1887

Chapter 8 :

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818388/9781555810535_Chap08-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818388/9781555810535_Chap08-2.gif

Abstract:

, the causative agent of anthrax, is the only member of the genus that is capable of causing epidemic disease in humans and other mammals. The capsule is one of the virulence factors of . Evidence that bicarbonate is involved in the regulation of capsule synthesis is presented in the discussion of the capsule plasmid pX02. For several years, it was believed that the anthrax toxin was made up of only two components, but it was later established that the toxin actually consists of three proteins. It has been demonstrated that lethal factor (LF) in combination with protective antigen (PA) lysed mouse peritoneal macrophages, as evidenced by loss of lactic dehydrogenase activity. This in vitro system for studying anthrax lethal toxin activity should expedite one's understanding of the toxic reaction. Gene exchange systems performed by transduction, transformation (transfer of plasmids by mating) and transposon mutagenesis are discussed. One of the most active reactions was that between D-phenylalanine and pyruvate, forming alanine and phenylpyruvate. The vaccine commonly used to immunize livestock against anthrax vaccines consists of live spores of a toxigenic, noncapsulated strain, i.e., a strain that has been cured of the capsule plasmid, pXO2, but still carries the toxin plasmid, pXO1. The principal antigen in the vaccine is PA. Several doses of PA vaccines have to be given initially, and frequent booster doses are necessary to sustain antibody titers.

Citation: Thorne C. 1993. , p 113-124. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch8

Key Concept Ranking

Aromatic Amino Acids
0.5732711
Anthrax Lethal Toxin
0.5652174
Amino Acids
0.49263945
0.5732711
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

and restriction maps of toxin-encoding region of pXO 1. A 77-kb region of pXO 1 encompassing the toxin structural genes is shown. (A) pXOl from Sterne (USAMRIID). (B) pXOl from Weybridge A. The maps suggest that an inversion has occurred, as depicted in the diagram. The inverted region represents approximately 40 kb. Arrows indicate the approximate locations and directions of transcription of the and genes as shown on the restriction map of pXOl reported by Robertson et al. ( ).

Citation: Thorne C. 1993. , p 113-124. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818388.chap8
1. Ash, C.,, J. A. E. Farrow,, M. Dorsch,, E. Stackebrandt,, and M. D. Collins. 1991. Comparative analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and related species on the basis of reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16S rRNA. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41:343346.
2. Avakyan, A. A.,, L. N. Katz,, K. N. Levina,, and I. B. Pavlova. 1965. Structure and composition of the Bacillus anthracis capsule. J. Bacteriol. 90:10821095.
3. Bartkus, J. M.,, and S. H. Leppla. 1989. Transcriptional regulation of the protective antigen gene of Bacillus anthracis. Infect. Immun. 57:22952300.
4. Battisti, L.,, B. D. Green,, and C. B. Thorne. 1985. Mating system for transfer of plasmids among Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Bacteriol. 162:543550.
5. Beall, F. A.,, M. J. Taylor,, and C. B. Thorne. 1962. Rapid lethal effect in rats of a third component found upon fractionating the toxin of Bacillus anthracis. J. Bacteriol. 83:12741280.
6. Belton, F. C.,, and R. E. Strange. 1954. Studies on a protective antigen produced in vitro from Bacillus anthracis: medium and methods of production. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 35:144152.
7. Bernhard, K.,, H. Schrempf,, and W. Goebel. 1978. Bacteriocin and antibiotic resistance plasmids in Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 133:897903.
8. Bhatnagar, R.,, Y. Singh,, S. H. Leppla,, and A. M. Friedlander. 1989. Calcium is required for the expression of anthrax lethal toxin activity in the macrophage-like cell line J774A.1. Infect. Immun. 57:21072114.
9. Bohm, R.,, and G. Spath,. 1990. The taxonomy of Bacillus anthracis according to DNA-DNA hybridization and G+C content, p. 2931. In P. C. Turnbull (ed.), Proceedings of the International Wortehop on Anthrax, Winchester, England. Salisbury medical bulletin, no. 68, special supplement. Salisbury Medical Society, Salisbury, England.
10. Bragg, T. S.,, and D. L. Robertson. 1989. Nucleotide sequence and analysis of the lethal factor gene (lef) from Bacillus anthracis. Gene. 81:4554.
11. Brewer, C. R.,, W. G. McCullough,, R. C. Mills,, W. G. Roessler,, E. J. Herbst,, and A. F. Howe. 1946. Studies on the nutritional requirements of Bacillus anthracis. Arch. Biochem. 10:6575.
12. Bricas, E.,, and C. Fromageot. 1953. Naturally occurring peptides. Adv. Protein Chem. 8:1125.
13. Bruckner, V.,, M. Kajtar,, J. Kovacs,, H. Nagy,, and J. Wein. 1958. Synthese des immunspezifischen, polypep-tid-artigen Haptens der anthrax-subtilis Bacillen-Gruppe. Ein synthetischer Beweis der Konstitution der naturlichen Poly-glutaminsauren. Tetrahedron 2:211240.
14. Bruckner, V.,, J. Kovacs,, and G. Denes. 1953. Structure of poly-D-glutamic acid isolated from capsulated strains of B. anthracis. Nature (London) 172:508.
15. Burdon, K. L.,, and R. D. Wende. 1960. On the differentiation of anthrax bacilli from Bacillus cereus. J. Infect. Dis. 107:224234.
16. Cataldi, A.,, E. Labruyere,, and M. Mock. 1990. Construction and characterization of a protective antigen-deficient Bacillus anthracis strain. Mol. Microbiol. 4:11111117.
17. Cole, H. B.,, J. W. Ezzell,, K. F. Keller,, and R. J. Doyle. 1984. Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis and other Bacillus species by lectins. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19:4853.
18. Cromartie, W. J.,, W. L. Bloom,, and D. W. Watson. 1947. Studies on infection with Bacillus anthracis. I. A histo-pathological study of skin lesions produced by B. anthracis in susceptible and resistant animal species. J. Infect. Dis. 80:113.
19. Cromartie, W. J.,, D. W. Watson,, W. L. Bloom,, and R. J. Heckly. 1947. Studies on infection with Bacillus anthracis. II. The immunological and tissue damaging properties of extracts prepared from lesions of B. anthracis infections. J. Infect. Dis. 80:1427.
20. Dunny, G. M.,, L. N. Lee,, and D. J. LeBlanc. 1991. Improved electroporation and cloning vector system for gram-positive bacteria. Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 57:11941201.
21. Eastin, J. D.,, and C. B. Thorne. 1963. Carbon dioxide fixation in Bacillus anthracis. J. Bacteriol. 85:410417.
22. Escuyer, V.,, and R. J. Collier. 1991. Anthrax protective antigen interacts with a specific receptor on the surface of CHO-K1 cells. Infect. Immun. 59:33813386.
23. Fish, D. C.,, B. G. Mahlandt,, J. P. Dobbs,, and R. E. Lincoln. 1968. Purification and properties of in vitroproduced anthrax toxin components. J. Bacteriol. 95: 907918.
24. Franke, A. E.,, and D. B. Clewell. 1981. Evidence for a chromosome-borne resistance transposon (Tn916) in Streptococcus faecalis that is capable of "conjugal" transfer in the absence of a conjugative plasmid. J. Bacteriol. 145:494502.
25. Friedlander, A. M. 1986. Macrophages are sensitive to anthrax lethal toxin through an acid-dependent process. J. Biol. Chem. 261:71237126.
26. Gardner, J. M.,, and F. A. Troy. 1979. Chemistry and biosynthesis of the poly(y-d-glutamyl) capsule in Bacillus licheniformis. Activation, racemization, and polymerization of glutamic acid by a membranous polyglu-tamyl synthetase complex. J. Biol. Chem. 254:62626269.
27. Gladstone, G. P. 1939. Inter-relationships between amino acids in the nutrition of B. anthracis. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 20:189200.
28. Gladstone, G. P. 1946. Immunity to anthrax: protective antigen present in cell-free culture filtrates. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 27:394418.
29. Green, B. D.,, L. Battisti,, T. M. Koehler,, C. B. Thorne,, and B. E. Ivins. 1985. Demonstration of a capsule plasmid in Bacillus anthracis. Infect. Immun. 49:291297.
30. Green, B. D.,, L. Battisti, and C. B. Thorne. 1989. Involvement of Tn4430 in transfer of Bacillus anthracis plasmids mediated by Bacillus thuringiensis plasmid pX012. J. Bacteriol. 171:104113.
31. Gryczan, T. J.,, S. Contente,, and D. Dubnau. 1978. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus plasmids introduced by transformation into Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 134:318329.
32. Guaracao-Ayala, A. I.,, and C. B. Thome. Unpublished data.
33. Guaracao-Ayala, A. I.,, and C. B. Thorne. 1991. Transposon mutagenesis of Bacillus anthracis capsule plasmid pX02, abstr. D-120, p. 98. Abstr. 91st Gen. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 1991.
34. Guex-Holzer, S.,, and J. Tomcsik. 1956. The isolation and chemical nature of capsular and cell-wall haptens in a Bacillus species. J. Gen. Microbiol. 14:1425.
35. Hanby, W. E.,, and H. N. Rydon. 1946. The capsular substance of Bacillus anthracis. Biochem. J. 40:297309.
36. Hara, T.,, Y. Fujio,, and S. Ueda. 1982. Polyglutamate production by Bacillus subtilis (natto). J. Appl. Biochem. 4:112120.
37. Harris-Smith, P. W.,, H. Smith,, and J. Keppie. 1958. Production in vitro of the toxin of Bacillus anthracis previously recognized in vivo. J. Gen. Microbiol. 19:91103.
38. Homung, J.,, and C. B. Thome. Unpublished data.
39. Homung, J. M.,, A. I. Guaracao-Ayala,, and C. B. Thome. 1989. Transposon mutagenesis in Bacillus anthracis, abstr. H-256, p. 212. Abstr. 89th Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 1989.
40. Homung, J. M.,, and C. B. Thome. 1991. Insertion mutations affecting pXOl-associated toxin production in Bacillus anthracis, abstr. D-121, p. 98. Abstr. 91st Gen. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 1991.
41. Ivanovlcs, G.,, and V. Bruckner. 1937. Die chemische Struktur der Kapsel substanz des Milzbrandbazillus und der serologisch identischen spezifischen Substanz des Bacillus mesentericus. Z. Immunitatsforsch. 90:304318.
42. Ivins, B. E.,, J. W. Ezzell, Jr.,, J. Jemski,, K. W. Hedlund,, J. D. Ristroph,, and S. H. Leppla. 1986. Immunization studies with attenuated strains of Bacillus anthracis. Infect. Immun. 52:454458.
43. Ivins, B. E.,, and S. L. Welkos. 1986. Cloning and expression of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen gene in Bacillus subtilis. Infect. Immun. 54:537542.
44. Ivins, B. E.,, S. L. Welkos,, G. B. Knudson,, and D. J. LeBlanc. 1988. Transposon Tn916 mutagenesis in Bacillus anthracis. Infect. Immun. 56:176181.
45. Kaneko, T.,, R. Nozaki,, and K. Aizawa. 1978. Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness between Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. Microbiol. Immunol. 22:639641.
46. Koehler, T. M. 1987. Plasmid-related differences in capsule production by Bacillus anthracis and characterization of a fertility plasmid from Bacillus subtilis (natto). Ph.D. dissertation. University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
47. Koehler, T. M.,, R. E. Ruhfel,, B. D. Green,, and C. B. Thorne. 1986. Plasmid-related differences in capsule production by Bacillus anthracis, abstr. H-178, p. 157. Abstr. 86th Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 1986.
48. Koehler, T. M.,, and C. B. Thorne. 1987. Bacillus subtilis (natto) plasmid pLS20 mediates interspecies plasmid transfer. J. Bacteriol. 169:52715278.
49. Larson, D. K.,, G. J. Calton,, S. F. Little,, S. H. Leppla,, and J. W. Burnett. 1988. Separation of three exotoxic factors of Bacillus anthracis by sequential immunosorbent chromatography. Toxican 26:913921.
50. Lawrence, D.,, S. Heitefuss,, and H. S. H. Seifert. 1991. Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus by gas chromatography whole-cell fatty acid analysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:15081512.
51. Leise, J. M.,, C. H. Carter,, H. Friedlander,, and S. W. Fried. 1959. Criteria for identification of Bacillus anthracis. J. Bacteriol. 77:655660.
52. Leonard, C. G.,, and R. D. Housewright. 1963. Polyglu-tamic acid synthesis by cell-free extracts of Bacillus licheniformis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 73:530532.
53. Leonard, C. G.,, R. D. Housewright,, and C. B. Thome. 1958. Effects of some metallic ions on glutamyl polypeptide synthesis by Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 76: 499503.
54. Leppla, S. H. 1982. Anthrax toxin edema factor: a bacterial adenylate cyclase that increases cyclic AMP concentrations in eucaryotic cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:31623166.
55. Leppla, S. H. 1984. Bacillus anthracis calmodulin-de-pendent adenylate cyclase: chemical and enzymatic properties and interactions with eucaryotic cells. Adv. Cyclic Nucleotide Protein Phosphorylation Res. 17:189198.
56. Leppla, S. H. 1988. Production and purification of anthrax toxin. Methods Enzymol. 165:103116.
57. Leppla, S. H.,, A. M. Friedlander,, and E. Cora,. 1987. Proteolytic activation of anthrax toxin bound to cellular receptors, p. 111112. In F. Fehrenback,, J. E. Alouf,, P. Falmagne,, W. Goebel,, J. Jeljaszewicz,, D. Jurgens,, and R. Rappuoli (ed.). Bacterial Toxins. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany.
58. Lereclus, D.,, J. Mahillon,, G. Menou,, and M.-M. Leca-det. 1986. Identification of Tn4430, a transposon of Bacillus thuringiensis functional in Escherichia coli. Mol. Gen. Genet. 204:5257.
59. Lesnyak, O. T.,, and R. A. Saltykov. 1970. Comparative assessment of the immunogenicity of anthrax vaccine strains. Zh. Mikrobiol. Epidemiol. Immunobiol. 1970:3235.
60. Little, S. F.,, and G. B. Knudson. 1986. Comparative efficacy of Bacillus anthracis live-spore vaccine and protective-antigen vaccine against anthrax in the guinea pig. Infect. Immun. 52:509512.
61. Little, S. F.,, and J. R. Lowe. 1991. Location of receptor-binding region of protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 180:531537.
62. Makino, S.,, C. Sasakawa,, I. Uchlda,, N. Terakado,, and M. Yoshlkawa. 1987. Transformation of a cloning vector, pUB11O, into Bacillus anthracis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 44:4548.
63. Maklno, S., C. Sasakawa, I. Uchida, N. Terakado, and M. Yoshikawa. 1988. Cloning and C02-dependent expression of the genetic region for encapsulation from Bacillus anthracis. Mol. Microbiol. 2:371376.
64. Makino, S.-I.,, I. Uchida,, N. Terakado,, C. Sasakawa,, and M. Yoshikawa. 1989. Molecular characterization and protein analysis of the cap region, which is essential for encapsulation in Bacillus anthracis. J. Bacteriol. 171:722730.
65. McCloy, E. W. 1951. Studies on a lysogenic Bacillus strain. I. A bacteriophage specific for Bacillus anthracis. J. Hyg. 49:114125.
66. McCuen, R. W.,, and C. B. Thorne. 1971. Genetic mapping of genes concerned with glutamyl polypeptide production by Bacillus licheniformis and a study of their relationship to the development of competence for transformation. J. Bacteriol. 107:636645.
67. Meynell, E.,, and G. G. Meynell. 1964. The roles of serum and carbon dioxide in capsule formation by Bacillus anthracis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 34:153164.
68. Meynell, E. W. 1963. Reverting and non-reverting rough variants of Bacillus anthracis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 32:5560.
69. Meynell, G. G.,, and E. Meynell. 1966. The biosynthesis of poly d-glutamic acid, the capsular material of Bacillus anthracis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 43:119138.
70. Mikesell, P.,, B. E. Ivins,, J. D. Ristroph,, and T. M. Dreier. 1983. Evidence for plasmid-mediated toxin production in Bacillus anthracis. Infect. Immun. 39:371376.
71. Mock, M.,, E. Labruyere,, P. Glaser,, A. Danchin,, and A. Ullmann. 1988. Cloning and expression of the calmodulin-sensitive Bacillus anthracis adenylate cyclase in Escherichia coli. Gene 64:277284.
72. Molnar, D. M.,, and R. A. Altenbern. 1963. Alterations in the biological activity of protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis toxin. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 114:294297.
73. Mongkolsuk, S.,, Y.-W. Chiang,, R. B. Reynolds,, and P. S. Lovett. 1983. Restriction fragments that exert promoter activity during postexponential growth of Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 155:13991406.
74. Normore, W. M., 1973. Guanine-plus-cytosine composition of the DNA of bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa, p. 585740. In A. L. Laskin, and H. A. Lechavalier (ed.), Handbook of Microbiology, vol. II. Microbial Composition. The Chemical Rubber Co., Washington, D.C..
75. Pezard, C.,, P. Berche,, and M. Mock. 1991. Contribution of individual toxin components to virulence of Bacillus anthracis. Infect. Immun. 59:34723477.
76. Puziss, M.,, and M. B. Howard. 1963. Studies on immunity in anthrax. XI. Control of cellular permeability by bicarbonate ion in relation to protective antigen elaboration. J. Bacteriol. 85:237243.
77. Puziss, M.,, L. C. Manning,, J. W. Lynch,, E. Barclay,, I. Abelow,, and G. G. Wright. 1963. Large-scale production of protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis in anaerobic cultures. Appl. Microbiol. 11:330334.
78. Quinn, C. P.,, and B. N. Dancer. 1990. Transformation of vegetative cells of Bacillus anthracis with plasmid DNA. J. Gen. Microbiol. 136:12111215.
79. Quinn, C. P.,, C. C. Shone,, P. C. B. Turnbull,, and J. Melling. 1988. Purification of anthrax-toxin components by high-performance anion-exchange, gel-filtration and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography. Biochem. J. 252:753758.
80. Quinn, C. P.,, Y. Singh,, K. R. Klimpel,, and S. H. Leppla. 1991. Functional mapping of anthrax toxin lethal factor by in-frame insertion mutagenesis. J. Biol. Chem. 266:2012420130
81. Raziuddin, A.,, and A. Friedlander. 1991. Anthrax protective antigen receptor: Identification of a protective antigen binding protein by chemical cross-linking, abstr. B-301, p. 75. Abstr. 91st Gen. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 1991.
82. Reddy, A.,, L. Battisti,, and C. B. Thorne. 1987. Identification of self-transmissible plasmids in four Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies. J. Bacteriol. 169:52635270.
83. Ristroph, J. D.,, and B. E. Ivins. 1983. Elaboration of Bacillus anthracis antigens in a new defined culture medium. Infect. Immun. 39:483486.
84. Roberts, D. M.,, R. Crea,, M. Malecha,, G. Alvarado-Urbina,, R. H. Chiarello,, and D. M. Watterson. 1985. Chemical synthesis and expression of a calmodulin gene designated for site-specific mutagenesis. Biochemistry 24:50905098.
85. Robertson, D. L.,, and T. S. Bragg,. 1990>. Nucleotide sequence of the lethal factor (lef) and edema factor (cya) genes from Bacillus anthracis: elucidation of the EF and LF functional domains, p. 59. In P. C. B. Turnbull (ed.), Proceedings of the International Workshop on Anthrax, Winchester, England. Salisbury medical bulletin, no. 68, special supplement. Salisbury Medical Society, Salisbury, England.
86. Robertson, D. L.,, T. S. Bragg,, S. Simpson,, R. Raspar,, W. Xie,, and M. T. Tippetts,. 1990. Mapping and characterization of the Bacillus anthracis plasmids pXOl and pX02, p. 5558. In P. C. B. Turnbull (ed.), Proceedings of the International Wortehop on Anthrax, Winchester, England. Salisbury medical bulletin, no. 68, special supplement. Salisbury Medical Society, Salisbury, England.
87. Robertson, D. L.,, and S. H. Leppla. 1986. Molecular cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the lethal factor gene of Bacillus anthracis. Gene 44:7178.
88. Robertson, D. L.,, M. T. Tippetts,, and S. H. Leppla. 1988. Nucleotide sequence of the Bacillus anthracis edema factor gene (cya): a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase. Gene 73:363371.
89. Robillard, N. J. 1984. Changes associated with plasmid loss in Bacillus anthracis. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Massachusetts, Amherst..
90. Robillard, N. J.,, T. M. Koehler,, R. Murray,, and C. B. Thorne. 1983. Effects of plasmid loss on the physiology of Bacillus anthracis, abstr. H-54, p. 115. Abstr. 83rd Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 1983.
91. Ruhfel, R. E. 1989. Physical and genetic characterization of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 extrachromosomal temperate phage TP-21. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Massachusetts, Amherst..
92. Ruhfel, R. E.,, N. J. Robillard,, and C. B. Thorne. 1984. Interspecies transduction of plasmids among Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis. J. Bacteriol. 157:708711.
93. Ruhfel, R. E.,, and C. B. Thorne. 1988. Physical and genetic characterization of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 extrachromosomal temperate phage TP-21, abstr. H-4, p. 145. Abstr. 88th Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 1988.
94. Sadler, D. F.,, J. W. Ezzell, Jr.,, K. F. Keller,, and R. J. Doyle. 1984. Glycosidase activities oí Bacillus anthracis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19:594598.
95. Singh, Y.,, V. K. Chaudhary,, and S. H. Leppla. 1989. A deleted variant of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen is non-toxic and blocks anthrax toxin action in vivo. J. Biol. Chem. 264:1910319107.
96. Singh, Y.,, K. R. Klimpel,, C. P. Quinn,, V. K. Chaudhary,, and S. H. Leppla. 1991. The carboxyl-terminal end of protective antigen is required for receptor binding and anthrax toxin activity. J. Biol. Chem. 266:1549315497.
97. Smith, H.,, J. Keppie,, and J. L. Stanley. 1955. The chemical basis of the virulence of Bacillus anthracis. V. The specific toxin produced by B. anthracis in vivo. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 36:460472.
98. Smith, H.,, D. W. Tempest,, J. L. Stanley,, P. W. Harris-Smith,, and R. C. Gallop. 1956. The chemical basis of the virulence of Bacillus anthracis. VII. Two components of the anthrax toxin: their relationship to known immunizing aggressins. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 37:263271.
99. Somerville, H. J.,, and M. L. Jones. 1972. DNA competition studies within the Bacillus cereus group of bacilli. J. Gen. Microbiol. 73:257265.
100. Stanley, J. L.,, and H. Smith. 1961. Purification of factor I and recognition of the third factor of anthrax toxin. J. Gen. Microbiol. 26:4966.
101. Stepanov, A. S.,, S. V. Gavrilov,, O. B. Puzanova,, T. M. Grigoryeva,, and R. R. Azizbekyan. 1989. Transduction of plasmids in Bacillus anthracis by bacteriophage CP-54. Mol. Genet. Microbiol. Virol. 1:1419.
102. Stepanov, A. S.,, O. B. Puzanova,, S. Y. Dityatldn,, O. G. Loginova,, and B. N. Ilyashenko. 1990. Glycine-induced cryotransformation of plasmids into Bacillus anthracis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 136:12171221.
103. Sterne, M. 1937. Variation in Bacillus anthracis. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Sci. Anim. Ind. 8:271349.
104. Sterne, M. 1939. The immunization of laboratory animals against anthrax. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Sci. Anim. Ind. 13:313317.
105. Sterne, M. 1939. The use of anthrax vaccines prepared from avirulent (uncapsulated) variants of Bacillus anthracis. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Sci. Anim. Ind. 13:307312.
106. Strange, R. E.,, and C. B. Thorne. 1958. Further purification studies on the protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis produced in vitro. J. Bacteriol. 76:192202.
107. Thorne, C. B., 1956. Capsule formation and glutamyl polypeptide synthesis by Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis, p. 6880. In E. T. C. Spooner, and B. A. D. Stocker (ed.), Bacterial Anatomy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
108. Thorne, C. B. 1960. Biochemical properties of virulent and avirulent strains of Bacillus anthracis. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 88:10241033.
109. Thorne, C. B. 1968. Transduction in Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis. Bacteriol. Rev. 32:358361.
110. Thorne, C. B. 1978. Transduction in Bacillus thuringiensis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 35:11091115.
111. Thorne, C. B., 1985. Genetics of Bacillus anthracis, p. 5662. In L. Leive,, P. F. Bonventre,, J. A. Morello,, S. Schlesinger,, S. D. Silver,, and H. C. Wu (ed.), Microbiology—1985. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
112. Thorne, C. B.,, and F. C. Belton. 1957. An agar diffusion method for titrating Bacillus anthracis immunizing antigen and its application to a study of antigen production. 7. Gen. Microbiol. 17:505516.
113. Thorne, C. B.,, C. G. Gomez,, and R. D. Housewright. 1955. Transamination of d-amino acids by Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 69:357362.
114. Thorne, C. B.,, and C. G. Leonard. 1958. Isolation of d-and l-glutamyl polypeptides from culture filtrates of Bacillus subtilis. J. Biol. Chem. 233:11091112.
115. Thorne, C. B.,, and D. M. Molnar. 1955. d-Amino acid transamination in Bacillus anthracis. J. Bacteriol. 70: 420426.
116. Thorne, C. B.,, D. M. Molnar,, and R. E. Strange. 1960. Production of toxin in vitro by Bacillus anthracis and its separation into two components. J. Bacteriol. 79:450455.
117. Tippetts, M. T.,, and D. L. Robertson. 1988. Molecular cloning and expression of the Bacillus anthracis edema factor toxin gene: a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase. J. Bacteriol. 170:22632266.
118. Tomesik, J., 1956. Bacterial capsules and their relation to the cell wall, p. 4167. In E. T. C. Spooner, and B. A. D. Stocker (ed.), Bacterial Anatomy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
119. Torti, M. 1956. Optical isomers of glutamic acid composing bacterial glutamyl polypeptides. Med. J. Osaka Univ. 6:10431046.
120. Toril, M. 1959. Studies on the chemical structure of bacterial glutamyl polypeptides by hydrazinolysis. J. Biochem. 46:189200.
121. Torii, M.,, O. Kurlmura,, S. Utsumi,, H. Nozu,, and T. Amano. 1959. Decapsulation of Bacillus megaterium. Biken J. 2:265276.
122. Trieu-Cuot, P.,, C. Carlier,, P. Martin,, and P. Courvalin. 1987. Plasmid transfer by conjugation from Escherichia coli to Gram-positive bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 48:289294.
123. Troy, F. A. 1973. Chemistry and biosynthesis of the poly(?-d-glutamyl) capsule in Bacillus licheniformis. I. Properties of the membrane-mediated biosynthetic reaction. J. Biol. Chem. 248:305315.
124. Troy, F. A. 1973. Chemistry and biosynthesis of the poly(γ-d-glutamyl) capsule in Bacillus licheniformis. II. Characterization and structural properties of the enzy-matically synthesized polymer. J. Biol. Chem. 248:316324.
125. Turnbull, P. C. B.,, M. G. Broster,, J. A. Carman,, R. J. Manchee,, and J. Melling. 1986. Development of antibodies to protective antigen and lethal factor components of anthrax toxin in humans and guinea pigs and their relevance to protective immunity. Infect. Immun. 52:356363.
126. Turnbull, P. C. B.,, and J. M. Kramer,. 1991. Bacillus, p. 296303. In A. Balows,, W. J. Hausler, Jr.,, K. L. Herrmann,, H. D. Isenberg,, and H. J. Shadomy (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 5th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
127. Uchida, I.,, K. Hashimoto,, S.-I. Makino,, C. Sasakawa,, M. Yoshikawa,, and N. Terakado. 1987. Restriction map of a capsule plasmid of Bacillus anthracis. Plasmid 18:178181.
128. Uchida, I.,, T. Seldzaki,, K. Hashimoto,, and N. Terakado. 1985. Association of the encapsulation of Bacillus anthracis with a 60-megadalton plasmid. J. Gen. Microbiol. 131:363367.
129. Vodkin, M. H.,, and S. H. Leppla. 1983. Cloning of the protective antigen gene of Bacillus anthracis. Cell 34: 693697.
130. Volcani, B. E.,, and P. Margalith. 1957. A new species (Flavobacterium polyglutamicum) which hydrolyzes the γ-L-glutamyl bond in polypeptides. J. Bacteriol. 74:646653.
131. Waley, S. G. 1955. The structure of bacterial polyglu-tamic acid. J. Chem. Soc. 1955:517522.
132. Weisblum, B.,, M. Y. Graham,, T. Gryczan,, and D. Dubnau. 1979. Plasmid copy number control: isolation and characterization of high-copy-number mutants of plasmid pE194. J. Bacteriol. 137:635643.
133. Welkos, S. L. 1991. Plasmid-associated virulence factors of non-toxigenic (pXOl-) Bacillus anthracis. Microb.Pathog. 10:183198.
134. Welkos, S. L.,, J. R. Lowe,, F. Eden-McCutchan,, M. Vodkin,, S. H. Leppla,, and J. J. Schmidt. 1988. Sequence and analysis of the DNA encoding protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis. Gene 69:287300.
135. Yelton, D. B.,, and C. B. Thorne. 1970. Transduction in Bacillus cereus by each of two bacteriophages. J. Bacteriol. 102:573579.
136. Yelton, D. B.,, and C. B. Thorne. 1971. Comparison of Bacillus cereus bacteriophages CP-51 and CP-53. J. Virol. 8:242253.
137. Youngman, P. J.,, J. B. Perkins,, and R. Losick. 1983. Genetic transposition and insertional mutagenesis in Bacillus subtilis with Streptococcus faecalis transposon Tn917. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80:23052309.
138. Youngman, P. J.,, J. B. Perkins,, and R. Losick. 1983. Construction of a cloning site near one end of Tn917 into which foreign DNA may be inserted without affecting transposition in Bacillus subtilis or expression of the transposon-borne erm gene. Plasmid 12:19.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error