1887

Chapter 5 : and

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

and , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818388/9781555810535_Chap05-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818388/9781555810535_Chap05-2.gif

Abstract:

This scope of this chapter is limited to discussions of , , , , and , and summarizes and abstracts the major areas of research of lactic acid bacteria. The historical association of the lactic acid bacteria with milk fermentation has encouraged a substantial amount of research on the biochemistry and genetics of lactose and milk protein catabolism. The genus contains a number of divergent species. The genes of and spp. are organized differently than those of . Extracellular protease production in is an unstable and variable trait. The proteinases of lactic acid bacteria produce a complicated mixture of polypeptides that the bacteria must break down into individual amino acids. The finding that some lactic acid bacteria require peptides for growth correlates well with the intracellular location determined for the peptidases. To date, the nucleotide sequences of more than 50 genes isolated from lactic acid bacteria, primarily the lactococci and lactobacilli, are published and available in nucleic acid data banks. Many of these genes are discussed in the chapter. The authors hope that the chapter dissuades the reader from the commonly held belief that little is known about the biology, biochemistry, and genetics of lactic acid bacteria.

Citation: Chassy B, Murphy C. 1993. and , p 65-82. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch5

Key Concept Ranking

Lactic Acid Bacteria
0.697055
Lactococcus lactis
0.49097958
Lactobacillus helveticus
0.47701782
0.697055
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

The broad-host-range vector pGK12 is derived from a group N streptococcus cryptic plasmid replicón and the chloramphenicol and erythromycin resistance determinants of pC194 and pE194, respectively, by a strategy similar to that described in the legend to Fig. 2 ( ).

Citation: Chassy B, Murphy C. 1993. and , p 65-82. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

The broad-host-range cloning vector pNZ12 originates from the ligation of a I restriction fragment of a high-copy-number subsp. cryptic plasmid with a fragment of DNA encoding antibiotic resistance markers but not an origin of replication followed by transformation into ( ). Km and Cm derive from plasmids pUB110 and pC194, respectively.

Citation: Chassy B, Murphy C. 1993. and , p 65-82. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818388.chap5
1. Ahmad, K. A.,, and G. S. A. B. Stewart. 1988. Cloning of the lux genes into Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus lactis: phosphate-dependent light production. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 1988:1068.
2. Alpert, C. A.,, and B. M. Chassy. 1988. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the factor III(lac) gene of Lactobacillus casei. Gene 62:277288.
3. Alpert, C. A.,, and B. M. Chassy. 1990. Molecular cloning and DNA sequence of lacE, the gene encoding the lactose-specific enzyme II of the phosphotransferase system of Lactobacillus casei: evidence that a cysteine residue is essential for sugar phosphorylation. J. Biol. Chem. 265:2256122570.
4. Andrews, J.,, G. M. Clore,, R. W. Davies,, A. M. Gronen-born,, B. Gronenborn,, D. Kalderone,, P. C. Papadopoulos,, S. Schafer,, P. F. G. Simms,, and R. Stancombe. 1985. Nucleotide sequence of the dihydrofolate reductase gene of methotrexate resistant Lactobacillus casei. Gene 35:217222.
5. Arendt, E. K.,, H. Neve,, and W. P. Hammes. 1990. Characterization of phage isolates from a phage-carrying culture of Leuconostoc oenos 58N. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 34:220224.
6. Atlan, D.,, P. Laloi,, and R. Portalier. 1990. X-Prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus: characterization of the enzyme and isolation of deficient mutants. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:21742179.
7. Aukrust, T.,, and I. F. Nes. 1988. Transformation of Lactobacillus plantarum with the plasmid pTVl by electroporation. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 52:127132.
8. Battermann, G.,, and F. Radier. 1991. A comparative study of malolactic enzyme and malic enzyme of different lactic acid bacteria. Can. J. Microbiol. 37:211217.
9. Benbadis, L.,, M. Faelen,, P. Slos,, A. Fazel,, and A. Mercenier. 1990. Characterization and comparison of virulent bacteriophages of Streptococcus thermophilus isolated from yogurt. Biochimie 72:855862.
10. Berry, E. D.,, M. B. Liewen,, R. W. Mandigo,, and R. W. Hutkins. 1990. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by bacteriocin-producing Pediococcus during the manufacture of fermented semidry sausage. J. Food Prot. 53:194197.
11. Bhowmik, T.,, and E. H. Marth. 1990. β -Galactosidase of Pediococcus species—induction, purification and partial characterization. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 33:317323.
12. Bhowmik, T.,, and E. H. Marth. 1990. Peptide-hydro-lysing enzymes of Pediococcus species. Microbios 62: 197211.
13. Bhunia, A. K.,, M. C. Johnson,, B. Ray,, and N. Kalchayanand. 1991. Mode of action of pediocin AcH from Pediococcus acidilactici H on sensitive bacterial strains. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 70:2533.
14. Biswas, S. R.,, P. Ray,, M. C. Johnson,, and B. Ray. 1991. Influence of growth conditions on the production of a bacteriocin, pediocin AcH, by Pediococcus acidilactici H. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:12651267.
15. Boizet, B.,, Y. Lahbib-Mansais,, L. Dupont,, P. Ritzenthaler,, and M. Mata. 1990. Cloning, expression and sequence analysis of endolysin-encoding gene of Lactobacillus bulgaricus bacteriophage MV1. Gene 94:6168.
16. Boizet, B.,, D. Villeval,, P. Slos,, M. Novel,, G. Novel,, and A. Mercinier. 1988. Isolation and structural analysis of the phospho-β -galactosidase gene from Streptococcus lactis Z268. Gene 62:249261.
17. Bouia, A.,, F. Bringel,, L. Frey,, A. Belarbi,, A. Guyon-varch,, B. Kammerer,, and J. C. Hubert. 1990. Cloning and structure of the pyrE gene of Lactobacillus plantarum CCM1904. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 69:233238.
18. Bouia, A.,, F. Bringel,, L. Frey,, B. Kammerer,, A. Belarbi,, A. Goyonvarch,, and J. C. Hubert. 1989. Structural organization of pLP-1, a cryptic plasmid from Lactobacillus plantarum CCM1904. Plasmid 22:185192.
19. Breidt, F. J.,, and G. C. Stewart. 1986. Cloning and expression of the gene phospho-β -galactosidase of Staphylococcus aureus in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 166:10611066.
20. Breidt, F. J.,, and G. C. Stewart. 1987. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the Staphylococcus aureus phospho-β -galactosidase gene. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:969973.
21. Bringel, F.,, L. Frey,, and J. C. Hubert. 1989. Characterization, cloning, curing, and distribution in lactic acid bacteria of pLPl, a plasmid from Lactobacillus plantarum CCM 1904 and its use in shuttle vector construction. Plasmid 22:193202.
22. Broadbent, J. R.,, and J. K. Kondo. 1991. Genetic construction of nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and analysis of a rapid method for conjugation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:517524.
23. Buchman, G. W.,, S. Baneijee,, and J. N. Hansen. 1988. Structure.expression and evolution of a gene encoding the precursor of nisin, a small protein antibiotic. J. Biol. Chem. 263:1626016266.
23a. Casey, J.,, C. Daly,, and G. F. Fitzgerald. 1992. Controlled integration into the Lactococcus chromosome of the PCI829-encoded abortive infection gene from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis UC811. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:32833291.
24. Cerning, J. 1990. Exocellular polysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 87:113130.
25. Chassy, B. M. 1987. Prospects for the genetic manipulation of lactobacilli. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 46:297312.
26. Chassy, B. M.,, and C. A. Alpert. 1989. Molecular characterization of the plasmid-encoded lactose-PTS of Lactobacillus casei. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 63:157166.
27. Chassy, B. M.,, and J. L. Flickinger. 1987. Transformation of Lactobacillus casei by electroporation. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 44:173177.
28. Chassy, B. M.,, J. L. Flickinger,, and J. Thompson. Unpublished data.
29. Chassy, B. M.,, A. Mercenier,, and J. Flickinger. 1988. Transformation of bacteria by electroporation. Trends Biotechnol. 6:303309.
30. Chassy, B. M.,, and J. Thompson. 1983. Regulation and characterization of the galactose :phosphoenolpyru-vate-dependent phosphotransferase system in Lactobacillus casei. J. Bacteriol. 154:12041214.
31. Cocconcelli, P. S.,, M. J. Gasson,, L. Morelli,, and V. Bottazzi. 1991. Single-stranded DNA plasmid, vector construction and cloning of Bacillus stearothermophilus α-amylase in Lactobacillus. Res. Microbiol. 142:643652.
32. Coffey, A. G.,, G. F. Fitzgerald,, and C. Daly. 1991. Cloning and characterization of the determinant for abortive infection of bacteriophage from lactococcal plasmid pC1829. J. Gen. Microbiol. 137:13551362.
33. Collins, M. D.,, U. Rodrigues,, C. Ash,, M. Aguirre,, J. A. E. Farrow,, A. Martinezmurcia,, B. A. Phillips,, A. M. Williams,, and S. Wallbanks. 1991. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Lactobacillus and related lactic acid bacteria as determined by reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16S rRNA. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 77:512.
34. Collins, M. D.,, A. M. Williams,, and S. Wallbanks. 1990. The phylogeny of Aerococcus and Pediococcus as determined by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 70:296301.
35. Copeland, W. C.,, J. D. Domeña,, and J. D. Roberts. 1989. The molecular cloning, sequence and expression of the hdc B gene from Lactobacillus 30A. Gene 85:259266.
36. Cosby, W. M.,, L. T. Axelsson,, and W. J. Dobrogosz. 1989. Tn917 transposition in Lactobacillus plantarum using the highly temperature-sensitive plasmid pTV1ts as a vector. Plasmid 22:236243.
37. Daeschel, M. A.,, D. S. Jung,, and B. T. Watson. 1991. Controlling wine malolactic fermentation with nisin and nisin-resistant strains of Leuconostoc oenos. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:601603.
38. David, S.,, G. Simons,, and W. M. De Vos. 1991. Plasmid transformation by electroporation of Leuconostoc paramesenteroides and its use in molecular cloning. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55:14831489.
39. David, S.,, H. Stevens,, M. Van Rield,, G. Simons,, and W. M. De Vos. 1992. Leuconostoc lactis β -galactosidase is encoded by two overlapping genes. J. Bacteriol. 174: 44754481.
40. David, S.,, M. E. van der Rest,, A. J. M. Driessen,, G. Simons,, and W. M. De Vos. 1990. Nucleotide sequence and expression in Escherichia coli of the Lactococcus lactis citrate permease gene. J. Bacteriol. 172:57895794.
41. Davidson, B. E.,, I. B. Powell,, and A. J. Hillier. 1990. Temperate bacteriophages and lysogeny in lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 87:7990.
42. De Rossi, E.,, P. Brigidi,, M. Rossi,, D. Matteuzzi,, and G. Riccardi. 1991. Characterization of Gram-positive broad host-range plasmids carrying a thermophilic replicón. Res. Microbiol. 142:389396.
43. De Vos, W. M. 1987. Gene cloning and expression in lactic streptococci. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 46:281295.
44. De Vos, W. M.,, I. Boerrigter,, R. J. Van Rooyen,, B. Reiche,, and W. Hengstenberg. 1990. Characterization of the lactose-specific enzymes of the phosphotransferase system in Lactococcus lactis. J. Biol. Chem. 265: 2255422560.
45. DeVos, W. M.,, and M. J. Gasson. 1989. Structure and expression of the Lactococcus lactis gene for phospho-β -galactosidase (lacG) in Escherichia coli and L. lactis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 135:18331846.
46. De Vos, W. M.,, and G. Simons. 1988. Molecular cloning of lactose genes in the dairy streptococci: the phospho-β -galactosidase genes and their expression products. Biochimie 70:461473.
47. De Vos, W. M.,, G. Simons,, and S. David. 1989. Gene organization and expression in the mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. J. Dairy Sci. 72:33983405.
48. Dodd, H. M.,, N. Horn,, and M. J. Gasson. 1990. Analysis of the genetic determinant for production of the peptide antibiotic nisin. J. Gen. Microbiol. 136:555566.
49. Dower, W. J.,, B. M. Chassy,, J. T. Trevors,, and H. P. Blaschek,. 1992. Protocols for the transformation of bacteria by electroporation, p. 485500. In D. C. Chang et al. (ed.), Guide to Electroporation and Electrofusion. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
50. Eggimann, B.,, and H. Bachmann. 1980. Purification and partial characterization of an aminopeptidase from Lactobacillus lactis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 40:876882.
51. Feirtag, J. M.,, J. P. Petzel,, E. Pasalodos,, K. A. Baldwin,, and L. L. McKay. 1991. Thermosensitive plasmid replication, temperature-sensitive host growth, and chromosomal plasmid integration conferred by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris lactose plasmids in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:539548.
52. Fitzgerald, G. F.,, and M. J. Gasson. 1988. In vivo gene transfer systems and transposons. Biochimie 70:489502.
53. Foreman, P.,, and T. Alatossava. 1991. Genetic variation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis bacteriophages isolated from cheese processing plants in Finland. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:18051812.
54. Friedland, I. R.,, M. Snipelisky,, and M. Khoosal. 1990. Meningitis in a neonate caused by Leuconostoc sp. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:21252126.
55. Gaetje, G.,, V. Mueller,, and G. Gorrschalk. 1991. Lactic acid excretion via carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion in Lactobacillus helveticus. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 34:778782.
56. Gilliland, S. E. 1990. Health and nutritional benefits from lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 87:175188.
57. Graves, M. C.,, and J. C. Rabinowitz. 1986. In vivo and in vitro transcription of the Clostridium pasteurianum ferredoxin gene. J. Biol. Chem. 261:1140911415.
58. Haandrikman, A. J. 1990. Maturation of cell envelope-associated proteinase of Lactococcus lactis. Ph.D. dissertation. Rijksuniversiteit, Groningen, The Netherlands.
59. Haandrikman, A. J.,, L. Hamoen,, K. J. Leenhouts,, J. Kok,, and G. Venema. Development and use of a broad host-range vector for the simultaneous analysis of divergent promoters. Submitted for publication.
60. Haandrikman, A. J.,, J. Kok,, H. Laan,, S. Soemitro,, A. M. Ledeboer,, W. N. Konings,, and G. Venema. 1989. Identification of a gene required for maturation of an extracellular Iactococcal serine proteinase. J. Bacteriol. 171:27892794.
61. Haandrikman, A. J.,, C. Van Leeuwen,, J. Kok,, P. Vos,, W. M. de Vos,, and G. Venema. 1990. Insertion elements on Iactococcal protease plasmids. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:18901896.
62. Hager, P. W.,, and J. C. Rabinowitz,. 1985. Translational specificity in Bacillus subtilis, p. 131. In D. A. Dubnau (ed.). The Molecular Biology of the Bacilli. Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, Fla.
63. Hancock, K. R.,, E. Rockman,, C. A. Young,, L. Pearce,, I. S. Maddox,, and D. B. Scott. 1991. Expression and nucleotide sequence of the Clostridium acetobutylicum β -galactosidase gene cloned in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 173:30843095.
64. Handwerger, S.,, H. Horowitz,, K. Coburn,, A. Kolokathis,, and G. P. Wormser. 1990. Infection due to Leuconostoc sp.—6 cases and review. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12:602610.
65. Hardings, C. D.,, and B. G. Shaw. 1990. Antimicrobial activity of Leuconostoc gelidum against closely related species and Listeria monocytogenes. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 69:648654.
66. Harley, C. B.,, and R. P. Reynolds. 1987. Analysis of E. coli promoter sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 15:23432361.
67. Hayes, F.,, J. Law,, C. Daly,, and G. F. Fitzgerald. 1990. Integration and excision of plasmid DNA in Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis. Plasmid 24:8189.
68. Hayes, F.,, P. Vos,, G. F. Fitzgerald,, W. M. De Vos,, and C. Daly. 1991. Molecular organization of the minimal replicon of novel, narrow-host-range, lactococcal plasmid pCI305. Plasmid 25:1626.
69. Heaton, M. P.,, and F. C. Neuhaus. 1992. Biosynthesis of D-alanyl lipooteichoic acid: cloning, nucleotide sequence and expression of the Lactobacillus casei gene for the D-alanine activating enzyme. J. Bacteriol. 174: 47074717.
70. Hengstenberg, W.,, W. K. Penberthy,, K. L. Hill,, and M. L. Morse. 1968. Metabolism of lactose by Staphylococcus aureus. J. Bacteriol. 96:21872188.
71. Hill, C.,, I. J. Massey,, and T. R. Klaenhammer. 1991. Rapid method to characterize Iactococcal bacteriophage genomes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:283288.
72. Hill, C.,, L. A. Miller,, and T. R. Klaenhammer. 1990. Cloning, expression, and sequence determination of a bacteriophage fragment encoding bacteriophage resistance in Lactococcus lactis. J. Bacteriol. 172:64196426.
73. Hill, C.,, L. A. Miller,, and T. R. Klaenhammer. 1990. Nucleotide sequence and distribution of the pTR2030 resistance determinant (hsp) which aborts bacteriophage infection in lactococci. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:22552258.
74. Holo, H.,, O. Nilssen,, and I. F. Nes. 1991. Lactococcin A, a new bacteriocin from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris: isolation and characterization of the protein and its gene. J. Bacteriol. 173:38793887.
75. Hutkins, R. W.,, and C. Ponne. 1991. Lactose uptake driven by galactose efflux in Streptococcus thermophilus—evidence for a galactose-lactose antiporter. Appl Environ. Microbiol. 57:941944.
76. Imam, S. H.,, A. Burgess-Cassler,, G. L. Cote,, S. H. Gordon,, and F. L. Baker. 1991. A study of cornstarch granule digestion by an unusually high molecular weight α -amylase secreted by Lactobacillus amylovorus. Curr. Microbiol. 22:365370.
76a. Ishino, Y.,, P. Morgenthaler,, H. Hottinger,, and D. Soil. 1992. Organization and nucleotide sequence of the glutamine synthetase glnA gene from Lactobacillus delbreuckii subsp. bulgaricus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:31653169.
77. Jahns, A.,, A. Schaefer,, A. Geis,, and M. Terber. 1991. Identification, cloning and sequencing of the replication region of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis Bu2 citrate plasmid pSL2. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 80:253258.
78. Jimeno, J.,, M. Casey,, and F. Hofer. 1984. The occurrence of β -galactosidase and P-β -galactosidase in Lactobacillus casei strains. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 25:275278.
79. Joerger, M. C.,, and T. R. Klaenhammer. 1990. Cloning, expression and nucleotide sequence of the Lactobacillus helveticus 481 gene encoding the bacteriocin helveticin. J. Bacteriol. 172:63396347.
80. Jones, S.,, and P. J. Warner. 1990. Cloning and expression of α -amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in a stable plasmid vector in Lactobacillus plantarum. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 11:214219.
81. Josson, K.,, T. Scheirlinck,, F. Michiels,, C. Platteeuw,, P. Stanssens,, H. Joos,, P. Dhaese,, M. Zabeau,, and J. Ma-hillon. 1989. Characterization of a Gram-positive broad-host-range plasmid isolated from Lactobacillus hilgardii. Plasmid 21:920.
82. Josson, K.,, P. Soetaert,, F. Michiels,, H. Joos,, and J. Mahillon. 1990. Lactobacillus hilgardii plasmid pLAB 1000 consists of two functional cassettes commonly found in other gram-positive organisms. J. Bacteriol. 172:30893099.
83. Kaklij, G. S.,, S. M. Kelkar,, M. A. Shenoy,, and K. B. Sainis. 1991. Antitumor activity of Streptococcus thermophilus against fibrosarcoma: role of T-cells. Cancer Lett. 56:3744.
84. Kaletta, C.,, and K. Entlan. 1989. Nisin, a peptide antibiotic: cloning and sequencing of the nisA gene and posttranslational processing of its peptide product. J. Bacteriol. 171:15971601.
85. Kaminogawa, S.,, N. Azuma,, I. K. Hwang,, Y. Suzuki,, and K. Yamauchi. 1984. Isolation and characterization of a prolidase from Streptococcus cremoris H61. Agric. Biol. Chem. 48:30353040.
86. Kaminogawa, S.,, T. Ninomiya,, and K. Yamauchi. 1984. Aminopeptidase profiles of lactic streptococci. J. Dairy Sci. 67:24832492.
87. Kashket, E. R. 1987. Bioenergetics of lactic acid bacteria: cytoplasmic pH and osmotolerance. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 46:233244.
88. Khalid, N. M.,, and E. M. Marth. 1990. Purification and partial characterization of a prolyl-dipeptidyl amino-peptidase from Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 32. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:381388.
89. Kim, J. H.,, and C. A. Batt. 1991. Nucleotide sequence and deletion analysis of a gene coding for a structural protein of Lactococcus lactis bacteriophage F4-1. Food Microbiol. 8:2736.
90. Kim, S. F.,, S. F. Baek,, and M. Y. Pack. 1991. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Lactobacillus casei lactate dehydrogenase gene. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57: 24132417.
91. Kim, S. G.,, and C. A. Batt. 1991. Identification of a nucleotide sequence conserved in Lactococcus lactis bacteriophages. Gene 98:95100.
92. Kiwaki, M.,, H. Ikemura,, M. Shimizu-Kadota,, and A. Hlrashima. 1989. Molecular characterization of a cell wall associated proteinase gene of Streptococcus lactis NCD0763. Mol. Microbiol. 3:359369.
93. Klebanoff, S. J.,, and R. W. Coombs. 1991. Viricidal effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on human immunodeficiency virus type 1: possible role in heterosexual transmission. J. Exp. Med. 174:289292.
94. Koivula, T.,, M. Sibakov,, and I. Palva. 1991. Isolation and characterization of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis promoters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:333340.
95. Kojic, M.,, D. Fira,, A. Banina,, and L. Topisirovic. 1991. Characterization of the cell wall-bound proteinase of Lactobacillus casei HN14. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57: 17531757.
96. Kok, J. 1990. Genetics of the proteolytic system of the lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 87:1542.
97. Kok, J.,, K. J. Leenhouts,, A. J. Haandrikman,, A. M. Ledeboer,, and G. Venema. 1988. Nucleotide sequence of the cell wall proteinase gene of Streptococcus lactis Wg2. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:231238.
98. Kok, J.,, J. M. B. M. van der Vossen,, and G. Venema. 1984. Construction of plasmid cloning vectors for lactic streptococci which also replicate in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48:726731.
99. Kok, J.,, and G. Venema. 1988. Genetics of proteinases of lactic acid bacteria. Biochimie 70:475488.
100. Konings, W. N.,, B. Poolman,, and A. J. M. Driessen. 1989. Bioenergetics and solute transport in lactococci. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 16:419476.
101. Leenhouts, K. 1990. Development and use of plasmid integration systems for lactococci. Ph.D. dissertation. Rijksuniversiteit, Groningen, The Netherlands.
102. Leenhouts, K. J.,, J. Gietema,, J. Kok,, and G. Venema. 1991. Chromosomal stabilization of proteinase genes in Lactococcus lactis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:25682575.
103. Leenhouts, K. J.,, B. Tolner,, S. Bron,, J. Kok,, G. Venema,, and J. Seegers. 1991. Nucleotide sequence and characterization of the broad-host-range lactococcal plasmid pWVOl. Plasmid 26:5566.
104. Leong-Morgenthaler, P.,, M. C. Zwahlen,, and H. Hettinger. 1991. Lactose metabolism in Lactobacillus bulgaricus: analysis of the primary structure and expression of the genes involved. J. Bacteriol. 173:19511957.
105. Lerch, H. P.,, H. Blocker,, H. Kallwas,, J. Hoppe,, H. Tsai,, and J. Collins. 1989. Cloning, sequencing and expression in Escherichia coli of the D-2-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase gene of Lactobacillus casei. Gene 78:4757.
106. Lerch, H.-P.,, R. Frank,, and J. Collins. 1989. Cloning, sequencing and expression of the L-2-hydroxyisoca-proate dehydrogenase-encoding gene of Lactobacillus confusus in Escherichia coli. Gene 83:263270.
107. Lindgren, S. E.,, and W. J. Dobrogosz. 1990. Antagonistic activities of lactic acid bacteria in food and feed fermentations. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 87:149164.
107a. Llanos, R. M.,, A. J. Hillier,, and B. E. Davidson. 1992. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, expression, and chromosomal location of idh, the gene encoding L-dextro lactate dehydrogenase from Lactococcus lactis. J. Bacteriol. 174:69566964.
108. Lokman, B. C.,, P. van Santen,, J. C. Verdoes,, R. J. Leer,, M. Posno,, and P. H. Pouwels. 1991. Organization and characterization of three genes involved in D-xylose catabolism in Lactobacillus pentosus. Mol. Gen. Genet. 230:161169.
109. Luchansky, J. B.,, E. G. Kleeman,, R. R. Raya,, and T. R. Klaenhammer. 1989. Genetic transfer sysems for delivery of plasmid DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, to Lactobacillus acidophilus ADH: conjugation, electroporation, and transduction. J. Dairy Sci. 72:14081417.
110. Luchansky, J. B.,, M. C. Tennant,, R. R. Raya,, and T. R. Klaenhammer. 1989. Identification of temperature-dependent replication of pGK12 and direct cloning via electroporation in Lactobacillus acidophilus ADH. J. Dairy Sci. 72:113.
111. Ludwig, W. E.,, E. Seewaldt,, R. Kipper-Balz,, K. H. Schliefer,, L. Magrum,, C. R. Woese,, G. E. Fox,, and E. Stackebrandt. 1985. The phylogenetic position of Streptococcus and Enterococcus. J. Gen. Microbiol. 131:543551.
112. Machuga, E. J.,, and D. H. Ives. 1984. Isolation and characterization of an aminopeptidase from Lactobacillus acidophilus R-26. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 789:2636.
113. Marshall, V. M. E.,, and B. A. Law,. 1984. The physiology and growth of dairy lactic acid bacteria, p. 6798. In F. L. Davies, and B. A. Law (ed.), Advances in the Microbiology and Biochemistry of Cheese and Fermented Milk. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London.
113a. Marugg, J. D.,, C. F. Gonzalez,, B. S. Kunka,, A. M. Ledeboer,, M. J. Pucci,, M. Y. Toonen,, S. A. Walker,, L. C. Zoetmulder,, and P. A. Vanden Bergh. 1992. Cloning, expression, and nucleotide sequence of genes involved in production of pediocin PA-1, a bacteriocin from Pediococcus acidilactici pACl.O. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:23602367.
114. Mayo, B.,, J. Kok,, K. Venema,, W. Bockelmann,, M. Teuber,, H. Reinke,, and G. Venema. 1991. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the X-prolyldipeptidyl aminopeptidase gene from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:3844.
115. McClure, W. R. 1985. Mechanism and control of transcription initiation in prokaryotes. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 54:171204.
116. McKay, L. L., 1982. Regulation of lactose metabolism in dairy streptococci, p. 153182. In R. Davies (ed.), Developments in Food Microbiology. Applied Science Publishers Ltd., Essex, England.
117. McKay, L. L. 1983. Functional properties of plasmids in lactic streptococci. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek J. Microbiol. 49:259274.
118. Mercenier, A. 1990. Molecular genetics of Streptococcus thermophilus. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 87:6178.
119. Meyer, J.,, and R. Jordl. 1987. Purification and characterization of X-prolyldipeptidyl-aminopeptidase from Lactobacillus lactis and from Streptococcus thermophilus. J. Dairy Sci. 70:738745.
120. Milliere, J. B.,, A. G. Mathot,, P. Schmitt,, and C. Divies. 1989. Phenotypic characterization of Leuconostoc species. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 67:529542.
121. Mills, O. E.,, and T. D. Thomas. 1981. Nitrogen sources for growth of lactic streptococci in milk. N.Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol. 15:4355.
122. Móllet, B.,, and M. Delley. 1990. Spontaneous deletion formation within the β -galactosidase gene of Lactobacillus bulgaricus. J. Bacteriol. 172:56705676.
123. Mollet, B.,, and M. Delley. 1991. A β -galactosidase deletion mutant of Lactobacillus bulgaricus reverts to generate an active enzyme by internal DNA sequence duplication. Mol. Gen. Genet. 227:1721.
124. Morse, M. L.,, K. L. Hill,, J. B. Egan,, and W. Hengstenberg. 1968. Metabolism of lactose by Staphylococcus aureus and its genetic basis. J. Bacteriol. 95:22702274.
125. Mortvedt, C. I.,, and I. F. Nes. 1990. Plasmid-associated bacteriocin production by a Lactobacillus sake strain. J. Gen. Microbiol. 136:16011608.
126. Mortvedt, C. I.,, J. Nissen-Meyer,, K. Sletten,, and I. F. Nes. 1991. Purification and aminio acid sequence of lactocin S, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake L45. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:18291834.
127. Muriana, P. M.,, and T. R. Klaenhammer. 1991. Cloning, phenotypic expression, and DNA sequence of the gene for lactocin F, an antimicrobial peptide produced by Lactobacillus spp. J. Bacteriol. 173:17791788.
128. Nakamura, L. K. 1981. Lactobacillus amylovorus, a new starch-hydrolyzing species from cattle waste-corn fermentations. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 31:5663.
129. Nakamura, L. K.,, and C. D. Crowell. 1979. Lactobacillus amylophilus, a new starch-hydrolyzing species from swine waste-corn fermentation. Dev. Ind. Microbiol. 20:531540.
130. Naouri, P.,, P. Chagnaud,, A. Arnaud,, and P. Galzy. 1990. Purification and properties of a malolactic enzyme from Leuconostoc oenos ATCC 23278.J. Basic Microbiol. 30:577585.
131. Nardi, M.,, M. C. Chopin,, A. Chopin,, M. M. Cals,, and J. C. Gripon. 1991. Cloning and DNA sequence analysis of an X-prolyldipeptidyl aminopeptidase gene from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 763. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:4550.
132. Natori, Y.,, Y. Kano,, and F. Imamoto. 1988. Characterization and promoter selectivity of Lactobacillus acidophilus RNA polymerase. Biochimie 70:17651774.
133. Natori, Y.,, Y. Kano,, and F. Imamoto. 1990. Nucleotide sequences and genomic constitution of five tryptophan genes of Lactobacillus casei. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 107: 248255.
134. Okereke, A.,, and T. J. Montville. 1991. Bacteriocin inhibition of Clostridium botulinum spores by lactic acid bacteria. J. Food Prot. 54:349353.
135. Oskouian, B.,, and G. C. Stewart. 1990. Repression and catabolite repression of the lactose operon of Staphylococcus aureus. J. Bacteriol. 172:38043812.
136. Park, S. F.,, and G. S. A. B. Stewart. 1990. High efficiency transformation of Listeria monocytogenes by electroporation of penicillin-treated cells. Gene 94:129132.
137. PlUedge, C. J.,, and L. E. Pearce. 1991. Expression of a β -galactosidase gene from Clostridium acetobutylicum in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. J. Appl. Microbiol. 71:7885.
138. Pinter, K.,, V. J. Davisson,, and D. V. Santi. 1988. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the Lactobacillus casei thymidylate synthase gene. DNA 7:235241.
139. Polzin, K. M.,, and L. L. McKay. 1991. Identification, DNA sequence, and distribution of 1S981, a new, high-copy-number insertion sequence in lactococci. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:734743.
140. Polzin, K. M.,, and M. Shlmizu-Kadota. 1987. Identification of a new insertion element, similar to gram-negative IS26, on the lactose plasmid of Streptococcus lactis ML3. J. Bacteriol. 169:54815488.
141. Poolman, B.,, T. J. Royer,, S. E. Maimer,, and B. F. Schmidt. 1989. Lactose transport system of Streptococcus thermophilus: a hybrid protein with homology to the melibiose carrier and enzyme III of phosphoenol-pyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems. J. Bacteriol. 171:244253.
142. Poolman, B.,, T. J. Royer,, S. E. Maimer,, and B. F. Schmidt. 1990. Carbohydrate utilization in Streptococcus thermophilus: characterization of the genes for aldolase-1-epimerase (mutarotase) and UDP-glucose 4-epimerase. J. Bacteriol. 172:40374047.
143. Porter, E. V.,, and B. M. Chassy. 1988. Nucleotide sequence of the β -D-phosphogalactoside galactohydro-lase gene of Lactobacillus casei: comparison to analogous pbg genes of other gram-positive organisms. Gene 62:263276.
144. Posno, M.,, P. T. H. M. Heuvelmans,, M. J. F. Van Giezen,, B. C. Lokman,, R. J. Leer,, and P. H. Pouwels. 1991. Complementation of the inability of Lactobacillus strains to utilize D-xylose with D-xylose catabolism-encoding genes of Lactobacillus pentosus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:27642766.
145. Posno, M.,, R. J. Leer,, N. Vanluijk,, M. J. F. Vangeizen,, and P. T. H. M. Heuvelmans. 1991. Incompatibility of Lactobacillus vectors with replicons derived from small cryptic Lactobacillus plasmids and segregational instability of the introduced vectors. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:18221828.
146. Powell, I. B.,, M. G. Achen,, A. J. HiLLier,, and B. E. Davidson. 1988. A simple and rapid method for genetic transformation of lactic streptococci by electroporation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:655660.
147. Rauch, P. J. G.,, M. M. Beerthuyzen,, and W. M. De Vos. 1990. Nucleotide sequence of IS904 from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain NIZO R5. Nucleic Acids Res. 18:42534254.
148. Raya, R. R.,, E. G. Kleeman,, J. B. Luchansky,, and T. R. Klaenhammer. 1989. Characterization of the temperate bacteriophage PHI-ADH and plasmid transduction on Lactobacillus acidophilus ADH. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55:22062213.
149. Reizer, J.,, A. Reizer,, and M. H. Saier. 1990. The cellobiose permease of Escherichia coli consists of three proteins and is homologous to the lactose permease of Staphylococcus aureus. Res. Microbiol. 141:10611067.
150. Renault, P. C.,, C. Gaillardin,, and H. Heslot. 1989. Product of the Lactococcus lactis gene required for malolactic fermentation is homologous to a family of positive regulators. J. Bacteriol. 171:31083114.
151. Rixon, J. E.,, G. P. Hazlewood,, and H. J. Gilbert. 1990. Integration of an unstable plasmid into the chromosome of Lactobacillus plantarum. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 71:105110.
152. Romero, D. A.,, and T. R. Klaenhammer. 1990. Characterization of insertion sequence IS946, and iso-ISS1 element, isolated from the conjugative Iactococcal plasmid pTR2030. J. Bacteriol. 172:41514160.
152a. Romero, D. A.,, and T. R. Klaenhammer. 1992. IS946-mediated integration of heterologous DNA into the genome of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:699702.
153. Ross, P.,, F. O'Gara,, and S. Condon. 1990. Cloning and characterization of the thymidylate synthase gene from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:21562163.
154. Scheirlinck, T.,, J. Mahillon,, H. Joos,, P. Dhaese,, and F. Michiels. 1989. Integration and expression of α -amylase and endoglucanase genes in the Lactobacillus plantarum chromosome. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55:21302137.
155. Schmidt, B. F.,, R. M. Adams,, C. Requadt,, S. Power,, and S. E. Mainzer. 1989. Expression and nucleotide sequence of the Lactobacillus bulgaricus β -galactosidase gene cloned in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 171:625635.
156. Schroeder, C. J.,, C. Robert,, G. Lenzen,, L. L. McKay,, and A. Mercenier. 1991. Analysis of the lacZ sequences from 2 Streptococcus thermophilus strains—comparison with the Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus bulgaricus β -galactosidase sequences. J. Gen. Microbiol. 137:369380.
157. Shearman, C.,, H. Underwood,, K. Jury,, and M. Gasson. 1989. Cloning and DNA sequence analysis of a Lactococcus bacteriophage lysin gene. Mol. Gen. Genet. 218: 214221.
158. Shearman, C. A.,, S. Hertwig,, M. Teuber,, and M. J. Gsson. 1991. Characterization of the prolate-headed Iactococcal bacteriophage phi-vML3: location of the lysin gene and its DNA homology with other prolate-headed phages. J. Gen. Microbiol. 137:12851292.
159. Shimizu-Kadota, M. 1987. Properties of lactose plasmid pYLlOl in Lactobacillus casei. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:29872991.
160. Shimizu-Kadota, M.,, J. L. Flickinger,, and B. M. Chassy. 1988. Evidence that Lactobacillus casei insertion element ISL1 has a narrow host range. J. Bacteriol. 170:49764978.
161. Shimizu-Kadota, M.,, M. Kiwaki,, H. Hirokawa,, and N. Tsuchida. 1985. ISL1: a new transposable element in Lactobacillus casei. Mol. Gen. Genet. 200:193198.
162. Shimizu-Kadota, M.,, H. Shibahara-Sone,, and H. Ishiwa. 1991. Shuttle plasmid vectors for Lactobacillus casei and Escherichia coli with a minus origin. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:32923300.
163. Sibakov, M.,, T. Koivula,, A. Von Wright,, and I. Palva. 1991. Secretion of TEM β -lactamase with signal sequences isolated from the chromosome of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:341348.
164. Simon, D.,, and A. Chopin. 1988. Construction of a vector plasmid family and its use for molecular cloning in Streptococcus lactis. Biochimie 70:559566.
165. Simons, G. H.,, M. van Asseldonk,, G. Rutten,, A. Braks,, M. Nijhuis,, M. Hornes,, and W. M. de Vos. 1990. Analysis of secretion signals of lactococci. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 87:24.
166. Slos, P.,, J. C. Bourquin,, Y. Lemoine,, and A. Mercenier. 1991. Isolation and characterization of chromosomal promoters of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:13331339.
167. Smid, E. J.,, R. Plapp,, and W. N. Konings. 1989. Peptide uptake is essential for growth of Lactococcus lactis on the milk protein casein. J. Bacteriol. 171:61356140.
168. Sneath, P. H. A.,, N. S. Mair,, M. E. Sharpe,, and J. G. Holt (ed.). 1986. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2. The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore.
168a. Somkuti, G. A.,, D. K. Y. Solaiman,, and D. H. Steinberg. 1992. Expression of Streptomyces sp. cholesterol oxidase in Lactobacillus casei. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 37: 330334.
169. Spelhaug, S. R.,, and S. K. Harlander. 1989. Inhibition of foodborne bacterial pathogens by bacteriocins from Lactococcus lactis and Pediococcus pentosaceus. J. Food Prot. 52:856862.
170. Stackebrandt, E.,, V. J. Fowler,, and C. R. Woese. 1983. A phylogenetic analysis of lactobacilli, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 4:326337.
171. Steen, M. T.,, Y. J. Chung,, and J. N. Hansen. 1991. Characterization of the nisin gene as part of a polycis-tronic operon in the chromosome of Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:11811188.
172. Swenson, J. M.,, R. R. Facklam,, and C. Thornsberry. 1990. Antimicrobial susceptibility of vancomycin-resistant Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:543549.
173. Taguchi, H.,, and T. Ohta. 1991. D-Lactate dehydrogenase is a member of the D-isomer-specific 2-hydroxy-acid dehydrogenase family: cloning, sequencing and expression in Escherichia coli of the L-lactate dehydrogenase gene of Lactobacillus plantarum. J. Biol. Chem. 266:1258812594.
174. Takiguchi, R.,, H. Hashiba,, K. Aoyama,, and S. Ishii. 1989. Complete nucleotide sequence and characterization of a cryptic plasmid from Lactobacillus helveticus subsp. jugurti. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55:16531655.
175. Thompson, J. 1987. Regulation of sugar transport and metabolism in lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 46:221231.
176. Toy, J.,, and A. L. Bognar. 1990. Cloning and expression of the gene encoding Lactobacillus casei folylpoly-gamma-glutamate synthetase in Escherichia coli and determination of its primary structure. J. Biol. Chem. 265: 24922499.
177. Trevors, J. T.,, B. M. Chassy,, W. J. Dower,, and H. P. Blaschek,. 1992. Electrotransformation of bacteria by plasmid DNA, p. 265290. In D. C. Chang et al. (ed.), Guide to Electroporation and Electrofusion. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
178. Van Alen-Boerrighter, I. J.,, R. Baankreis,, and W. M. De Vos. 1991. Characterization and overexpression of the Lactococcus lactis pepN gene and localization of its product, aminopeptidase N. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:25552561.
179. Van Asseldonk, M.,, G. Rutten,, M. Oteman,, R. J. Seizen,, W. J. De Vos,, and G. Simons. 1990. Cloning of usp45, a gene encoding a secreted protein from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis MG1363. Gene 95:155160.
180. Van Belkum, M. J.,, B. J. Hayema,, R. E. Jeeninga,, J. Kok,, and G. Venema. 1991. Organization and nucleotide sequences of two Iactococcal bacteriocin operons. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:492498.
181. Van Belkum, M. J.,, J. Kok,, G. Venema,, H. Holo,, I. F. Nes,, W. N. Konings,, and T. Abee. 1991. The bacteriocin lactococcin A specifically increases permeability of Iactococcal cytoplasmic membranes in a voltage-independent, protein-mediated manner. J. Bacteriol. 173:79347941.
182. Van Boven, A.,, and W. N. Konings. 1986. Uptake of peptides by microorganisms. Neth. Milk Dairy J. 40: 117127.
183. Van de Guchte, M. 1991. Heterologous gene expression in Lactococcus lactis. Ph.D. dissertation. Rijksuniversiteit, Groningen, The Netherlands.
184. Van de Guchte, M.,, J. Kok,, and G. Venema. 1991. Distance-dependent translational coupling and interference in Lactococcus lactis. Mol. Gen. Genet. 227:6571.
185. van der Lelie, D.,, J. M. B. M. van der Vossen,, and G. Venema. 1988. Effect of plasmid incompatibility on DNA transfer to Streptococcus cremoris. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:865871.
186. Vanderslice, P.,, W. Copeland,, and J. Robertus. 1986. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of wild type and a mutant histidine decarboxylase from Lactobacillus 30a. J. Biol. Chem. 261:1518615191.
187. Van der Vosen, J. M. B. M.,, D. van der Lelie,, and G. Venema. 1987. Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus cremoris Wg2-specific promoters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:24522457.
188. Van Rooijen, R. J.,, and W. M. De Vos. 1991. Molecular cloning, transcriptional analysis, and nucleotide sequence of lacR, a gene encoding the repressor of the lactose phosphotransferase system of Lactococcus lactis. J. Biol. Chem. 265:1849918503.
189. Van Rooijen, R. J.,, S. Van Schalkwijk,, and W. M. De Vos. 1991. Molecular cloning, characterization, and nucleotide sequence of the tagatose-6-phosphate pathway gene cluster of the lactose operon of Lactococcus lactis. J. Biol. Chem. 266:71767181.
190. Von Heijne, G.,, and L. Abrahamsén. 1989. Species specific variation in signal peptide design. Implication for protein secretion in foreign hosts. FEBS Lett. 244: 439446.
191. Von Wright, A.,, S. Wessels,, S. Tynkkynen,, and M. Saarela. 1990. Isolation of a replication region of a large lactococcal plasmid and use in cloning of a nisin resistance determinant. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:20292035.
192. Vos, P.,, G. Simons,, R. J. Siezen,, and W. M. de Vos. 1989. Primary structure and organization of the gene for a prokaryotic cell envelope-located serine protease. J. Biol. Chem. 264:1357913585.
193. Weisburg, W. G.,, J. G. Tully,, D. L. Rose,, J. P. Petzei,, H. Oyaizu,, D. Yang,, L. Mandelco,, J. Sechrest,, T. G. Lawrence,, J. Van Etten,, J. Maniloff,, and C. R. Woese. 1989. A phylogenetic classification of the mycoplasmas: basis 'for their classification. J. Bacteriol. 171:64556467.
194. Xu, F.,, L. E. Pearce,, and P. L. Yu. 1991. Genetic analysis of a lactococcal plasmid replicón. Mol. Gen. Genet. 227:3339.
195. Yan, T.-R.,, K. N. S. Azuma,, and K. Yamauchi. 1987. Purification and characterization of a novel metallo-endopeptidase from Streptococcus cremoris H61. Eur. J. Biochem. 163:259265.
196. Yan, T.-R.,, N. Azuma,, S. Kaminogawa,, and K. Yamauchi. 1987. Purification and characterization of a substrate-size-recognizing metalloendopeptidase from Streptococcus cremoris H61. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:22962302.
197. Yang, D.,, and C. R. Woese. 1989. Phylogenetic structure of the Leuconostocs—an interesting case of a rapidly evolving organism. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 12:145149.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Sequence similarities of LacE, LacF, and LacG

Citation: Chassy B, Murphy C. 1993. and , p 65-82. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 2

-derived transcription initiation sites

Citation: Chassy B, Murphy C. 1993. and , p 65-82. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 3

promoters: sequences near initiation of transcription

Citation: Chassy B, Murphy C. 1993. and , p 65-82. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 4

RBS used by lactococci in initiation of translation

Citation: Chassy B, Murphy C. 1993. and , p 65-82. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 5

Putative ribosome binding sites of spp.

Citation: Chassy B, Murphy C. 1993. and , p 65-82. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch5

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error