1887

Chapter 13 : Medical Examiner and Coroner Surveillance for Emerging Infections

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Medical Examiner and Coroner Surveillance for Emerging Infections, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818418/9781555811686_Chap13-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818418/9781555811686_Chap13-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter describes the use of medical examiner or coroner (ME/C) data for public health surveillance, provides an overview of surveillance for fatal infectious conditions, and describes ongoing efforts aimed at identifying the most complete and accurate methods for incorporating ME/C-based autopsy data into state-based and national surveillance systems. In contrast to retrospective surveillance methods, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1994 began active surveillance for infectious disease with the establishment of the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) at four sites in the United States. Sections in the chapter discuss issues related to the incorporation of ME/Cs into the overall surveillance for infectious diseases, including those from bioterrorist attacks, and describe the potential advantages and limitations of this data source. In New Mexico, approximately 25% of autopsied natural deaths are infectious disease related. Because some of these deaths are caused by emerging infections, it is likely that ME/Cs could play an important role in surveillance for these conditions nationally. In recognition of this fact, CDC’s 1994 emerging infections plan identifies medical examiners as an important sentinel surveillance network. Any system that is implemented to conduct surveillance for acts of bioterrorism should involve medicolegal death investigators for several reasons. First, medical examiners and coroners may see cases of fatal unattended infections from acts of bioterrorism that other physicians, hospitals, or emergency rooms have not seen. Directing autopsy pathologists to search for emerging infections is not without some element of danger.

Citation: Nolte K, Wolfe M. 1999. Medical Examiner and Coroner Surveillance for Emerging Infections, p 201-217. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 3. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818418.ch13

Key Concept Ranking

Infectious Diseases
0.49101084
Hepatitis C virus
0.4817415
Hepatitis B virus
0.45718616
0.49101084
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Overlap of forensic pathology and emerging infectious diseases.

Citation: Nolte K, Wolfe M. 1999. Medical Examiner and Coroner Surveillance for Emerging Infections, p 201-217. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 3. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818418.ch13
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Death investigation system by state, United States, 1996.

Citation: Nolte K, Wolfe M. 1999. Medical Examiner and Coroner Surveillance for Emerging Infections, p 201-217. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 3. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818418.ch13
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Hospital autopsy rates by year, United States, 1950 to 1995 ( ).

Citation: Nolte K, Wolfe M. 1999. Medical Examiner and Coroner Surveillance for Emerging Infections, p 201-217. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 3. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818418.ch13
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818418.chap13
1. American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs. 1987. Autopsy: a comprehensive review of current issues. JAMA 258: 364369.
2. Carpenter, J. L.,, and D. Y. Huang. 1991. Community-acquired pulmonary infections in a public municipal hospital in the 19808. South. Med. J. 84: 299 306.
3. Centers for Disease Control. 1988. Management of patients with suspected viral hemorrhagic fever. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 37: 115.
4. Centers for Disease Control. 1989. Guidelines for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to health-care and public-safety workers. Morbid. Mortal Weekly Rep. 38: 137.
5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1993. Outbreak of acute illness; southwestern United States, 1993. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 42: 421424.
6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1994. Addressing Emerging Infectious Disease Threats to Health: A Prevention Strategy for the United States. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Ga.
7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1994. Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health-care facilities. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 43: 1132.
8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1995. Hemorrhage and shock associated with invasive pneumococcal infection in healthy infants and children: New Mexico, 1993-1994. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 43: 949952.
9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1995. Tuberculosis morbidity—United States, 1994. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 44: 387389.
10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1996. AIDS associated with injecting drug use—United States, 1995. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 45: 392396.
11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998. Preventing Emerging Infectious Diseases: a Strategy for the 21st Century. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Ga.
12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 47: 139.
13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health. 1993. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 3rd ed. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services publication (CDC) 93-8395. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Ga.
14. Combs, D. L.,, R. G. Parrish,, and R. Ing. 1995. Death Investigation in the United States and Canada, 1995. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Ga.
15. Craig, J. R., 1990. Liver, p. 1199 1320. In J. M. Kissane (ed.), Anderson's Pathology. The C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, Mo.
16. Duchin, J. S.,, F. T. Koster,, C. J. Peters,, G. L. Simpson,, B. Tempest,, S. R. Zaki,, T. G. Ksiazek. P. E. Rollin, S. Nichol, E, T. Umland, R, L. Moolenaar, S. E. Reef, K. B. Nolte, M. M. Gallaher, J. C. Buller. R. F. Breiman, and the Hantavirus Study Group. 1994. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: a clinical description of 17 patients with a newly recognized disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 330: 949 955.
17. Goette, D. K.,, K. W. Jacobson,, and R. D. Doty. 1978. Primary inoculation tuberculosis of the skin (prosectors paronychia). Arch. Dermatol. 114: 567 569.
18. Halpern, M. 1934. Malaria among drug addicts in New York City. Public Health Rep. 49: 421 423.
19. Hanzlick, R. 1998. Case of the month: institutional autopsy rates. Ann. Intern. Med. 158: 1171 1172.
20. Hanzlick, R. 1998. National autopsy data dropped from the National Center for Health Statistics database. JAMA 280: 886.
21. Hanzlick, R.,, and D. L. Combs. 1998. Medical examiner and coroner systems: history and trends. JAMA 279: 870 874.
22. Hanzlick, R.,, and R. G. Parrish. 1996. The role of medical examiners and coroners in public health surveillance and epidemiologic research. Annu. Rev. Public Health 17: 383 409.
23. Hawkey, P. M.,, S. J. Pedler,, and P. J. Southall. 1980. Streptococcus pyogenes: a forgotten occupational hazard in the mortuary. Br. Med. J. 281: 1058.
24. Hennigar, G. R., 1990. Drug and chemical injury—environmental pathology, p. 146 245. In J. M. Kissane (ed.), Anderson's Pathology. The C V. Mosby Co., St. Louis. Mo.
25. Hill, R. B. 1996. College of American Pathologists Conference XXIX on restructuring autopsy practice for health care reform: summary. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 120: 778 781.
26. Hirsch, C. S. 1984. Forensic pathology and the autopsy. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 108: 484 489.
27. Hove, M.,, and S. D. Pencil. 1998. Effect of postmortem sampling technique on the clinical significance of autopsy blood cultures. Hum. Pathol. 29: 137 139.
28. Jaax, N. K. 1999. Personal communication.
29. Jordan, F. 1997. Investigating the Murrah Building explosion, p. 8. In National Association of Medical Examiners Annual Meeting Abstract Book. National Association of Medical Examiners, St. Louis. Mo.
30. Kantor, H. S.,, R. Poblete,, and S. L. Pusateri. 1988. Nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis from unsuspected disease. Am. J. Med. 84: 833 837.
31. Kircher, T.,, J. Nelson,, and H. Burdo. 1985. The autopsy as a measure of accuracy of the death certificate. N. Engl. J. Med. 313: 1263 1269.
32. Kuhn, C. L.,, and F. B. Askin,. 1990. Lung and mediastinum, p. 920 1046. In J. M. Kissane (ed.), Anderson's Pathology. The C. V. Mosby Co., St Louis. Mo.
33. Larson, D. M.,, M. R. Eckman,, R. L. Alber,, and B. G. Goldschmidt. 1983. Primary cutaneous (inoculation) blastomycosis: an occupational hazard to pathologists. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 79: 253 255.
34. McClain, J. L.,, D. W. Hause,, and M. A. Clark. 1989. Amanita phalloides mushroom poisoning: a cluster of four fatalities. J. Forensic Sci. 34: 83 87.
35. Meade, G. M. 1948. Prevention of primary tuberculosis infections in medical students: the autopsy as source of primary infection. Am. Rev. Tuberc 58: 675 683.
36. Meselson, M.,, J. Guillemin,, M. Hugh-Jones,, A. Langmuir,, I. Popova,, A. Shelokov,, and O. Yampolskaya. 1994. The Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak of 1979. Science 266: 1202 1207.
37. Messite, J.,, and S. D. Stellman. 1996. Accuracy of death certificate completion. JAMA 275: 794 796.
38. Meyer, J. 5 April 1997. TB plagues office of L.A coroner Los Angeles Times, p. Al and A27.
39. Neuspiel, D. R.,, and L. H. Kuller. 1985. Sudden and unexpected natural death in childhood and adolescence. JAMA 254: 1321 1325.
40. New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998. Unpublished data.
41. Nolte, K. B.,, R. M. Feddersen,, K. Foucar,, S. R. Zaki,, F. T. Koster,, D. Madar,, T. L. Merlin,, P. J. McFeeley,, E. T. Umland,, and R. E. Zumwalt. 1995. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the United States: a pathological description of a disease caused by a new agent. Hum. Pathol. 26: 110 120.
42. Nolte, K. B.,, G. L. Simpson,, and R. G. Parrish. 1996. Emerging infectious agents and the forensic pathologist: the New Mexico model. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 120: 125 128.
43. Perkins, B. A.,, J. M. Flood,, R. Danila,, R. C. Holman,, A. L. Reingold,, L. A. Klug,, M. Virata,, P. R. Cieslak,, S. R. Zaki,, R. W. Pinner,, R. F. Khabbaz, and the Unexplained Deaths Working Group. 1996. Unexplained deaths due to possibly infectious causes in the United States: defining the problem and designing surveillance and laboratory approaches. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2: 47 53.
44. Perkins, B. A.,, and D. Relman. 1998. Explaining the unexplained in clinical infectious diseases: looking forward. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4: 395 397.
45. Pinner, R. W.,, S. M. Teutsch,, L. Simonsen,, L. A. Klug,, J. M. Graber,, M. J. Clarke,, and R. L. Berkelman. 1996. Trends in infectious disease mortality in the United States. JAMA 275: 189 193.
46. Roberts, W. C. 1978. The autopsy: its decline and a suggestion for its revival. N. Engl. J. Med. 299: 332 338.
47. Tappero, J. W., and The Unexplained Illness Working Group. 1998. Surveillance for unexplained deaths and critical illnesses due to possible infectious causes, p. 7 8. In National Association of Medical Examiners Annual Meeting Abstract Book. National Association of Medical Examiners, St. Louis, Mo.
48. Taylor, C. R., 1994. Principles of immunomicroscopy, p. 1 20. In C. R. Taylor, and R. J. Cote (ed.), Immunomicroscopy: A Diagnostic Tool for the Surgical Pathologist. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
49. Templeton, G. L.,, L. A. Illing,, L. Young,, D. Cave,, W. W. Stead,, and J. H. Bates. 1995. The risk for transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the bedside and during autopsy. Ann. Intern. Med. 122: 922 925.
50. Ussery, X. T.,, J. A. Bierman,, S. E. Valway,, T. A. Seitz,, G. T. DiFernando, Jr.,, and S. M. Ostroff. 1995. Transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis among persons exposed in a medical examiner's office, New York. Infect. Control. Hosp. Epidemiol. 16: 160 165.
51. Walker, D. H.,, O. Yampolskaya,, and L. M. Grinberg. 1994. Death at Sverdlovsk: what have we learned? Am. J. Pathol. 144: 1135 1141.
52. Wetli, C. 1997. Investigating the TWA 800 crash, p. 8. In National Association of Medical Examiners Annual Meeting Abstract Book. National Association of Medical Examiners, St. Louis, Mo.
53. Wilson, S. J.,, M. L. Wilson,, and L. B. Reller. 1993. Diagnostic utility of postmortem blood cultures. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 117: 986 988.
54. Zaki, S. R.,, P. W. Greer,, L. M. Coffield,, C. S. Goldsmith,, K. B. Nolte,, K. Foucar,, R. M. Feddersen,, R. E. Zumwalt,, G. L. Miller,, A. S. Khan,, P. E. Rollin,, T. G. Ksiazek,, S. T. Nichol,, B. W. J. Mahy,, and C. J. Peters. 1995. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: pathogenesis of an emerging infectious disease. Am. J. Pathol. 146: 552 579.
55. Zaki, S. R.,, and A. M. Marty,. 1995. New technology for the diagnosis of infectious disease, p. 127 154 . In W. Doerr, and G. Seifert (ed.), Tropical Pathology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error