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Chapter 54 : Regulatory Proteins That Control Late-Growth Development

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Abstract:

Upon encountering nutrient deprivation, and other soil organisms initiate a series of responses that allow survival in the hostile environment. Among these responses are synthesis and secretion of degradative enzymes, production of antibiotics, development of motility and competence, and finally, appearance of spores. These dormant, resistant life forms will germinate and start a new round of vegetative growth when exposed to adequate food supplies. One of the most actively studied areas in physiology and molecular biology is the decision-making process whereby the cell faced with nutrient stress chooses one of the alternative late-growth pathways. Several proteins that affect these pathways have been described. This chapter discusses the specific functions of these proteins, the regulation of their synthesis, and their roles in the circuitry controlling late-growth development in and closely related bacteria, where these processes are understood. In recent years, several genes that affect late-growth development have been cloned and characterized, and it has been demonstrated, usually by creating mutations in the chromosomal gene or by disrupting the gene on a multicopy plasmid, that the protein products of these genes are the functional agents for their effects. Among these proteins are AbrB, ComA, DegQ, DegR, DegU, DegT, Hpr, Pai (ORF1 and ORF2), SinR (and SinI), Sen, Spo0A, TenA, and TenI. The best characterized proteins in terms of their functions and control of their synthesis are AbrB, ComA, DegU, Spo0A, Hpr, and SinR.

Citation: Smith I. 1993. Regulatory Proteins That Control Late-Growth Development, p 785-800. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch54
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Figures

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Figure 1.

Relationships between regulatory proteins that affect late-growth processes, showing interactions between Spo0A, AbrB, Hpr, Sin, and SinI and the stationary-phase-activated processes they control. References and experimental details for this figure are in the text. For clarity, several elements of late-growth control, e.g., activation of Spo0A by the phosphorelay system and down regulation of sin by Hpr, etc., are not shown. The specific steps in the processes that are affected by the regulatory proteins are also not shown; they are described in the text. Positive interactions are indicated by an arrow, and negative ones are indicated by a bar. The figure does not differentiate between transcriptional and translational interactions.

Citation: Smith I. 1993. Regulatory Proteins That Control Late-Growth Development, p 785-800. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch54
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Tables

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Table 1

Properties of proteins affecting late-growth development and regulation of their genes

Citation: Smith I. 1993. Regulatory Proteins That Control Late-Growth Development, p 785-800. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch54

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