Chapter 2 : Emerging Rickettsioses

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Rickettsioses present some of the oldest recognized infectious diseases. Ricketts proved that the wood tick , was involved in the transmission of the Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). In 1910, the first cases of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) were reported in Tunis, Tunisia. The role of was established in 1930. Prior to 1984, only eight rickettsioses were recognized, and in the subsequent 13 years, seven new rickettsial diseases were described. The advent of novel diagnostic tools has dramatically improved the efficiency of diagnosis of rickettsioses and the recognition of new rickettsial species. Cell culture is the most widely used system for primary isolation. The oriental rat flea, , is the main flea vector of flea-borne bacterial diseases, including rickettsioses. These fleas are associated with Old World commensal rats, and consequently, the disease associated with these fleas is prevalent in harbors and large cities, The cat flea, , is the vector for cat-scratch disease and cat-flea typhus. Eleven new rickettsioses have been described since 1974. An entirely new clinical entity, such as the one caused by , which results in disease without the typical rash associated with other spotted fevers was described. The future of such new diseases is unpredictable because rickettsioses have not been systematically studied in such cases. This is an area for future research.

Citation: Raoult D, Olson J. 1999. Emerging Rickettsioses, p 17-36. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 3. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818418.ch2

Key Concept Ranking

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Bacterial Diseases
Infectious Diseases
Israeli Spotted Fever
Queensland Tick Typhus
Israeli Spotted Fever
Queensland Tick Typhus
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Table 1

Rickettsial diseases

Citation: Raoult D, Olson J. 1999. Emerging Rickettsioses, p 17-36. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 3. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818418.ch2
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Table 2

Rickettsiae of unknown pathogenicity isolated from ticks

Citation: Raoult D, Olson J. 1999. Emerging Rickettsioses, p 17-36. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 3. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818418.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 3

New rickettsial pathogens recognized since 1974

Citation: Raoult D, Olson J. 1999. Emerging Rickettsioses, p 17-36. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 3. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818418.ch2

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