Chapter 47 : tRNA, tRNA Processing, and Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases

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This chapter provides an overview of tRNA, tRNA processing, and tRNA synthetases in , emphasizing the areas in which there are distinct differences from . It discusses the general characteristics of tRNA in the gram-positive bacteria. Despite the common belief that most bacteria are similar to , the tRNA gene organization and anticodon complement in , and probably in most gram-positive bacteria, are remarkably different from those in i. The majority of the tRNA genes are in two large groups, one containing 21 and the other containing 16 tRNA genes, immediately following the 3′ ends of ribosomal gene operons. Ml-RNA has been shown to cleave modified tRNA-like substrates that consist of only the amino acid acceptor stem and the T-stem and loop. This explains how RNase P can recognize all of its tRNA precursor substrates and contrasts with the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that recognize many different nucleotide positions scattered throughout the tRNA. As aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are so critical to the cell's metabolism, understanding their genetic regulation is especially important. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases have been divided into two classes on the basis of the presence of several different stretches of amino acid sequences. Class I synthetases include those for the amino acids arginine, glutamine, glutamate, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, tryptophan , tyrosine, and valine. Class II includes the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases for aspartate, asparagine, histidine, lysine, phenylanine, proline, serine, and threonine.

Citation: Green C, Vold B. 1993. tRNA, tRNA Processing, and Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases, p 683-698. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch47
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Figure 1

Known map positions of rRNA and tRNA operons on the chromosome divided into 360°. Numbers of genes in each tRNA gene cluster are indicated by arrows.

Citation: Green C, Vold B. 1993. tRNA, tRNA Processing, and Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases, p 683-698. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch47
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Gene orders of known tRNA gene clusters. Each tRNA gene is represented by a rectangle enclosing its cognate amino acid and anticodon. Map positions, where known, are listed above each operon. Putative promoters and terminators are labeled P and T, respectively.

Citation: Green C, Vold B. 1993. tRNA, tRNA Processing, and Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases, p 683-698. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch47
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Generic image for table
Table 1

tRNA anticodons compared with and anticodons

Citation: Green C, Vold B. 1993. tRNA, tRNA Processing, and Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases, p 683-698. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch47

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