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Chapter 46 : Ribosomal Structure and Genetics

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Abstract:

This chapter summarizes the current knowledge about ribosomes and translation factors. Much of the information concerning ribosome structure and function has been obtained from work with , while most of the genetic analysis has been carried out with . Available information about ribosome structure and genetics in other gram-positive systems are also summarized in this chapter. contains 10 rRNA operons.The sequences of the B and O operons have been determined; they show an organizational pattern identical to that of the rRNA operons, containing genes for 16S, 23S, and 5S rRNA in that order. Ribosomal-protein gene characterization was initiated by the isolation and mapping of mutations conferring resistance to antibiotics that were known to target the translational machinery. A number of mutants that have alterations in components of the translational apparatus and exhibit defects in sporulation have been identified. These include mutants with altered sensitivity to antibiotics that act on the ribosome and temperature-sensitive mutants that result in spore-minus or spore-conditional phenotypes. In , sequences in the promoter regions of genes sensitive to the stringent response have been identified, and it has been proposed that (p)ppGpp acts directly as an effector in modulating promoter recognition by RNA polymerase. Expression of a fusion of the O promoter to Z was repressed by induction of the stringent response by the addition of serine hydroxamate in wild-type strains but not in a A-minus mutant.

Citation: Henkin T. 1993. Ribosomal Structure and Genetics, p 669-682. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch46

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Figure 1

Location of ribosomal genes on the chromosome. Map coordinates (0 to 360°) are indicated on the outside of the circle. The origin of chromosomal replication is at 0°. rRNA operons () are shown on the inside of the circle. Ribosomal-protein and translation factor genes as well as other genes known to be located within ribosomal gene clusters are shown on the outside of the circle. Arrows indicate the direction of transcription, where known. The cluster at 12° includes genes for the following: L11-L1-L10-L12-ORF-β-β'-S12-S7-EFG-EFTu-S10-(L3,L4,L23?)-L2-S19-L22-S3-L16-L29-S17-L14-L24-L5-S14-S8-L6-L18-S5-L30-L15-SecY-Adk-Map-IF1-L36-S13-S11-α-L17-ORF--S9-(L13?)--S20, where ORF is an open reading frame. Parenthesis indicate uncertainty in gene localization. Additional genes are also likely to be present in this region. The gene for protein L28 is also located near 145°.

Citation: Henkin T. 1993. Ribosomal Structure and Genetics, p 669-682. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch46
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Bacillus ribosomal-protein and translation factor sequences

Citation: Henkin T. 1993. Ribosomal Structure and Genetics, p 669-682. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch46

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