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This chapter on focuses on the need to draw attention to the progress in developing systems for genetic manipulation in actinomycetes. A significant fraction of this progress has depended on approaches first used in species. Interestingly, the largest open reading frame in IS117 is related to that of members of the IS110 family. There is some evidence that the efficiency of translation initiation may be affected by the nature of the first few codons; changes at these positions from rare codons to synonymous codons common in genes significantly increased expression of the genes in . Surface-grown colonies may be considered as multicellular organisms with several distinct cell types. Nevertheless, most of one's understanding of morphological differentiation comes from genetical work on and . In the course of this chapter, the author has mentioned the occurrence of multiple copies of genes encoding principal; σ-factor homologs and of two quite different genes for glutamine synthase. Major problems in the analysis of antibiotic biosynthetic pathways by traditional biochemical and chemical procedures have been caused by the low concentrations of the pathway enzymes.

Citation: Chater K, Hopwood D. 1993. , p 83-99. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch6

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Hexose Monophosphate Pathway
Fatty Acid Synthase
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148. Leskiw, B. K.,, E. J. Lawlor,, J. M. Fernandez-Abalos,, and K. F. Chater. 1991. TTA codons in some genes prevent their expression in a class of developmental, antibiotic-negative Streptomyces mutants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:24612465.
149. Leskiw, B. K.,, M. Mevarech,, L. S. Barritt,, S. E. Jensen,, D. J. Henderson,, D. A. Hopwood,, C. J. Bruton,, and K. F. Chater. 1990. Discovery of an insertion sequence, IS116, from Streptomyces clavuligerus and its related-ness to other transposable elements from actinomycetes. J. Gen. Microbiol. 136:12511258.
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