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Chapter 38 : Restriction/Modification and Methylation Systems in Bacillus subtilis, Related Species, and Their Phages

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Abstract:

Several restriction/modification (R/M) systems have been identified in and related bacteria and described in this chapter. Accepting the view that R/M systems have evolved to defend bacteria effectively against attack by bacterial viruses, the chapter discusses the question of what mechanisms bacteriophages have developed to overcome barriers provided by host R/M systems. In this review, the authors follow the convention of Smith and Nathans in describing R/M systems. They propose that for , the gene descriptions as used for be adopted. The interactions of bacteriophages and their hosts, analyzed according to the categories of bacterial R/M systems and the mechanisms that bacteriophages have evolved to overcome restriction, represent an interesting case of coevolution of two competing organisms. The chapter summarizes the effects of R/M on various DNA transport processes and provides information on the substrate nature of incoming DNA, the requirement for proficiency of the recipient cell, and the number of DNA molecules required for the biological process under study in a table.

Citation: Trautner T, Noyer-Weidner M. 1993. Restriction/Modification and Methylation Systems in Bacillus subtilis, Related Species, and Their Phages, p 539-552. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch38

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DNA Synthesis
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Figures

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Figure 1

Genetic map of 168 (adapted from Piggot et al. [74]). Outside circle shows several physiological markers as reference. Inner circle shows positions of loci and attachment sites of MTase-encoding phages (the attachment site of phage H2, originally isolated from has been determined in lysogens of this phage [121]; the attachment sites of phages 11 and 11 have not yet been determined). The inner circle also shows the position of the locus, which, in interplay with the locus, determines nonpermissiveness of 168 for some phages.

Citation: Trautner T, Noyer-Weidner M. 1993. Restriction/Modification and Methylation Systems in Bacillus subtilis, Related Species, and Their Phages, p 539-552. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch38
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Building plan of C-5 MTases. The primary sequence of a typical C-5 MTase is shown as a double line. Four conserved elements (CEs I to IV) identifiable in all C-5 MTases ( ) are indicated as shaded boxes. CEs I and II contain the amino acid motifs F-X-G-X-G and P-C-X-X-X-S, thought to be involved in adenosylmethionine binding and methyl group transfer. The CEs are flanked and spaced by regions variable in size (indicated by tattered ends and dotted lines, respectively) and amino acid composition. TRDs have been allocated to the variable region separating CEs II and III.

Citation: Trautner T, Noyer-Weidner M. 1993. Restriction/Modification and Methylation Systems in Bacillus subtilis, Related Species, and Their Phages, p 539-552. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch38
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Tables

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Table 1

R/M systems of and some other strains

Citation: Trautner T, Noyer-Weidner M. 1993. Restriction/Modification and Methylation Systems in Bacillus subtilis, Related Species, and Their Phages, p 539-552. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch38
Generic image for table
Table 2

DNA MTases of and phages

Citation: Trautner T, Noyer-Weidner M. 1993. Restriction/Modification and Methylation Systems in Bacillus subtilis, Related Species, and Their Phages, p 539-552. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch38
Generic image for table
Table 3

Effect of restriction and modification on processing of invading DNA in

Citation: Trautner T, Noyer-Weidner M. 1993. Restriction/Modification and Methylation Systems in Bacillus subtilis, Related Species, and Their Phages, p 539-552. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch38

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