1887

Chapter 46 : Ribosomal Structure and Genetics

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Ribosomal Structure and Genetics, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818388/9781555810535_Chap46-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818388/9781555810535_Chap46-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter summarizes the current knowledge about ribosomes and translation factors. Much of the information concerning ribosome structure and function has been obtained from work with , while most of the genetic analysis has been carried out with . Available information about ribosome structure and genetics in other gram-positive systems are also summarized in this chapter. contains 10 rRNA operons.The sequences of the B and O operons have been determined; they show an organizational pattern identical to that of the rRNA operons, containing genes for 16S, 23S, and 5S rRNA in that order. Ribosomal-protein gene characterization was initiated by the isolation and mapping of mutations conferring resistance to antibiotics that were known to target the translational machinery. A number of mutants that have alterations in components of the translational apparatus and exhibit defects in sporulation have been identified. These include mutants with altered sensitivity to antibiotics that act on the ribosome and temperature-sensitive mutants that result in spore-minus or spore-conditional phenotypes. In , sequences in the promoter regions of genes sensitive to the stringent response have been identified, and it has been proposed that (p)ppGpp acts directly as an effector in modulating promoter recognition by RNA polymerase. Expression of a fusion of the O promoter to Z was repressed by induction of the stringent response by the addition of serine hydroxamate in wild-type strains but not in a A-minus mutant.

Citation: Henkin T. 1993. Ribosomal Structure and Genetics, p 669-682. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch46

Key Concept Ranking

Transmission Electron Microscopy
0.42691877
Three-Dimensional Electron Microscopy
0.4252179
Scanning Electron Microscopy
0.4109758
0.42691877
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Location of ribosomal genes on the chromosome. Map coordinates (0 to 360°) are indicated on the outside of the circle. The origin of chromosomal replication is at 0°. rRNA operons () are shown on the inside of the circle. Ribosomal-protein and translation factor genes as well as other genes known to be located within ribosomal gene clusters are shown on the outside of the circle. Arrows indicate the direction of transcription, where known. The cluster at 12° includes genes for the following: L11-L1-L10-L12-ORF-β-β'-S12-S7-EFG-EFTu-S10-(L3,L4,L23?)-L2-S19-L22-S3-L16-L29-S17-L14-L24-L5-S14-S8-L6-L18-S5-L30-L15-SecY-Adk-Map-IF1-L36-S13-S11-α-L17-ORF--S9-(L13?)--S20, where ORF is an open reading frame. Parenthesis indicate uncertainty in gene localization. Additional genes are also likely to be present in this region. The gene for protein L28 is also located near 145°.

Citation: Henkin T. 1993. Ribosomal Structure and Genetics, p 669-682. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch46
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818388.chap46
1. Appelt, K.,, S. W. White,, and K. S. Wilson. 1983. Proteins of the Bacillus stearothermophilus ribosome. Crystallization of proteins L30 and S5. J. Biol. Chem. 258: 13328 13330.
2. Arndt, E.,, T. Scholzen,, W. Kroner,, T. Hatakeyama,, and M. Kimura. 1991. Primary structures of ribosomal proteins from the archaebacterium Halobacterium marismortui and the eubacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus. Biochimie 73: 657 668.
3. Ash, C.,, J. A. E. Farrow,, M. Dorsch,, E. Stackebrandt,, and M. D. Collins. 1991. Comparative analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and related species on the basis of reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16S rRNA. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41: 343 346.
4. Ash, C.,, J. A. E. Farrow,, S. Wallbanks,, and M. D. Collins. 1991. Phylogenetic heterogeneity of the genus Bacillus revealed by comparative analysis of small-subunit-ribosomal RNA sequences. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 13: 202 206.
5. Bacot, C. M.,, and R. H. Reeves. 1991. Novel tRNA gene organization in the 16S-23S intergenic spacer of Streptococcus pneumoniae rRNA gene cluster. J. Bacteriol. 173: 4234 4236.
6. Band, L.,, and D. J. Henner. 1984. Bacillus subtilis requires a “stringent” Shine-Dalgarno region for gene expression. DNA 3: 17 21.
7. Beck, J. A.,, J. Dijk,, and R. Relnhardt. 1987. Ribosomal proteins and DNA-binding protein II from the extreme thermophile Bacillus caldolyticus. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 368: 121 130.
8. Belitsky, B. R.,, and R. S. Shakulov. 1982. Functioning of spoT gene product in Bacillus subtilis cells. FEBS Lett. 138: 226 228.
9. Beresford, T.,, and S. Condon. 1991. Cloning and partial characterization of genes for ribosomal ribonucleic acid in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 78: 319 324.
10. Boublik, M.,, V. Mandiyan,, and S. Tumminia,. 1990. Potential for electron microscopic techniques for structural analysis of ribosomes, p. 114 122. In W. E. Hill,, A. Dahlberg,, R. A. Garrett,, P. B. Moore,, D. Schlessinger,, and J. R. Warner (ed.). The Ribosome: Structure, Function, and Evolution. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
11. Boylan, S. A.,, J.-W. Suh,, S. M. Thomas,, and C. W. Price. 1989. Gene encoding the alpha core subunit of Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase is cotranscribed with the genes for initiation factor 1 and ribosomal proteins B, S13, S11, and L17. J. Bacteriol. 171: 2553 2562.
12. Brockmoller, J.,, and R. M. Kamp. 1988. Cross-linked amino acids in the protein pair S13-S19 and sequence analysis of protein S13 of Bacillus stearothermophilus ribosomes. Biochemistry 27: 3372 3381.
13. Brombach, M.,, C. O. Gualerzi,, Y. Nakamura,, and C. L. Pon. 1986. Molecular cloning and sequence of the Bacillus stearothermophilus translational initiation factor IF2 gene. Mol. Gen. Genet. 205: 97 102.
14. Brombach, M.,, and C. L. Pon. 1987. The unusual translation initiation codon AUU limits the expression of the infC (initiation factor IF3) gene of Escherichia coli. Mol. Gen. Genet. 208: 94 100.
15. Buttarelli, F. R.,, R. A. Calogero,, O. Tiboni,, C. O. Gualerzi,, and C. L. Pon. 1989. Characterization of the str operon genes from Spirulina pastensis and their evolutionary relationship to those of other prokaryotes. Mol. Gen. Genet. 217: 97 104.
16. Cashel, M.,, and K. E. Rudd,. 1987. The stringent response, p. 1410 1438. In F. C. Neidhardt,, J. L. Ingraham,, K. B. Low,, B. Magasanik,, M. Schaechter,, and H. E. Umbarger (ed.), Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium: Cellular and Molecular Biology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
17. Cerretti, D. P.,, L. Mattheakis,, K. R. Kearney,, L. Vu,, and M. Nomura. 1988. Translational regulation of the spc operon in Escherichia coli. Identification and structural analysis of the target site for S8 repressor protein. J. Mol. Biol. 204: 309 325.
18. Chambliss, G. H., 1980. Ribosomes and sporulation in Bacillus subtilis, p. 781 794. In G. Chambliss, G.,, R. Craven,, J. Davies,, K. Davis,, L. Kahan,, and M. Nomura (ed.), Ribosomes: Structure, Function and Genetics. University Park Press, Baltimore.
19. Chambliss, G. H.,, T. M. Henkin,, and J. M. Leventhal. 1983. Bacterial in vitro protein synthesizing systems. Methods Enzymol. 101: 598 605.
20. Chilton, M. D.,, and B. J. McCarthy. 1969. Genetic and base sequence homologies in bacilli. Genetics. 62: 697 710.
21. Chow, L. T.,, and N. Davidson. 1973. Electron microscope mapping of the distribution of ribosomal genes of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. J. Mol. Biol. 75: 265 279.
22. Cohlberg, J. A.,, and M. Nomura. 1976. Reconstitution of Bacillus stearothermophilus 50S ribosomal subunits from purified molecular components. J. Biol. Chem. 251: 209 221.
23. Cutting, S.,, S. Roels,, and R. Losick. 1991. Sporulation operon spoIVF and the characterization of mutations that uncouple mother-cell from forespore gene expression in Bacillus subtilis. J. Mol. Biol. 221: 1237 1256.
24. Dabbs, E. R. 1982. Selection in Bacillus subtilis giving rise to strains with mutational alterations in a variety of ribosomal proteins. Mol. Gen. Genet. 187: 297 301.
25. Dabbs, E. R. 1983. Arrangement of loci within the principal cluster of ribosomal protein genes of Bacillus subtilis. Mol. Gen. Genet. 192: 124 130.
26. Dabbs, E. R. 1983. Mapping of the genes for Bacillus subtilis ribosomal proteins S6 and S16: comparison of the chromosomal distribution of ribosomal protein genes in this bacterium with the distribution in Esche-richia coli Mol. Gen. Genet. 192: 386 390.
27. Dabbs, E. R. 1983. Mapping of the genes for Bacillus subtilis ribosomal protein S9, protein Sll and protein BL27 by means of antibiotic resistant mutants. Mol. Gen. Genet. 191: 295 300.
28. Dabbs, E. R. 1983. A pair of Bacillus subtilis ribosomal protein genes mapping outside the principal ribosomal protein cluster. J. Bacteriol. 156: 966 969.
29. Dabbs, E. R. 1984. Order of ribosomal protein genes in the Rif cluster of Bacillus subtilis is identical to that of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 159: 770 772.
30. Dabbs, E. R. 1991. Mutants lacking individual ribosomal proteins as a tool to investigate ribosomal properties. Biochimie 73: 639 645.
31. Dean, D.,, J. L. Yates,, and M. Nomura. 1981. Identification of ribosomal protein S7 as a repressor of translation within the str operon of E. coli. Cell 24: 413 419.
32. Deneer, H. G.,, and G. B. Splegelman. 1987. Bacillus subtilis rRNA promoters are growth rate regulated in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 169: 995 1002.
33. Dubnau, E.,, S. Pifko,, A. Sloma,, K. Cabane,, and I. Smith. 1976. Conditional mutations in the translational apparatus of Bacillus subtilis. Mol. Gen. Genet. 147: 1 12.
34. Duncan, M.,, and C. W. Price. Personal communication.
35. Ellwood, M.,, and M. Nomura. 1980. Deletion of a ribosomal nucleic acid operon in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 143: 1077 1080.
36. Ellwood, M.,, and M. Nomura. 1982. Chromosomal locations of the genes for rRNA in Escherichia coli K-12. J. Bacteriol. 149: 458 468.
37. Fahnestock, S. R. 1977. Reconstruction of active 50S ribosomal subunits from Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 182: 497 505.
38. Fahnestock, S. R.,, W. A. Strycharz,, and D. M. Marquis. 1981. Immunochemical evidence of homologies among 5OS ribosomal proteins of Bacillus stearothermophilus and Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 256: 10111 10116.
39. Falconl, M.,, M. Brombach,, C. O. Gualerzi,, and C. L. Pon. 1991. In vivo transcriptional pattern of the infC operon of Bacillus stearothermophilus. Mol. Gen. Genet. 227: 60 64.
40. Farwell, M. A.,, and J. C. Rablnowitz. 1991. Protein synthesis in vitro by Micrococcus luteus. J. Bacteriol. 173: 3514 3522.
41. Ferrari, F. A.,, K. Trach,, and J. A. Hoch. 1985. Sequence analysis of the spoOB locus reveals a polycistronic transcription unit. J. Bacteriol. 161: 556 562.
42. Fox, G. E. Personal communication.
43. Fox, G. E.,, J. D. Wisotzkey,, and P. Jurtshuk, Jr. 1992. How close is close: 16S rRNA sequence identity may not be sufficient to guarantee species identity. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 42: 166 170.
44. Gallant, J.,, and G. Margason. 1972. Amino acid control of messenger ribonucleic acid synthesis in Bacillus subtilis. J. Biol. Chem. 247: 2289 2294.
45. Gardiner, K.,, and N. R. Pace. 1980. RNase P from Bacillus subtilis has an RNA component. J. Biol. Chem. 255: 7507 7509.
46. Garland, W. G.,, K. A. Louie,, A. T. Matheson,, and A. Liljas. 1987. The complete amino acid sequence of the ribosomal “A” protein (L12) from Bacillus stearothermophilus. FEBS Lett. 220: 43 46.
47. Gamier, T.,, B. Canard,, and S. T. Cole. 1991. Cloning, mapping, and molecular characterization of the rRNA operons of Clostridium perfringens. J. Bacteriol. 173: 5431 5438.
48. Geisser, M.,, G. W. Tischendorf,, and G. Stoffler. 1973. Comparative immunological and electrophoretic studies on ribosomal proteins of Bacillaceae. Mol. Gen. Genet. 127: 129 145.
49. Goldthwaite, C.,, D. Dubnau,, and I. Smith. 1970. Genetic mapping of antibiotic resistance markers in Bacillus subtilis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Set. USA 65: 96 103.
50. Gottlieb, P.,, G. LaFauci,, and R. Rudner. 1985. Alterations in the number of rRNA operons within the Bacillus subtilis genome. Gene 33: 259 268.
51. Gourse, R. L.,, H. A. deBoer,, and M. Nomura. 1986. DNA determinants of rRNA synthesis in E. coli: growth rate dependent regulation, feedback inhibition, upstream activation, antitermination. Cell 14: 197 205.
52. Green, C. J.,, G. C. Stewart,, M. A. Hollis,, B. S. Void,, and K. F. Bott. 1985. Nucleotide sequence of the Bacillus subtilis ribosomal RNA operon, rrnB. Gene 37: 261 266.
53. Green, C. J.,, and B. S. Void. 1983. Sequence analysis of a cluster of twenty-one tRNA genes in Bacillus subtilis. Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 5763 5774.
54. Green, C. J.,, and B. S. Void. 1992. A cluster of nine tRNA genes between ribosomal gene operons in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 174: 3147 3151.
55. Grundy, F. J.,, and T. M. Henkin. 1990. Cloning and analysis of the Bacillus subtilis rpsD gene, encoding ribosomal protein S4. J. Bacteriol. 172: 6372 6379.
56. Grundy, F. J.,, and T. M. Henkin. 1991. The rpsD gene, encoding ribosomal protein S4, is autogenously regulated in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 173: 4595 4602.
57. Grundy, F. J.,, and T. M. Henkin. 1992. Characterization of the Bacillus subtilis rpsD regulatory target site. J. Bacteriol. 174: 6763 6770.
58. Gutell, R. R.,, and G. E. Fox. 1988. A compilation of large subunit RNA sequences presented in a structural format. Nucleic Acids Res. 16: r175 r269.
59. Hackl, W.,, and M. Stoffler-Meillcke. 1988. Immuno-electron microscopic localisation of ribosomal proteins from Bacillus stearothermophilus that are homologous to Escherichia coli LI, L6, L23 and L29. Eur. J. Biochem. 174: 431 435.
60. Hackl, W.,, M. Stoffler-Meilicke,, and G. Stoffler. 1988. Three-dimensional location of ribosomal protein BL2 from Bacillus stearothermophilus, a key component of the peptidyltransferase center. FEBS Lett. 233: 119 123.
61. Hahn, V.,, and P. Stiegler. 1986. An Escherichia coli SI-like ribosomal protein is immunologically conserved in Gram-negative bacteria, but not in Gram-positive bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 36: 293 297.
62. Hailing, S. M. K.,, C. Burtis,, and R. H. Doi. 1978. β' subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase is responsible for streptolydigin resistance in Bacillus subtilis. Nature (London) 272: 837 839.
63. Harford, N.,, and N. Sueoka. 1970. Chromosomal location of antibiotic resistance markers in Bacillus subtilis. J. Mol. Biol. 51: 267 286.
64. Hartmann, R. K.,, D. W. Vogel,, R. T. Walker,, and V. A. Erdmann. 1988. In vitro incorporation of eubacterial, archaebacterial and eukaryotic 5S rRNAs into large ribosomal subunits of Bacillus stearothermophilus. Nucleic Acids Res. 16: 3511 3524.
65. Held, W. A.,, S. Mizushima,, and M. Nomura. 1973. Reconstitution of Escherichia coli 30S ribosomal sub-units from purified molecular components. J. Biol. Chem. 248: 5720 5730.
66. Henkin, T. M.,, K. M. Campbell,, and G. H. Chambliss. 1979. Spectinomycin dependence in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 137: 1452 1455.
67. Henkin, T. M.,, K. M. Campbell,, and G. H. Chambliss. 1982. Revenants of a streptomycin-resistant, oligo-sporogenous mutant of Bacillus subtilis. Mol. Gen. Genet. 186: 347 354.
68. Henkin, T. M.,, and G. H. Chambliss. 1984. Genetic analysis of a streptomycin-resistant, oligosporogenous mutant of Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 157: 202 210.
69. Henkin, T. M.,, and G. H. Chambliss. 1984. Genetic mapping of a mutation causing an alteration in Bacillus subtilis ribosomal protein S4. Mol. Gen. Genet. 193: 364 369.
70. Henkin, T. M.,, S. H. Moon,, L. C. Mattheakis,, and M. Nomura. 1989. Cloning and analysis of the spc ribosomal protein operon of Bacillus subtilis: comparison with the spc operon of Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 17: 7469 7486.
71. Herfurth, E.,, H. Hirano,, and B. Wittmann-Liebold. 1991. The amino-acid sequences of the Bacillus stearo-thermophilus ribosomal proteins S17 and S21 and their comparison to homologous proteins of other ribosomes. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 372: 955 961.
72. Higo, K.,, W. Held,, L. Kahan,, and M. Nomura. 1973. Functional correspondence between 30S ribosomal proteins of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermo-philus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70: 944 948.
73. Higo, K.,, E. Otaka,, and S. Osawa. 1982. Purification and characterization of 30S ribosomal proteins from Bacillus subtilis: correlation to Escherichia coli 30S proteins. Mol. Gen. Genet. 184: 239 244.
74. Hirano, H.,, K. Eckart,, M. Kimura,, and B. Wittmann-Liebold. 1987. Semi-preparative HPLC purification of ribosomal proteins from Bacillus stearothermophilus and sequence determination of the highly conserved protein S19. Eur. J. Biochem. 170: 149 157.
75. Hussey, C.,, R. Losick,, and A. L. Sonenshein. 1971. Ribosomal RNA synthesis is turned off during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis. J. Mol. Biol. 57: 59 70.
76. Isono, K.,, and S. Isono. 1976. Lack of ribosomal protein SI in Bacillus stearothermophilus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73: 767 770.
77. Isono, K.,, S. Isono,, G. Stomer,, L. P. Visentin,, M. Yaguchi,, and A. T. Matheson. 1973. Correlation between 30S ribosomal proteins of Bacillus stearothermophilus and Escherichia coli. Mol. Gen. Genet. 127: 191 195.
78. Itoh, T.,, H. Kosugi,, K. Higo,, and S. Osawa. 1975. Ribosomal proteins from streptomycin-resistant and dependent mutants, and revenants from streptomycin-dependence to independence in Bacillus subtilis. Mol. Gen. Genet. 139: 293 301.
79. Itoh, T.,, and B. Wittmann-Liebold. 1980. The primary structure of Bacillus subtilis acidic protein BL-9. J. Biochem. 87: 1185 1198.
80. Jarvis, E. D.,, R. L. Widom,, G. LaFauci,, Y. Setoguchi,, I. R. Richter,, and R. Rudner. 1988. Chromosomal organization of rRNA operons in Bacillus subtilis. Genetics 120: 625 635.
81. Jinks-Robertson, S.,, and M. Nomura,. 1987. Ribosomes and tRNA, p. 1358 1385. In F. C. Neidhardt,, J. L. Ingraham,, K. B. Low,, B. Magasanik,, M. Schaechter,, and H. E. Umbarger (ed.), Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium: Molecular and Cellular Biology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
82. Kimura, J.,, and M. Kimura. 1987. The complete amino acid sequences of the 5S rRNA binding proteins L5 and LI8 from the moderate thermophile Bacillus stearothermophilus ribosome. FEBS Lett. 210: 85 90.
83. Kimura, M. 1984. Proteins of the Bacillus stearothermophilus ribosome. The amino acid sequences of proteins S5 and L30. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 1051 1055.
84. Kimura, M. 1991. The nucleotide sequences of Bacillus stearothermophilus ribosomal protein S12 and S7 genes: comparison with the str operon of Escherichia coli. Agric. Biol. Chem. 55: 207 213.
85. Kimura, M.,, and C. K. Chow. 1984. The complete amino acid sequences of ribosomal proteins L17, L27, and S9 from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Eur. J. Biochem. 139: 225 234.
86. Kimura, M.,, H. Ernst,, and K. Appelt. 1983. The primary structure of initiation factor IF3 from Bacillus stearothermophilus . FEBS Lett. 160: 78 81.
87. Kimura, M.,, J. Kijk,, and I. Heiland. 1980. The primary structure of protein BL17 isolated from the large sub-unit of the Bacillus stearothermophilus ribosome. FEBS Lett. 121: 323 326.
88. Kimura, M.,, and J. Kimura. 1987. The complete amino acid sequence of ribosomal protein S12 from Bacillus stearothermophilus. FEBS Lett. 210: 91 96.
89. Kimura, M.,, J. Kimura,, and K. Ashman. 1985. The complete primary structure of ribosomal proteins LI, L14, L15, L23, L24 and L29 from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Eur. J. Biochem. 150: 491 497.
90. Kimura, M.,, J. Kimura,, and T. Hatakeyama. 1988. Amino acid sequences of ribosomal proteins Sll from Bacillus stearothermophilus and S19 from Halobacte-rium marismortui: comparison of the ribosomal protein Sll family. FEBS Lett. 240: 15 20.
91. Kimura, M.,, J. Kimura,, and K. Watanabe. 1985. The primary structure of ribosomal protein L2 from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Eur. J. Biochem. 153: 289 297.
92. Kimura, M.,, N. Rawlings,, and K. Appelt. 1981. The amino acid sequence of protein BL10 from the 50S subunit of the Bacillus stearothermophilus ribosome. FEBS Lett. 136: 58 64.
93. Kobayashi, H.,, K. Kobayashi,, and Y. Kobayashi. 1977. Isolation and characterization of fusidic acid-resistant, sporulation-defective mutants of Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 132: 262 269.
94. Koivula, T.,, and H. Hemila. 1991. Nucleotide sequence of a Lactococcus lactis gene cluster encoding adenylate kinase, initiation factor 1 and ribosomal proteins. J. Gen. Microbiol. 137: 2595 2600.
95. Kromer, W.,, T. Hatakeyama,, and M. Kimura. 1990. Nucleotide sequence of Bacillus stearothermophilus ribosomal protein genes: part of the ribosomal S10 operon. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 371: 631 636.
96. Kruft, V.,, U. Kapp,, and B. Wittmann-Liebold. 1991. Characterization and primary structure of proteins L28, L33 and L34 from Bacillus stearothermophilus ribosomes. Biochimie 73: 855 860.
97. Kruft, V.,, and B. Wittmann-Liebold. 1991. Determination of peptide regions on the surface of the eubacterial and archaebacterial ribosome by limited proteolytic digestion. Biochemistry 30: 11781 11787.
98. LaFauci, G.,, R. L. Widom,, R. L. Eisner,, E. D. Jarvis,, and R. Rudner. 1986. Mapping of rRNA genes with integra-ble plasmids in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 165: 204 214.
99. Leduc, E.,, M. Hoekstra,, and G. B.. Spiegelman. 1982. Relationship between synthesis of ribosomes and RNA polymerase in Bacillus subtilis. Can. J. Microbiol. 28: 1280 1288.
100. Legault-Demare, L.,, and G. H. Chambliss. 1974. Natural messenger ribonucleic acid-directed cell-free protein-synthesizing system of Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 120: 1300 1307.
101. Leventhal, J. M.,, and G. H. Chambliss. 1979. DNA-directed cell-free protein-synthesizing system of Bacillus subtilis. B iochim. Biophys. Acta 564: 162 171.
102. Liljas, A.,, and M. E. Newcomer. 1981. Purification and crystallization of a protein complex from Bacillus stearothermophilus ribosomes. J. Mol. Biol. 153: 393 398.
103. Lindahl, L.,, F. Sor,, R. H. Archer,, M. Nomura,, and J. M. Zengel. 1990. Transcriptional organization of the S10, spc and a operons of Escherichia coli. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1050: 337 342.
104. Linn, T.,, R. Losick,, and A. L. Sonenshein. 1975. Rifampin resistance mutation of Bacillus subtilis altering the electrophoretic mobility of the beta subunit of ribonucleic acid polymerase. J. Bacteriol. 122: 1387 1390.
105. Losick, R. Personal communication.
106. Loughney, K.,, E. Lund,, and J. E. Dahlberg. 1982. tRNA genes are found between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes in Bacillus subtilis. Nucleic Acids Res. 10: 1607 1624.
107. Loughney, K.,, E. Lund,, and J. E. Dahlberg. 1983. Deletion of a rRNA gene set in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 154: 529 532.
108. Loughney, K.,, E. Lund,, and J. E. Dahlberg. 1983. Ribosomal RNA precursors of Bacillus subtilis. Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 6709 6721.
109. McDougall, J.,, T. Choli,, V. Kruft,, U. Kapp,, and B. Wittman-Liebold. 1989. The complete amino acid sequence of ribosomal protein SI8 from the moderate thermophile Bacillus stearothermophilus. FEBS Lett. 245: 253 260.
110. McLaughlin, J. R.,, C. L. Murray,, and J. C. Rabinowitz. 1981. Unique features in the ribosome binding site sequence of the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus /3-Iactamase gene. J. Biol. Chem. 256: 11283 11291.
111. Meng, B. Y.,, K. Shinozaki,, and M. Sugiura. 1989. Genes for the ribosomal proteins S12 and S7 and elongation factors EF-G and EF-Tu of the cyanobacterium Anacys-tis nidulans: structural homology between 16S rRNA and S7 mRNA. Mol. Gen. Genet. 216: 25 30.
112. Michalowski, C. B.,, B. Pfanzagl,, W. Loffelhardt,, and H. J. Bohnert. 1990. The cyanelle S10-spc ribosomal protein gene operon from Cyanophora paradoxa. Mol. Gen. Genet. 224: 222 231.
113. Michalski, C. J.,, and B. H. Sells. 1975. Molecular morphology of ribosomes. Iodination of Escherichia coli ribosomes with solid-state lactoperoxidase. Eur. J. Bio-chem. 52: 385 389.
114. Miller, H. M.,, S. M. Friedman,, D. J. Litman,, and C. R. Cantor. 1976. Surface topography of the Bacillus stearothermophilus ribosome. Mol. Gen. Genet. 144: 273 280.
115. Moon, S. H.,, and T. M. Henkin. Unpublished observations.
116. Moran, C. P., Jr.,, and K. F. Bott. 1979. Organization of transfer and ribosomal ribonucleic acid genes in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 140: 742 744.
117. Moriya, S.,, N. Ogasawara,, and H. Yoshikawa. 1985. Structure and function of the region of the replication origin of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. III. Nucleo-tide sequence of some 10,000 base pairs in the origin region. Nucleic Acids Res. 13: 2251 2265.
118. Neefs, J.M.,, Y. Van de Peer,, P. DeRijk,, A. Goris,, and R. DeWachter. 1991. Compilation of small ribosomal sub-unit RNA sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 19: 1987 2015.
119. Neumann-Spallart, C.,, J. Jakowitsch,, M. Kraus,, M. Brandtner,, H. J. Bohnert,, and W. Loffehardt. 1991. rpslO, unreported for plastid DNAs, is located on the cyanelle genome of Cyanophora paradoxa and is cotranscribed with the sir operon genes. Curr. Genet. 19: 313 315.
120. Ng, C.,, C. Buchanan,, A. Leung,, C. Ginther,, and T. Leighton. 1991. Suppression of defective-sporulation phenotypes by mutations in transcription factor genes of Bacillus subtilis. Biochimie 73: 1163 1170.
121. Nierhaus, K. H.,, and F. Dohme. 1974. Total reconstruction of functionally active 50S ribosomal subunits from Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71: 4713 4717.
122. Nishino, T.,, J. Gallant,, P. Shalit,, L. Palmer,, and T. Wehr. 1979. Regulatory nucleotides involved in the rel function of Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 140: 671 679.
123. Nomura, M.,, and V. A. Erdmann. 1970. Reconstruction of 50S subunits from dissociated molecular components. Nature (London) 228: 744 748.
124. Nomura, M.,, P. Traub,, and H. Bechmann. 1968. Hybrid 30S ribosomal particles reconstituted from components of different bacterial origins. Nature (London) 219: 793 799.
125. Ochi, K. 1989. Heterogeneity of ribosomal proteins among Streptomyces species and its application to identification. J. Gen. Microbiol. 135: 2635 2642.
126. Ochi, K. 1990. Streptomyces relC mutants with an altered ribosomal protein ST-L11 and genetic analysis of a Streptomyces griseus relC mutant. J. Bacteriol. 172: 4008 4016.
127. Ogasawara, N.,, S. Moriya,, and H. Hoshikawa. 1983. Structure and organization of rRNA operons in the region of the replication origin of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 6301 6318.
128. Ogasawara, N.,, S. Moriya,, K. von Meyenburg,, F. G. Hansen,, and H. Hoshikawa. 1985. Conservation of genes and their organization in the chromosomal replication origin region of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 4: 3345 3350.
129. Ogasawara, N.,, M. Seiki,, and H. Yoshikawa. 1983. Replication origin region of Bacillus subtilis chromosome contains two rRNA operons. J. Bacteriol. 154: 50 57.
130. Ohama, T.,, A. Muto,, and S. Osawa. 1989. Spectinomy-cin operon of Micrococcus luteus: evolutionary implications of organization and novel codon usage. J. Mol. Evol. 29: 381 395.
131. Ohama, T.,, F. Yamao,, A. Muto,, and S. Osawa. 1987. Organization and codon usage of the streptomycin operon in Micrococcus luteus, a bacterium with a high genomic G+C content. J. Bacteriol. 169: 4770 4777.
132. Ohkubo, S.,, A. Muto,, Y. Kawauchl,, F. Yamao,, and S. Osawa. 1987. The ribosomal protein gene cluster of Mycoplasma capricolum. Mol. Gen. Genet. 210: 314 322.
133. Osawa, S. 1976. Gene locus of a 30S ribosomal protein S20 of Bacillus subtilis. Mol. Gen. Genet. 144: 49 51.
134. Osawa, S., 1982. Ribosomal genes in Bacillus subtilis: comparison with Escherichia coli, p. 19 21. In D. Schlessinger (ed.), Microbiology 1982. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
135. Osawa, S.,, and H. Hori,. 1980. Molecular evolution of ribosomal components, p. 333 355. In G. Chambliss,, R. Craven,, J. Davies,, L. Kahan,, and M. Nomura (ed.), Ribosomes: Structure, Function and Genetics. University Park Press, Baltimore.
136. Osawa, S.,, R. Takata,, K. Tanaka,, and M. Tamaki. 1973. Chloramphenicol resistant mutants of Bacillus subtilis. Mol. Gen. Genet. 127: 163 173.
137. Osawa, S.,, A. Tokui,, and H. Saito. 1978. Mapping by interspecies transformation experiments of several ribosomal protein genes near the replication origin of Bacillus subtilis chromosome. Mol. Gen. Genet. 164: 113 129.
138. Pace, N. R.,, and B. Pace. 1990. Ribosomal RNA terminal maturase: ribonuclease M5 from Bacillus subtilis. Methods Enzymol. 181: 366 374.
139. Pai, Y. L.,, and R. Dabbs. 1981. Conditional lethal mutants of Bacillus subtilis dependent on kasugamycin for growth. Mol. Gen. Genet. 183: 478 483.
140. Panganiban, A. T.,, and H. R. Whiteley. 1983. Purification and properties of a new Bacillus subtilis RNA processing enzyme. Cleavage of phage SP82 mRNA and Bacillus subtilis precursor rRNA. J. Biol. Chem. 258: 12487 12493.
141. Pon, C. L.,, M. Brombach,, S. Thamm,, and C. O. Gualerzi. 1989. Cloning and characterization of a gene cluster from Bacillus stearothermophilus comprising infC, rpml and rplT. Mol. Gen. Genet. 218: 355 357.
142. Putzer, H.,, A. A. Brakhage,, and M. Grunberg-Manago. 1990. Independent genes for two threonyl-tRNA syn-thetases in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 172: 4593 4602.
143. Ramakrishnan, V.,, and S. E. Gerchman. 1991. Cloning, sequencing and overexpression of genes for ribosomal proteins from Bacillus stearothermophilus. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 880 885.
144. Roberts, M. W.,, and J. C. Rabinowitz. 1989. The effect of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein SI on the translational specificity of bacterial ribosomes. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 2228 2235.
145. Ron, E. Z.,, M.-P. deBethune, and C. G. Cocito. 1980. Mapping of virginiamycin S resistance in Bacillus subtilts. Mol. Gen. Genet. 180: 639 640.
146. Rossler, D.,, W. Ludwlg,, K. H. Schlelfer,, C. Lin,, T. J. McGill,, J. D. Wisotzkey,, P. Jurtskuk, Jr.,, and G. E. Fox. 1991. Phylogenetic diversity in the genus Bacillus as seen by 16S rRNA sequencing studies. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 14: 266 269.
147. Rudner, R.4 Personal communication.
148. Schnier, J.,, H.-S. Gewitz,, S.-E. Behrens,, A. Lee, C. Ginther, and T. Leighton. 1990. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus stearothermophilus 30S and 50S ribosomal protein mutations. J. Bacteriol. 172: 7306 7309.
149. Shazand, K.,, J. Tucker,, R. Chiang,, K. Stansmore,, H. V. Sperling-Peterson,, M. Grunberg-Manago,, J. C. Rabinowitz,, and T. Leighton. 1990. Isolation and molecular genetic characterization of the Bacillus subtilis gene ( infB) encoding protein synthesis initiation factor 2. J. Bacteriol. 172: 2675 2687.
150. Sijben-Muller, G.,, R. B. Hallick,, J. Alt,, P. Westloff,, and R. G. Hermann. 1986. Spinach plastid genes coding for initiation factor IF1, ribosomal protein S11 and RNA polymerase a subunit. Nucleic Acids Res. 14: 1029 1044.
151.Smith, I. 1982. The translational apparatus of Bacillus subtilis, p. 111145. In D. Dubnau (ed.), The Molecular Biology of the Bacilli, vol. 1. Academic Press, Inc., New York.
152. Smith, I.,, D. Dubnau,, P. Morell,, and J. Marmur. 1968. Chromosomal location of DNA base sequences complementary to transfer RNA and to 5S, 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA in Bacillus subtilis. J. Mol. Biol. 33: 123 140.
153. Smith, I., C. Goldthwaite, and D. Dubnau. 1969. The genetics of ribosomes in Bacillus subtilis. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 34: 85 89.
154. Smith, I.,, and P. Paress. 1978. Genetic and biochemical characterization of kirromycin resistance mutations in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 135: 1107 1117.
155. Smith, I.,, P. Paress,, K. Cabane,, and E. Dubnau. 1980. Genetics and physiology of the rel system of Bacillus subtilis. Mol. Gen. Genet. 178: 271 279.
156. Smith, I.,, P. Paress,, and S. Pestka. 1978. Thiostrepton-resistant mutants exhibit relaxed synthesis of RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75: 5993 5997.
157. Sonenshein, A. L.,, H. B. Alexander,, D. M. Rothstein,, and S. H. Fisher. 1977. Lipiarmycin-resistant ribonu-cleic acid polymerase mutants of Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 132: 73 79.
158. Stackebrandt, E.,, W. Ludwig,, M. Weizenegger,, S. Dorn,, McGill,, G. E. Fox,, C. R. Woese,, W. Schubert,, and K. H. Schleifer. 1987. Comparative 16S rRNA oligonucleo-tide analyses and murein types of round sporeforming bacilli and non-sporeforming relatives. J. Gen. Micro-biol. 133: 2523 2529.
159. Stevenson, J. K.,, R. G. Drager,, D. W. Copertino,, D. A. Christopher,, K. P. Jenkins,, G. Yepiz-Plascencia,, and R. B. Hallick. 1991. Intercistronic group III introns in polycistronic ribosomal protein operons of chloroplasts. Mol. Gen. Genet. 228: 183 192.
160. Stewart, G. C.,, and K. F. Bott. 1983. DNA sequence of the tandem ribosomal RNA promoter for B. subtilis operon rrnB. Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 6289 6300.
161. Stewart, G. C.,, F. E. Wilson,, and K. F. Bott. 1982. Detailed physical mapping of the ribosomal RNA genes of Bacillus subtilis. Gene 19: 153 162.
162. Stoffler-Meilicke, M.,, B. Epe,, P. Woolley,, M. Lotti,, J. Littlechild,, and G. Stoffler. 1984. Location of protein S4 on the small ribosomal subunit of E. coli and B. stearothermophilus with protein-specific and hapten-specific antibodies. Mol. Gen. Genet. 197: 8 18.
163. Stoffler-Meilicke, M.,, and G. Stoffler,. 1990. Topography of the ribosomal proteins from Escherichia coli within the intact subunits as determined by immunoelectron microscopy and protein-protein cross-linking, p. 123 133. In W. E. Hill,, A. Dahlberg,, R. A. Garrett,, P. B. Moore,, D. Schlessinger,, and J. R. Warner (ed.), The Ribosome: Structure, Function and Evolution. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
164. Strauch, E.,, E. Takano,, H. A. Baylis,, and M. J. Bibb. 1991. The stringent response in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Mol. Microbiol. 5: 289 298.
165. Suh, J.-W.,, S. A. Boylan,, and C. W. Price. 1986. Gene for the alpha subunit of Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase maps in the ribosomal protein gene cluster. J. Bacteriol. 168: 65 71.
166. Suh, J.-W.,, S. A: Boylan,, S. M. Thomas,, K. M. Dolan,, D. B. Oliver, and C. W. Price. 1990. Isolation of a secY homologue from Bacillus subtilis: evidence for a common protein export pathway in eubacteria. Mol. Microbiol. 4: 305 315.
167. Swanton, M.,, and G. Edlin. 1972. Isolation and characterization of an RNA-relaxed mutant of B. subtilis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 46: 583 588.
168. Tanaka, I.,, M. Kumura,, J. Kimura,, and J. Dijk. 1984. The amino acid sequence of two small ribosomal proteins from Bacillus stearothermophilus. FEBS Lett. 166: 343 346.
169. Tang, C. K.,, and D. E. Draper. 1989. Unusual mRNA pseudoknot structure is recognized by a protein translational repressor. Cell 57: 531 536.
170. Thurlow, D. L.,, and R. A. Zimmermann. 1978. Conservation of ribosomal protein binding sites in prokaryotic 16S RNAs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75: 2859 2863.
171. Tipper, D. J.,, C. W. Johnson,, C. L. Ginther,, T. Leighton,, and H. G. Wittmann. 1977. Erythromycin resistant mutations in Bacillus subtilis cause temperature sensitive sporulation. Mol. Gen. Genet. 150: 147 159.
172. Traub, P.,, and M. Nomura. 1969. Structure and function of Escherichia coli ribosomes. VI. Mechanism of assembly of 30S ribosomes studied in vitro. J. Mol. Biol. 40: 391 413.
173. van Wezel, G. P.,, E. Vijgenboom,, and L. Bosch. 1991. A comparative study of the ribosomal RNA operons of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and sequence analysis of rrnA. Nucleic Acids Res. 19: 4399 4403.
174. Void, B. S.,, C. J. Green,, N. Narasimhan,, M. Strem,, and J. N. Hansen. 1988. Transcriptional analysis of Bacillus subtilis rRNA-tRNA operons. II. Unique properties of an operon containing a minor 5S rRNA gene. J. Biol. Chem. 263: 14485 14490.
175. Vorgias, C. E.,, A. J. Kingswell,, Z. Dauter,, and K. S. Wilson. 1991. Cloning, overexpression, purification and crystallisation of ribosomal protein L9 from Bacillus stearothermophilus. FEBS Lett. 286: 204 208.
176. Wagenknecht, T.,, J. M. Carazo,, M. Radermacher,, and J. Frank. 1989. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the ribosome from Escherichia coli. Biophys. J. 55: 465 477.
177. Wang, L.-F.,, and R. H. Doi. 1986. Nucleotide sequence and organization of Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase major sigma (σ 43) operon. Nucleic Acids Res. 14: 4293 4307.
178. Wawrousek, E. F.,, and J. N. Hansen. 1983. Structure and organization of a cluster of six tRNA genes in the space between tandem ribosomal RNA gene sets in Bacillus subtilis. J. Biol. Chem. 258: 291 298.
179. Wawrousek, E. F.,, N. Narasimhan,, and J. N. Hansen. 1984. Two large clusters with thirty-seven transfer RNA genes adjacent to ribosomal RNA gene sets in Bacillus subtilis. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 3694 3702.
180. Wayne, R. R.,, and T. Leighton. 1981. Physiological suppression of Bacillus subtilis conditional sporulation phenotypes—RNA polymerase and ribosomal mutations. Mol. Gen. Genet. 183: 550 552.
181. White, S. W.,, K. Appelt,, J. Dijk,, and K. S. Wilson. 1983. Proteins of the Bacillus stearothermophilus ribosome: a 5Â structural analysis of protein S5. FEBS Lett. 163: 73 75.
182. Wlenen, B.,, R. Ehrlich,, M. Stoffler-Meilicke,, G. Stoffler,, I. Smith,, D. Weiss,, R. Vince,, and S. Pestka. 1979. Ribosomal protein alterations in thiostrepton- and micrococcin-resistant mutants of Bacillus subtilis. J. Biol. Chem. 254: 8031 8041.
183. Williams, G.,, and I. Smith. 1979. Chromosomal mutations causing resistance to tetracycline in Bacillus subtilis. Mol. Gen. Genet. 177: 23 29.
184. Wilson, F. E.,, J. A. Hoch,, and K. Bott. 1981. Genetic mapping of a linked cluster of ribosomal ribonucleic acid genes in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 148: 624 628.
185. Wisotzkey, J. D.,, P. Jurtshuk, Jr.,, G. E. Fox,, G. Deinhard,, and K. Poralla. 1992. Comparative sequence analyses on the 16S rRNA (rDNA) of Bacillus acidocaldarius, Bacillus acidoterrestris, and Bacillus cycloheptanicus and proposal for creation of a new genus, Alicyclobacil-lus gen. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 42: 263 269.
186. Woese, C. R. 1987. Bacterial evolution. Microbiol. Rev. 51: 221 271.
187. Woese, C. R.,, B. A. Debrunner-Vossbrlnck,, H. Oyaizu,, E. Stackebrandt,, and W. Ludwig. 1984. Gram-positive bacteria: possible photosynthetic ancestry. Science 229: 761 765.
188. Yaguchi, M.,, A. T. Matheson,, and L. P. Vlsentin. 1974. Procaryotic ribosomal proteins: N-terminal sequence homologies and structural correspondence of 30S ribosomal proteins from Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus. FEBS Lett. 46: 296 300.
189. Yonath, A.,, W. Bennett,, S. Weinstein,, and H. G. Witt-mann,. 1990. Crystallography and image reconstructions of ribosomes, p. 134 147. In W. E. Hill,, A. Dahlberg,, R. A. Garrett,, P. B. Moore,, D. Schlessinger,, and J. R. Warner (ed.), The Ribosome: Structure, Function and Evolution. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
190. Yonath, A.,, M. A. Saper,, I. Makowskl,, J. Mussig,, J. Plefte,, H. D. Bartunik,, K. S. Bartels,, and H. G. Witt-mann. 1986. Characterization of single crystals of the large ribosomal particles from B. stearothermophilus. J. Mol. Biol. 187: 633 636.
191. Yoshikawa, H.,, and R. H. Doi. 1990. Sequence of the Bacillus subtilis spectinomycin resistance gene region. Nucleic Acids Res. 18: 1647.
192. Zeigler, D. R.,, and D. H. Dean. 1990. Orientation of genes in the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. Genetics 125: 703 708.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Bacillus ribosomal-protein and translation factor sequences

Citation: Henkin T. 1993. Ribosomal Structure and Genetics, p 669-682. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch46

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error