eichel-Streiber. 1990. Nucleotide sequence of Clostridium difficile toxin A. Nucleic Acids Res. 18:16291630.
206. Saulnier, C. 1992. Personal communication.
207. Schwarz, W. H. 1992. Personal communication.
208. Schwarz, W. H.,, S. Jauris,, M. Kouba,, K. Bronnenmeier,, and W. L. Staudenbauer. 1989. Cloning and expression of Clostridium stercorarium cellulase genes in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol. Lett. 11:461466.
209. Schwarz, W. H.,, S. Schimming,, K. P. Rücknagel,, S. Burgschwaiger,, G. Kreil,, and W. L. Staudenbauer. 1988. Nucleotide sequence of the celC gene encoding endoglucanase C of Clostridium thermocellum. Gene 63:2330.
210. Scott, P. T.,, and J. I. Rood. 1989. Electroporation-mediated transformation of lysostaphin-treated Clostridium perfringens. Gene 82:327333.
211.Sebald, M. (ed.). 1993. Genetics and Molecular Biology of Anaerobic Bacteria. Springer-Verlag, New York.
212. Sebald, M.,, D. Bouanchaud,, and G. Bieth. 1975. Nature plasmidique de la resistance à plusieurs antibiotiques chez C. perfringens type A, souche 659. C.R. Acad. Sci. Ser. D 280:24012404.
213. Sebald, M.,, and G. Bréfort. 1975. Transfert du plasmide tétracycline-chloramphenicol chez Clostridium perfringens. C.R. Acad. Sci. Ser. D 281:317319.
214. Sebald, M.,, and R. N. Costilow. 1975. Minimal growth requirements for Clostridium perfringens and isolation of auxotrophic mutants. Appl. Microbiol. 29:16.
215. Sell, T. L.,, D. R. Schaburg,, and D. R. Fekety. 1983. Bacteriophage and bacteriocin typing scheme for Clostridium difficile. J. Clin. Microbiol. 17:11481152.
216. Shimizu, T.,, A. Okabe,, J. Minami,, and H. Hayashi. 1991. An upstream regulatory sequence stimulates expression of the perfringolysin O gene of Clostridium perfringens. Infect. Immun. 59:137142.
217. Sloan, J.,, T. A. Warner,, P. T. Scott,, T. L. Bannam,, D. I. Berryman,, and J. I. Rood. 1992. Construction of a sequenced Clostridium perfringens-Escherichia coli shuttle plasmid. Plasmid 27:207219.
218. Smith, H. W. 1959. The bacteriophages of Clostridium perfringens. J. Gen. Microbiol. 21:622630.
219. Squires, C. H.,, D. L. Heefner,, R. J. Evans,, B. J. Kopp,, and M. J. Yarus. 1984. Shuttle plasmids for Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens. J. Bacteriol. 159:465471.
220. Steffen, C.,, and H. Matzura. 1989. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a chloramphenicol-acetyltransferase coding gene from Clostridium perfringens. Gene 75:349354.
221. Stephens, G. M.,, R. A. Holt,, J. C. Gottschal,, and J. G. Morris. 1985. Studies on the stability of solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in continuous culture. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 59:597605.
222. Stock, J. B.,, A. J. Ninfa,, and A. M. Stock. 1989. Protein phosphorylation and regulation of adaptive responses in bacteria. Microbiol. Rev. 50:450490.
223. Stragier, P.,, and R. Losick. 1990. Cascades of sigma factors revisited. Mol. Microbiol. 4:18011806.
224. Swinfield, T.-J.,, J. D. Oultram,, D. E. Thompson,, J. K. Brehm,, and N. P. Minton. 1990. Physical characterisation of the replication region of the Streptococcus faecalis plasmid pAM/31. Gene 87:7990.
225. Thompson, D. E.,, J. K. Brehm,, J. D. Oultram,, T. J. Swinfield,, C. S. Shone,, T. Atkinson,, J. Melling,, and N. P. Minton. 1990. The complete amino acid sequence of the Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin, deduced by nucleotide sequence analysis of the encoding gene. Eur. J. Biochem. 189:7381.
226. Titball, R. W.,, S. E. C. Hunter,, K. L. Martin,, B. C. Morris,, A. D. Shuttleworth,, T. Rubidge,, D. W. Anderson,, and D. C. Kelly. 1989. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the alpha-toxin (phospholipase C) of Clostridium perfringens. Infect. Immun. 57:367376.
227. Titball, R. W.,, H. Yeoman,, and S. E. C. Hunter,. 1993. Gene cloning and organisation of the alpha-toxin of Clostridium perfringens, p. 211226. In M. Sebald (ed.). Genetics and Molecular Biology of Anaerobic Bacteria. Springer-Verlag, New York.
228. Tokatlidis, K.,, S. Salamitou,, P. Béguin,, P. Dhurjati,, and J.-P. Aubert. 1991. Interaction of the duplicated segment carried by Clostridium thermocellum cellulases with cellulosome components. FEBS Lett. 291:185188.
229. Trieu-Cuot, P.,, C. Carlier,, P. Martin,, and P. Courvalin. 1987. Plasmid transfer by conjugation from Escherichia coli to Gram-positive bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 48:289294.
230. Truffaut, N.,, and M. Sebald. 1983. Plasmid detection and isolation in strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum and related species. Mol. Gen. Genet. 189:178180.
231. Tso, J. Y.,, and C. Siebel. 1989. Cloning and expression of the phospholipase C gene from Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium bifermentans. Infect. Immun. 57: 468476.
232. Tweten, R. K. 1988. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the perfringolysin O (theta toxin) gene from Clostridium perfringens and characterization of the gene product. Infect. Immun. 56:32283234.
233. Tweten, R. K. 1988. Nucleotide sequence of the gene for perfringolysin O (theta toxin) from Clostridium perfringens: significant homology with the genes for streptolysin O and pneumolysin. Infect. Immun. 56:32353240.
234. van Damme-Jongsten, M.,, K. Wernars,, and S. Noter-mans. 1989. Cloning and sequencing of the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin gene. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 56:181190.
235. van Poelje, P. D.,, and E. E. Snell. 1990. Cloning, sequencing, expression and site-directed mutagenesis of the gene from Clostridium perfringens encoding pyru-voyl-dependent histidine decarboxylase. Biochemistry 29:132139.
236. Volk, W. A.,, B. Bizzini,, K. R. Jones,, and F. L. Macrina. 1988. Inter- and intrageneric transfer of Tn916 between Streptococcus faecalis and Clostridium tetani. Plasmid 19:255259.
237. von Eichel-Streiber, C.,, R. Laufenberg-Feldmann,, S. Sartingen,, J. Schulze,, and M. Sauerborn. 1990. Cloning of Clostridium difficile toxin B gene and demonstration of high N terminal homology between toxin A and toxin B. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 179:271279.
238. von Eichel-Streiber, C.,, and M. Sauerborn. 1990. Clostridium difficile toxin A carries a C-terminal repetitive structure homologous to the carbohydrate binding region of streptococcal glycosyltransferases. Gene 96: 107113.
239. von Elchel-Streiber, C.,, D. Suckau,, M. Wachter,, and U. Hadding. 1989. Cloning and characterisation of overlapping DNA fragments of the toxin A gene of Clostridium difficile. J. Gen. Microbiol. 135:5564.
240. Welckert, M. J.,, and G. H. Chambllss. 1989. Genetic analysis of the promoter region of the Bacillus subtilis α -amylase gene. J. Bacteriol. 171:36563666.
241. Welckert, M. J.,, and G. H. Chambllss. 1990. Site-directed mutagenesis of a catabolite repression operator sequence in Bacillus subtilis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:62386242.
242. Wetzstein, M.,, U. Völker,, J. Dedio,, S. Lobati,, V. Zuber,, M. Schelsswohl,, C. Herget,, M. Hecker,, and W. Schumann. 1992. Cloning, sequencing, and molecular analysis of the dnaK locus from Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 174:33003310.
243. Whelan, S. M.,, M. J. Elmore,, N. J. Bodsworth,, T. Atkinson,, and N. P. Minton. 1992. The complete amino acid sequence of the Clostridium botulinum type E neurotoxin, derived by nucleotide sequence analysis of the encoding gene. Eur. J. Biochem. 204:657667.
244. Wiegel, J.,, C. P. Mothershed,, and J. Puis. 1985. Differences in xylan degradation by various non-cellulolytic thermophilic anaerobes and Clostridium thermocellum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49:656659.
245. Wilkinson, S. R.,, and M. Young. Wide diversity of genome size among different strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum. J. Gen. Microbiol., in press.
246. Wilkinson, S. R.,, and M. Young. Unpublished data.
247. Williams, D. R.,, D. I. Young,, and M. Young. 1990. Conjugative plasmid transfer from Escherichia coli to Clostridium acetobutylicum. J. Gen. Microbiol. 136:819826.
248. Woods, D. R. (ed.). The Clostridia and Biotechnology, in press. Butterworths, Boston.
249. Woolley, R. C.,, and J. G. Morris. 1990. Stability of solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in continuous culture: strain differences. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 69:718728.
250. Woolley, R. C.,, A. Pennock,, R. J. Ashton,, A. Davies,, and M. Young. 1989. Transfer of Tn1545 and Tn9/6 to Clostridium acetobutylicum. Plasmid 22:169174.
251. Wren, B. W. 1991. A family of clostridial and streptococcal ligand-binding proteins with conserved C-terminal repeat sequences. Mol. Microbiol. 5:797803.
252. Wren, B. W. 1992. Personal communication.
253. Wren, B. W.,, P. Mullany,, C. Clayton,, and S. Tabaq-chall. 1988. Molecular cloning and genetic analysis of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase determinant from Clostridium difficile. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32: 12131217.
254. Wren, B. W.,, P. Mullany,, C. Clayton,, and S. Tabaqchali. 1989. Nucleotide sequence of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene from Clostridium difficile. Nucleic Acids Res. 17:4877.
255. Wu, J. D. H.,, and A. L. Demain,. 1988. Proteins of the Clostridium thermocellum cellulase complex responsible for degradation of crystalline cellulose, p. 117131. In J.-P. Aubert,, P. Béguin,, and J. Millet (ed.), FEMS Symposium No. 43: Biochemistry and Genetics of Cellulose Degradation. Academic Press, London.