Chapter 5 : Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife and Species Conservation

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Humans are rapidly transforming whole ecosystems in a number of well-documented but often poorly understood ways ( ). Growing human populations and changes in land use patterns have increased contact among humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, raising the risks of transmission of numerous pathogens from animals to humans and vice versa ( ). Diseases are often transmitted between wild and domestic species, as well as from invasive species into resident populations ( ). Emergence of new infectious diseases frequently results from a change in ecology of host or pathogen ( ), and when these relationships are disrupted, ecological effects may extend to many other parts of the ecosystem ( ). The increase in human activities has had tremendous environmental impacts on biodiversity, including habitat loss, introduction of alien species, eradication of native species, pollution, urbanization, and anthropogenic climate change. Each of these environmental disturbances affects the ecology of infectious diseases ( ).

Citation: Medina-Vogel G. 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife and Species Conservation, p 67-79. In Atlas R, Maloy S (ed), One Health. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.OH-0004-2012

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Infectious Diseases
Human Infectious Diseases
West nile virus
Leptospira interrogans
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Figure 1

Effect of habitat fragmentation on three different species populations (•, *, and 0). Species 0 is less competitive against species • and *, but became a reservoir of a pathogen highly virulent for species * and less virulent for species •. By apparent competition, species 0 displaced species * and began competing for resources with species •, which was highly specialized to the disappearing habitat conditions. Empty boxes represent areas with loss of habitat. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.OH-0004-2012.f1

Citation: Medina-Vogel G. 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife and Species Conservation, p 67-79. In Atlas R, Maloy S (ed), One Health. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.OH-0004-2012
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Relationship between the degree of landscape transformation and human presence and the prevalence of spp. in animals from the lake and river districts in southern Chile. Scale representing degree of forest clearing and human occupation: 1 (essentially no alterations) to 10 (high alteration and human presence). doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.OH-0004-2012.f2

Citation: Medina-Vogel G. 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife and Species Conservation, p 67-79. In Atlas R, Maloy S (ed), One Health. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.OH-0004-2012
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