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Chapter 3 : Enteritidis and Typhimurium DT104: Successful Subtypes in the Modern World

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Abstract:

Decades after the early industrial era, nontyphoidal salmonella emerged as a common cause of illness. Much of this increase is accounted for by two serotypes, Enteritidis and Typhimurium, which now account for nearly half of all cases of salmonellosis in the United States and for 82% of all cases of salmoneIlosis in a recent global survey. Mice may play an important role in the barnyard ecosystem, serving as the intermediate host that can pass Enteritidis from one chicken flock to the next group of chicks entering the henhouse. Within Enteritidis, phage typing defines a handful of dominant subtypes, each of which tends to be remarkably homogeneous. One interesting line of evidence comes from examination of strains that vary in their ability to colonize the ovary of an intact hen after oral feeding. Typhimurium has been among the most common of serotypes everywhere ever since serotyping began. The genetic structure of the resistance genes of OTl 04 is beginning to be mapped. All five genes are chromosomally located. The clinical features of DTI 04 infections are similar to those of nontyphoid salmonellosis in general. Prevention of Enteritidis and DT104 infections in humans depends on interruption of their flow from farm reservoirs to human foods. The public health challenge by both pathogens described in this chapter illustrates the intimate connection between the microbial ecology of food animals and the health of the consuming public.

Citation: Tauxe R. 1999. Enteritidis and Typhimurium DT104: Successful Subtypes in the Modern World, p 37-52. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 3. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818418.ch3

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Figures

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Figure 1

Reported incidence of typhoid fever and nontyphoid salmonellosis, United States, 1920 to 1997.

Citation: Tauxe R. 1999. Enteritidis and Typhimurium DT104: Successful Subtypes in the Modern World, p 37-52. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 3. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818418.ch3
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Reported rate of isolation of Enteritidis and Typhimurium, by year. United States, 1970 to 1997.

Citation: Tauxe R. 1999. Enteritidis and Typhimurium DT104: Successful Subtypes in the Modern World, p 37-52. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 3. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818418.ch3
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Figure 3

Reported rate of isolation of Enteritidis by region. United States, 1970 to 1997.

Citation: Tauxe R. 1999. Enteritidis and Typhimurium DT104: Successful Subtypes in the Modern World, p 37-52. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 3. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818418.ch3
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Figure 4

Propor1ion of Typhimurium isolates that have the ACSSuT resistance pattern , United States, 1980 to 1997.

Citation: Tauxe R. 1999. Enteritidis and Typhimurium DT104: Successful Subtypes in the Modern World, p 37-52. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 3. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818418.ch3
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Fifteen most common serotypes of isolated from humans, United States, 1997

Citation: Tauxe R. 1999. Enteritidis and Typhimurium DT104: Successful Subtypes in the Modern World, p 37-52. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 3. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818418.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 2

Comparison of clinical and epidemiologic characteristics among outbreaks caused by different phage types of Enteritidis, United States, 1985 to 1997

Citation: Tauxe R. 1999. Enteritidis and Typhimurium DT104: Successful Subtypes in the Modern World, p 37-52. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 3. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818418.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 3

Outbreaks of Typhimurium DT104 infections in the United States, 1996 to 1997

Citation: Tauxe R. 1999. Enteritidis and Typhimurium DT104: Successful Subtypes in the Modern World, p 37-52. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 3. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818418.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 4

Distribution of ACSSuT resistance by phage type among 504 Typhimurium strains collected in the United States in 1996 and 1997

Citation: Tauxe R. 1999. Enteritidis and Typhimurium DT104: Successful Subtypes in the Modern World, p 37-52. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 3. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818418.ch3

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