1887

Chapter 13 : Species

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Species, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap13-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap13-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter reviews the basic biology, ecology, phylogenetic characterization, virulence factors, pathogenicity, and epidemiology of the emerging opportunistic foodborne pathogen, Species. The Species is categorized in the family and like most species in this family is considered an opportunistic pathogen. Nevertheless, advances have been made in the molecular characterization of species using amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), ribotyping, and plasmid typing. The chapter explains susceptibility to physical and chemical treatments that include temperature, water activity, biological inactivation, chemical inactivation and competitive exclusion/probiotics. has been recovered from clinical specimens such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, sputum, throat, nose, stool, gut, skin, wounds, bone marrow, eye, ear, stomach aspirates, anal swabs, and the breast abscess of infected patients. has been mainly associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), septicemia, and meningitis. Neurological sequelae are commonly reported and include brain abscess and infarction, ventricle compartmentalization due to necrosis of brain tissue and liquefaction of white cerebral matter, and cranial cystic changes, as well as hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic intercerebral infarctions leading to cystic encephalomalacia. Nazarowec-White and Farber tested the antibiotic resistance of seventeen strains of and found four antibiotic susceptibility patterns (antibiograms). species has become a growing concern for government regulatory agencies, health care providers (especially those in neonatal intensive care units), and powdered infant formula (PIF) manufacturers.

Citation: Pagotto F, Abdesselam K. 2013. Species, p 311-337. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch13
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 13.1
Figure 13.1

A current model of pathogenicity. GI, gastrointestinal. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch13f1

Citation: Pagotto F, Abdesselam K. 2013. Species, p 311-337. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch13
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818463.chap13
1. Acoignard, B.,, V. Vaillant,, J. P. Vincent,, A. Leflèche,, P. Mariani-Kurkdjian,, C. Bernet,, F. L’Hériteau,, H. Sénéchal,, P. Grimont,, E. Bingen,, and J. C. Desenclos. 2006. Infections sévères à Enterobacter sakazakii chez des nouveau-nés ayant consommé une préparation en poudre pour nourrissons, France, octobre-décembre 2004. Bull. Epidemiol. Hebd. 2 3: 10 13.
2. Adamson, D. H.,, and J. R. Rogers. 1981. Enterobacter sakazakii meningitis with sepsis. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 3: 19 20.
3. Agostoni, C.,, I. Axelsson,, O. Goulet,, B. Koletzko,, K. F. Michaelsen,, J. W. Puntis,, J. Rigo,, R. Shamir,, H. Szajewska,, D. Turck,, Y. Vandenplas,, and L. T. Weaver. 2004. Preparation and handling of powdered infant formula: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 39: 320 322.
4. Amalaradjou, M. A.,, and K. Venkitanarayanan. 2011. Effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde on inhibition and inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii biofilm on abiotic surfaces. J. Food Prot. 74: 200 208.
5. Arseni, A.,, E. Malamou-Ladas,, C. Koutsia,, M. Xanthou,, and E. Trikka. 1987. Outbreak of colonization of neonates with Enterobacter sakazakii. J. Hosp. Infect. 9: 143 150.
6. Bar-Oz, B.,, A. Preminger,, O. Peleg,, C. Block,, and I. Arad. 2001. Enterobacter sakazakii infection in the newborn. Acta Paediatr. 90: 356 358.
7. Barreira, E. R.,, D. Costa de Souza,, P. de Freitas Góis,, and J. C. Fernandes. 2003. Meningite por Enterobacter sakazakii em recém-nascido: relato de caso. Pediatria (São Paulo) 25: 65 70.
8. Biering, G.,, S. Karlsson,, N. C. Clark,, K. E. Jonsdottir,, P. Ludvigsson,, and O. Steingrimsson. 1989. Three cases of neonatal meningitis caused by Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered milk. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 2054 2056.
9. Block, C.,, O. Peleg,, N. Minster,, B. Bar-Oz,, A. Simhon,, I. Arad,, and M. Shapiro. 2002. Cluster of neonatal infections in Jerusalem due to unusual biochemical variant of Enterobacter sakazakii. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 21: 613 616.
9.a. Bowen, A. B.,, and C. R. Braden. 2006. Invasive Enterobacter sakazakii disease in infants. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12: 1185 1189.
10. Breeuwer, P.,, A. Lardeau,, M. Peterz,, and H. M. Joosten. 2003. Desiccation and heat tolerance of Enterobacter sakazakii. J. Appl. Microbiol. 95: 967 973.
11. Brenner, D. J. 1974. DNA reassociation for the clinical differentiation of enteric bacteria. Public Health Lab. 32: 118 130.
12. Brenner, D. J.,, J. J. Farmer III,, F. W. Hickman,, M. A. Asbury,, and A. G. Steigerwalt. 1977. Taxonomic and Nomenclature Changes in Enterobacteriaceae. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
13. Burdette, J. H.,, and C. Santos. 2000. Enterobacter sakazakii brain abscess in the neonate: the importance of neuroradiologic imaging. Pediatr. Radiol. 30: 33 34.
14. Chan, G. M. 2003. Effects of powdered human milk fortifiers on the antibacterial actions of human milk. J. Perinatol. 23: 620 623.
15. Chenu, J. W.,, and J. M. Cox. 2009. Cronobacter ( ‘Enterobacter sakazakii’): current status and future prospects. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 49: 153 159.
16. Chow, J. W.,, M. J. Fine,, D. M. Shlaes,, J. P. Quinn,, D. C. Hooper,, M. P. Johnson,, R. Ramphal,, M. M. Wagener,, D. K. Miyashiro,, and V. L. Yu. 1991. Enterobacter bacteremia: clinical features and emergence of antibiotic resistance during therapy. Ann. Intern. Med. 115: 585 590.
17. Clark, N. C.,, B. C. Hill,, C. M. O’Hara,, O. Steingrimsson,, and R. C. Cooksey. 1990. Epidemiologic typing of Enterobacter sakazakii in two neonatal nosocomial outbreaks. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 13: 467 472.
18. Clementino, M. M.,, I. de Filippis,, C. R. Nascimento,, R. Branquinho,, C. L. Rocha,, and O. B. Martins. 2001. PCR analyses of tRNA intergenic spacer, 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA reveal inter- and intraspecific relationships of Enterobacter cloacae strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 3865 3870.
19. Codex Alimentarius Commission. 2008. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme CODEX Committee on Food Hygiene, 40th Session. ftp://ftp.fao.org/codex/ccfh40/fh40_03e.pdf
20. Codex Alimentarius Commission. 2008. Code of Hygienic Practice for Powdered Formulae for Infants and Young Children. CAC/RCP 66-2008. http://www.codexalimentarius.net/download/standards/11026/CXP_066e.pdf
21. Cottyn, B.,, E. Regalado,, B. Lanoot,, M. De Cleene,, T. W. Mew, and J. Swings. 2001. Bacterial populations associated with rice seed in the tropical environment. Phytopathology 91: 282 292.
22. Coulin, P.,, Z. Farah,, J. Assanvo,, H. Spillmann,, and Z. Puhan. 2005. Characterisation of the microflora of attieke, a fermented cassava product, during traditional small-scale preparation. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 106: 131 136.
23. Cruz, A. C.,, E. Fernandez,, E. Salinas,, P. Ramirez,, C. Montiel,, and C. A. Eslaval. 2004. Characterization of Enterobacter sakazakii isolated from different sources, abstr. Q-051. Abstr. 104th Gen. Mtg. Am. Soc. Microbiol. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
24. Dancer, G. I.,, J. H. Mah,, and D. H. Kang. 2009. Influences of milk components on biofilm formation of Cronobacter spp. ( Enterobacter sakazakii). Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 48: 718 725.
25. Dauga, C. 2002. Evolution of the gyrB gene and the molecular phylogeny of Enterobacteriaceae: a model molecule for molecular systematic studies. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52: 531 547.
26. Dennison, S. K.,, and J. Morris. 2002. Multiresistant Enterobacter sakazakii wound infection in an adult. Infect. Med. 19: 533 535.
27. Edelson-Mammel, S. G., and R. L. Buchanan. 2004. Thermal inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii in rehydrated infant formula. J. Food Prot. 67: 60 63.
28. Edelson-Mammel, S. G.,, M. K. Porteous,, and R. L. Buchanan. 2005. Survival of Enterobacter sakazakii in a dehydrated powdered infant formula. J. Food Prot. 68: 1900 1902.
29. Emami, C. N.,, R. Mittal,, L. Wang,, H. R. Ford,, and N. V. Prasadarao. 2011. Recruitment of dendritic cells is responsible for intestinal epithelial damage in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis by Cronobacter sakazakii. J. Immunol. 186: 7067 7079.
30. Emery, C. L.,, and L. A. Weymouth. 1997. Detection and clinical significance of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in a tertiary-care medical center. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 2061 2067.
31. Estuningsih, E. 2004. Present Work and Future Research Needs on Enterobacter sakazakii. FAO/WHO Regional Conference on Food Safety for Asia and Pacific, Seremban, Malaysia, 24 to 27 May 2004. FAO/WHO, Rome, Italy. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/meeting/006/ad731e.pdf
32. Farmer, J. J.,, M. A. Asbury,, F. W. Hickman,, D. J. Brenner, and the Enterobacteriaceae Study Group. 1980. Enterobacter sakazakii, new species of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 30: 569 584.
33. Flores, J. P.,, S. A. Medrano,, J. S. Sánchez,, and E. Fernndez-Escartín. 2011. Two cases of hemorrhagic diarrhea caused by Cronobacter sakazakii in hospitalized nursing infants associated with consumption of powdered infant formula. J. Food Prot. 74: 2177 2181.
34. Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. 2004. Joint FAO/WHO workshop on Enterobacter sakazakii and other microorganisms in powdered infant formula, Geneva, Switzerland, 2 to 5 February 2004. Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/micro/mra6/en/
35. Foreman, S. D.,, E. E. Smith,, N. J. Ryan,, and G. R. Hogan. 1984. Neonatal Citrobacter meningitis: pathogenesis of cerebral abscess formation. Ann. Neurol. 16: 655 659.
36. Friedemann, M. 2007. Enterobacter sakazakii in food and beverages (other than infant formula and milk powder). Int. J. Food Microbiol. 116: 1 10.
37. Gallagher, P. G.,, and W. S. Ball. 1991. Cerebral infarctions due to CNS infection with Enterobacter sakazakii. Pediatr. Radiol. 21: 135 136.
38. Garrity, G.,, D. J. Brenner,, N. Krigg,, and J. T. Staley. 2005. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. II. The Protobacteria, Part B. The Gammaproteobacteria. Springer, New York, NY.
39. Gassem, M. A. 1999. Study of the micro-organisms associated with the fermented bread (khamir) produced from sorghum in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia. J. Appl. Microbiol. 86: 221 225.
39a. Gosney, M. A.,, M. V. Martin,, A. E. Wright,, and M. Gallagher. 2006. Enterobacter sakazakii in the mouths of stroke patients and its association with aspiration pneumonia. Eur. J. Intern. Med. 17: 185 188.
40. Gram, L.,, A. B. Christensen,, L. Ravn,, S. Molin,, and M. Givskov. 1999. Production of acylated homoserine lactones by psychrotrophic members of the Enterobacteriaceae isolated from foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 3458 3463.
41. Guillaume-Gentil, O.,, V. Sonnard,, M. C. Kandhai,, J. D. Marugg,, and H. Joosten. 2005. A simple and rapid cultural method for detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples. J. Food Prot. 68: 64 69.
42. Gurtler, J. B.,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2005. Performance of media for recovering stressed cells of Enterobacter sakazakii as determined using spiral plating and ecometric techniques. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 7661 7669.
43. Gurtler, J. B.,, J. L. Kornacki,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2005. Enterobacter sakazakii: a coliform of increased concern to infant health. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 104: 1 34.
44. Hamilton, J. V.,, M. J. Lehane,, and H. R. Braig. 2003. Isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii from midgut of Stomoxys calcitrans. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9: 1355 1356.
45. Harris, L. S.,, and P. J. Oriel. 1989. Heteropolysaccharide produced by Enterobacter sakazakii. U.S. patent 4,806,636.
46. Hartmann, I.,, P. Carranza,, A. Lehner,, R. Stephan,, L. Eberl,, and K. Riedel. 2010. Genes involved in Cronobacter sakazakii biofilm formation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 2251 2261.
47. Hawkins, R. E.,, C. R. Lissner,, and J. P. Sanford. 1991. Enterobacter sakazakii bacteremia in an adult. South. Med. J. 84: 793 795.
48. Health Canada. 2010. Preparing and handling powdered infant formula. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/kitchen-cuisine/pif-ppn-eng.php. Accessed October 23, 2012.
49. Healy, B.,, S. Cooney,, S. O’Brien,, C. Iversen,, P. Whyte,, J. Nally,, J. J. Callanan,, and S. Fanning. 2009. Cronobacter ( Enterobacter sakazakii): an opportunistic foodborne pathogen. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 4: 339 350.
50. Hengge-Aronis, R.,, W. Klein,, R. Lange,, M. Rimmele,, and W. Boos. 1991. Trehalose synthesis genes are controlled by the putative sigma factor encoded by rpoS and are involved in stationary-phase thermotolerance in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 173: 7918 7924.
51. Hunter, C. J.,, V. K. Singamsetty,, N. K. Chokshi,, P. Boyle,, V. Camerini,, A. V. Grishin,, J. S. Upperman,, H. R. Ford,, and N. V. Prasadarao. 2008. Enterobacter sakazakii enhances epithelial cell injury by inducing apoptosis in a rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis. J. Infect. Dis. 198: 586 593.
52. Hurrell, E.,, E. Kucerova,, M. Loughlin,, J. Caubilla-Barron,, and S. J. Forsythe. 2009. Biofilm formation on enteral feeding tubes by Cronobacter sakazakii, Salmonella serovars and other Enterobacteriaceae. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 136: 227 231.
53. International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Foods/Micro-Organisms in Foods. 2002. Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management, vol. 7, p. 128130. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY.
54. International Organization for Standardization. 2006. ISO/TS 22964 Milk and Milk Products—Detection of Enterobacter sakazakii (TC 34/SC; ISO Standards). International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
55. Iversen, C.,, and S. Forsythe. 2003. Risk profile of Enterobacter sakazakii, an emergent pathogen associated with infant milk formula. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 14: 443 454.
56. Iversen, C.,, N. Lazar Adler,, and S. J. Forsythe. 2004. Virulence factors of Enterobacter sakazakii, abstr. P-108. Abstr. 104th Gen. Mtg. Am. Soc. Microbiol. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
57. Iversen, C.,, and S. Forysthe. 2004. Isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii, and other Enterobacteriaceae from powdered infant formula milk and related products. Food Microbiol. 21: 771 776.
58. Iversen, C.,, P. Druggan,, and S. Forsythe. 2004. A selective differential medium for Enterobacter sakazakii, a preliminary study. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 96: 133 139.
59. Iversen, C.,, M. Lane,, and S. J. Forsythe. 2004. The growth profile, thermotolerance and biofilm formation of Enterobacter sakazakii grown in infant formula milk. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 38: 378 382.
60. Iversen, C.,, M. Waddington,, S. L. On,, and S. Forsythe. 2004. Identification and phylogeny of Enterobacter sakazakii relative to Enterobacter and Citrobacter species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 5368 5370.
61. Iversen, C.,, N. Mullane,, B. McCardell,, B. D. Tall,, A. Lehner,, S. Fanning,, R. Stephan,, and H. Joosten. 2008. Cronobacter gen. nov., a new genus to accommodate the biogroups of Enterobacter sakazakii, and proposal of Cronobacter sakazakii gen. nov., comb. nov., Cronobacter malonaticus sp. nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov., Cronobacter genomospecies 1, and of three subspecies, Cronobacter dublinensis subsp. dublinensis subsp. nov., Cronobacter dublinensis subsp. lausannensis subsp. nov. and Cronobacter dublinensis subsp . lactaridi subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58: 1442 1447.
62. Jarvis, K. G.,, C. J. Grim,, A. A. Franco,, G. Gopinath,, V. Sathyamoorthy,, L. Hu,, J. A. Sadowski,, C. S. Lee,, and B. D. Tall. 2011. Molecular characterization of Cronobacter lipopolysaccharide O-antigen gene clusters and development of serotype-specific PCR assays. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77: 4017 4026.
63. Jimenez, E. B.,, and C. Gimenez. 1982. Septic shock due to Enterobacter sakazakii. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 4: 30.
64. Jo, S. H.,, S. B. Baek,, J. H. Ha,, and S. D. Ha. 2010. Maturation and survival of Cronobacter biofilms on silicone, polycarbonate, and stainless steel after UV light and ethanol immersion treatments. J. Food Prot. 73: 952 956.
65. Joker, R. N.,, T. Norholm,, and K. E. Siboni. 1965. A case of neonatal meningitis caused by a yellow Enterobacter. Danish Med. Bull. 12: 128 130.
66. Joseph, S.,, E. Cetinkaya,, H. Drahovska,, A. Levican,, M. J. Figueras,, and S. J. Forsythe. 2011. Cronobacter condimenti sp. nov., isolated from spiced meat and Cronobacter universalis sp. nov., a novel species designation for Cronobacter sp. genomospecies 1, recovered from a leg infection, water, and food ingredients. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 62: 1277 1283.
67. Kandhai, M. C.,, M. W. Reij,, L. G. Gorris,, O. Guillaume-Gentil,, and M. van Schothorst. 2004. Occurrence of Enterobacter sakazakii in food production environments and households. Lancet 363: 39 40.
68. Kandhai, M. C.,, M. W. Reij,, K. van Puyvelde,, O. Guillaume-Gentil,, R. R. Beumer,, and M. van Schothorst. 2004. A new protocol for the detection of Enterobacter sakazakii applied to environmental samples. J. Food Prot. 67: 1267 1270.
69. Keller, R.,, M. A. Pedroso,, R. Ritchman,, and R. M. Silva. 1998. Occurrence of virulence associated properties in Enterobacter cloacae. Infect. Immun. 66: 645 649.
70. Kempf, B.,, and E. Bremer. 1998. Uptake and synthesis of compatible solutes as microbial stress responses to high-osmolality environments. Arch. Microbiol. 170: 319 330.
71. Keyser, M.,, R. C. Witthuhn,, L. C. Ronquest,, and T. J. Britz. 2003. Treatment of winery effluent with upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) granular sludges enriched with Enterobacter sakazakii. Biotechnol. Lett. 25: 1893 1898.
72. Kim, H.,, J. Bang,, L. R. Beuchat,, and J. H. Ryu. 2008. Fate of Enterobacter sakazakii attached to or in biofilms on stainless steel upon exposure to various temperatures or relative humidities. J. Food Prot. 71: 940 945.
73. Kim, H.,, J. H. Ryu,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2006. Attachment of and biofilm formation by Enterobacter sakazakii on stainless steel and enteral feeding tubes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72: 5846 5856.
74. Kim, K.,, K. P. Kim,, J. Choi,, J. A. Lim,, J. Lee,, S. Hwang,, and S. Ryu. 2010. Outer membrane proteins A (OmpA) and X (OmpX) are essential for basolateral invasion of Cronobacter sakazakii. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 5188 5198.
75. Kim, K. P.,, J. Klumpp,, and M. J. Loessner. 2007. Enterobacter sakazakii bacteriophages can prevent bacterial growth in reconstituted infant formula. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 115: 195 203.
76. Kindle, G.,, A. Busse,, D. Kampa,, U. Meyer-Koenig,, and F. D. Daschner. 1996. Killing activity of microwaves in milk. J. Hosp. Infect. 33: 273 278.
77. Kleiman, M. B.,, S. D. Allen,, P. Neal,, and J. Reynolds. 1981. Meningoencephalitis and compartmentalization of the cerebral ventricles caused by Enterobacter sakazakii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 14: 352 354.
78. Kline, M. W. 1988. Pathogenesis of brain abscess caused by Citrobacter diversus or Enterobacter sakazakii. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 7: 891 892.
79. Kothary, M. H.,, B. A. McCardell,, C. D. Frazar,, D. Deer,, and B. D. Tall. 2007. Characterization of the zinc-containing metalloprotease encoded by zpx and development of a species-specific detection method for Enterobacter sakazakii. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 4142 4151.
80. Kuzina, L. V.,, J. J. Peloquin,, D. C. Vacek,, and T. A. Miller. 2001. Isolation and identification of bacteria associated with adult laboratory Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae). Curr. Microbiol. 42: 290 294.
81. Lai, K. K. 2001. Enterobacter sakazakii infections among neonates, infants, children, and adults. Case reports and a review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 80: 113 122.
82. Lange, R.,, and R. Hengge-Aronis. 1991. Growth phase-regulated expression of bolA and morphology of stationary-phase Escherichia coli cells are controlled by the novel sigma factor σ S. J. Bacteriol. 173: 4474 4481.
83. Lange, R.,, and R. Hengge-Aronis. 1991. Identification of a central regulator of stationary-phase gene expression in Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 5: 49 59.
84. Leclercq, A.,, C. Wanegue,, and P. Baylac. 2002. Comparison of fecal coliform agar and violet red bile lactose agar for fecal coliform enumeration in foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 1631 1638.
85. Lecour, H.,, A. Seara,, J. Cordeiro,, and M. Miranda. 1989. Treatment of childhood bacterial meningitis. Infection 17: 343 346.
86. Lee, H.-A,, S. Hong,, H. Park,, H. Kim,, and O. Kim. 2011. Cronobacter sakazakii infection induced fatal clinical sequels including meningitis in neonatal ICR mice. Lab Animal Res. 27: 59 62.
87. Lehner, A.,, K. Riedel,, L. Eberl,, P. Breeuwer,, B. Diep,, and R. Stephan. 2005. Biofilm formation, extracellular polysaccharide production, and cell-to-cell signaling in various Enterobacter sakazakii strains: aspects promoting environmental persistence. J. Food Prot. 68: 2287 2294.
88. Lehner, A.,, and R. Stephan. 2004. Microbiological, epidemiological, and food safety aspects of Enterobacter sakazakii. J. Food Prot. 67: 2850 2857.
89. Lehner, A.,, T. Tasara,, and R. Stephan. 2004. 16S rRNA gene based analysis of Enterobacter sakazakii strains from different sources and development of a PCR assay for identification. BMC Microbiol. 4: 43.
90. Lenati, R. F.,, D. L. O’Connor,, K. C. Hebert,, J. M. Farber,, and F. J. Pagotto. 2008. Growth and survival of Enterobacter sakazakii in human breast milk with and without fortifiers as compared to powdered infant formula. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 122: 171 179.
91.Reference deleted.
92.Reference deleted.
93. Leuschner, R. G.,, and J. Bew. 2004. A medium for the presumptive detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant formula: interlaboratory study. J. AOAC Int. 87: 604 613.
94. Liu, Y.,, Q. Gao,, X. Zhang,, Y. Hou,, J. Yang,, and X. Huang. 2006. PCR and oligonucleotide array for detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant formula. Mol. Cell. Probes 1: 11 17.
95. MacLean, L. L.,, F. Pagotto,, J. M. Farber,, and M. B. Perry. 2009. Structure of the antigenic repeating pentasaccharide unit of the LPS O-polysaccharide of Cronobacter sakazakii implicated in the Tennessee outbreak. Biochem. Cell. Biol. 87: 459 465.
96. MacLean, L. L.,, F. Pagotto,, J. M. Farber,, and M. B. Perry. 2009. The structure of the O-antigen in the endotoxin of the emerging food pathogen Cronobacter ( Enterobacter) muytjensii strain 3270. Carbohydr Res. 344: 667 671.
97. MacLean, L. L.,, E. Vinogradov,, F. Pagotto,, J. M. Farber,, and M. B. Perry. 2009. Characterization of the O-antigen in the lipopolysaccharide of Cronobacter ( Enterobacter) malonaticus 3267. Biochem. Cell. Biol. 87: 927 932.
98. MacLean, L. L.,, E. Vinogradov,, F. Pagotto,, J. M. Farber,, and M. B. Perry. 2010. The structure of the O-antigen of Cronobacter sakazakii HPB2855 isolate involved in a neonatal infection. Carbohydr Res. 345: 1932 1937.
99. MacLean, L. L.,, E. Vinogradov,, F. Pagotto,, and M. B. Perry. Characterization of the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen of Cronobacter turicensis HPB3287 as a polysaccharide containing a 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic acid (legionaminic acid) residue. Carbohydr Res. 346: 2589 2594.
100. Malorny, B.,, and M. Wagner. 2005. Detection of Enterobacter sakazakii strains by real-time PCR. J. Food Prot. 68: 1623 1627.
101. Mange, J. P.,, R. Stephan,, N. Borel,, P. Wild,, K. S. Kim,, A. Pospischil,, and A. Lehner. 2006. Adhesive properties of Enterobacter sakazakii to human epithelial and brain microvascular endothelial cells. BMC Microbiol. 6: 58.
102. Mittal, R.,, S. Bulgheresi,, C. Emami,, and N. V. Prasadarao. 2009. Enterobacter sakazakii targets DC-SIGN to induce immunosuppressive responses in dendritic cells by modulating MAPKs. J. Immunol. 183: 6588 6599.
103. Mittal, R.,, Y. Wang,, C. J. Hunter,, I. Gonzalez-Gomez,, and N. V. Prasadarao. 2009. Brain damage in newborn rat model of meningitis by Enterobacter sakazakii: a role for outer membrane protein A. Lab. Investig. 89: 263 277.
104. Mohan Nair, M. K.,, and K. Venkitanarayanan. 2007. Role of bacterial OmpA and host cytoskeleton in the invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells by Enterobacter sakazakii. Pediatr. Res. 62: 664 669.
105. Monroe, P. W.,, and W. L. Tift. 1979. Bacteremia associated with Enterobacter sakazakii (yellow, pigmented Enterobacter cloacae). J. Clin. Microbiol. 10: 850 851.
106. Mosso, M. A.,, M. C. de la Rosa,, C. Vivar,, and M. R. Medina. 1994. Heterotrophic bacterial populations in the mineral waters of thermal springs in Spain. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 77: 370 381.
107. Muytjens, H. L.,, and L. A. Kollee. 1990. Enterobacter sakazakii meningitis in neonates: causative role of formula? Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 9: 372 373.
108. Muytjens, H. L.,, and J. van der Ros-van de Repe. 1986. Comparative in vitro susceptibilities of eight Enterobacter species, with special reference to Enterobacter sakazakii. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 29: 367 370.
109. Muytjens, H. L.,, and L. A. Kollee. 1982. Neonatal meningitis due to Enterobacter sakazakii. Tijdschr. Kindergeneeskd. 50: 110 112.
110. Muytjens, H. L.,, H. Roelofs-Willemse,, and G. H. Jaspar. 1988. Quality of powdered substitutes for breast milk with regard to members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 743 746.
111. Muytjens, H. L.,, H. C. Zanen,, H. J. Sonderkamp,, L. A. Kollee,, I. K. Wachsmuth,, and J. J. Farmer III. 1983. Analysis of eight cases of neonatal meningitis and sepsis due to Enterobacter sakazakii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 115 120.
112. Nair, M. K.,, J. Joy,, and K. S. Venkitanarayanan. 2004. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula by monocaprylin. J. Food Prot. 67: 2815 2819.
113. Nair, M. K.,, K. Venkitanarayanan,, L. K. Silbart,, and K. S. Kim. 2009. Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Cronobacter sakazakii binds fibronectin and contributes to invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 6: 495 501.
114. Naqvi, S. H.,, M. A. Maxwell,, and L. M. Dunkle. 1985. Cefotaxime therapy of neonatal gram-negative bacillary meningitis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 4: 499 502.
115. Nassereddin, R. A.,, and M. I. Yamani. 2005. Microbiological quality of sous and tamarind, traditional drinks consumed in Jordan. J. Food Prot. 68: 773 777.
116. Nazarowec-White, M.,, and J. M. Farber. 1999. Phenotypic and genotypic typing of food and clinical isolates of Enterobacter sakazakii. J. Med. Microbiol. 48: 559 567.
117. Nazarowec-White, M.,, and J. M. Farber. 1997. Enterobacter sakazakii: a review. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 34: 103 113.
118. Nazarowec-White, M.,, and J. M. Farber. 1997. Thermal resistance of Enterobacter sakazakii in reconstituted dried-infant formula. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 24: 9 13.
119. New Zealand Ministry of Health. 5 April 2005. News and issues: Cronobacter meningitis to become a notifiable disease. www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/bfc540e5ac1abe02cc256e7d0082eede/d6081bec1d116521cc256fd90074d556?OpenDocument#1. Accessed 1 February 1 2006.
120.Reference deleted.
121. Noriega, F. R.,, K. L. Kotloff,, M. A. Martin,, and R. S. Schwalbe. 1990. Nosocomial bacteremia caused by Enterobacter sakazakii and Leuconostoc mesenteroides resulting from extrinsic contamination of infant formula. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 9: 447 449.
122. Oh, S. W.,, and D. H. Kang. 2004. Fluorogenic selective and differential medium for isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 5692 5694.
123. Pagotto, F. J.,, M. Nazarowec-White,, S. Bidawid,, and J. M. Farber. 2003. Enterobacter sakazakii: infectivity and enterotoxin production in vitro and in vivo. J. Food Prot. 66: 370 375.
124. Pangalos, G. 1929. Sur un bacille chromogene isole par hemoculture. C. R. Soc. Biol. 100: 1097.
125. Pediatric Nutrition Practice Group of the American Dietetic Association. 2004. Infant Feedings: Guidelines for Preparation of Formula and Breastmilk in Health Care Facilities. http://www.eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/ada/hs.xsl/nutrition_5441_ENU_HTML.htm Accessed 14 February 2006.
126. Pitout, J. D.,, E. S. Moland,, C. C. Sanders,, K. S. Thomson,, and S. R. Fitzsimmons. 1997. β-Lactamases and detection of β-lactam resistance in Enterobacter spp. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 35 39.
127. Postupa, R.,, and E. Aldova. 1984. Enterobacter sakazakii: a Tween 80 esterase-positive representative of the genus Enterobacter isolated from powdered milk specimens. J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 28: 435 440.
128. Pribyl, C.,, R. Salzer,, J. Beskin,, R. J. Haddad,, B. Pollock,, R. Beville,, B. Holmes,, and W. J. Mogabgab. 1985. Aztreonam in the treatment of serious orthopaedic infections. Am. J. Med. 78: 51 56.
129. Raghav, M.,, and P. K. Aggarwal. 2007. Purification and characterization of Enterobacter sakazakii enterotoxin. Can. J. Microbiol. 53: 750 755.
130. Reina, J.,, F. Parras,, J. Gil,, F. Salva,, and P. Alomar. 1989. Human infections caused by Enterobacter sakazakii. Microbiologic considerations. Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin. 7: 147 150.
131. Restaino, L.,, E. W. Frampton,, W. C. Lionberg,, and R. J. Becker. 2006. A chromogenic plating medium for the isolation and identification of Enterobacter sakazakii from foods, food ingredients, and environmental sources. J. Food Prot. 69: 315 322.
132. Richards, G. M.,, J. B. Gurtler,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2005. Survival and growth of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant rice cereal reconstituted with water, milk, liquid infant formula, or apple juice. J. Appl. Microbiol. 99: 844 850.
133. Richardson, A. N.,, S. Lambert,, and M. A. Smith. 2009. Neonatal mice as models for Cronobacter sakazakii infection in infants. J. Food Prot. 72: 2363 2367.
134. Richardson, A. N.,, L. B. Beuchat,, S. Lambert,, D. Williams,, and M. A. Smith. 2010. Comparison of virulence of three strains of Cronobacter sakazakii in neonatal CD-1mice. J. Food Prot. 73: 849 854.
135. Ries, M.,, D. Harms,, and J. Scharf. 1994. Multiple cerebral infarcts with resulting multicystic encephalomalacia in a premature infant with Enterobacter sakazakii meningitis. Klin. Padiatr. 206: 184 186.
136. Robertson, L. F.,, G. S. Johannessen,, B. K. Gjerde,, and S. Loncarevic. 2002. Microbiological analysis of seed sprouts in Norway. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 75: 119 126.
137. Scheepe-Leberkuhne, M.,, and F. Wagner. 1986. Optimization and preliminary characterization of an exopolysaccharide synthesized by Enterobacter sakazakii. Biotechnol. Lett. 8: 695 700.
137.a. See, K. C.,, H. A. Than,, and T. Tang. 2007. Enterobacter sakazakii bacteremia with multiple splenic abscesses in a 75-year-old woman: a case report. Age Ageing 36: 595 596.
138. Seo, K. H.,, and R. E. Brackett. 2005. Rapid, specific detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant formula using a real-time PCR assay. J. Food Prot. 68: 59 63.
139. Simmons, B. P.,, M. S. Gelfand,, M. Haas,, L. Metts,, and J. Ferguson. 1989. Enterobacter sakazakii infections in neonates associated with intrinsic contamination of a powdered infant formula. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 10: 398 401.
140. Singamsetty, V. K.,, Y. Wang,, H. Shimada,, and N. V. Prasadarao. 2008. Outer membrane protein A expression in Enterobacter sakazakii is required to induce microtubule condensation in human brain microvascular endothelial cells for invasion. Microb. Pathog. 45: 181 191.
141. Smith, J. L.,, P. M. Fratamico,, and S. J. Novak. 2004. Quorum sensing: a primer for microbiologists. J. Food Prot. 67: 1063 1070.
142. Smith, J. L.,, P. M. Fratamico,, and X. Yan. 2011. Eavesdropping by bacteria: the role of SdiA in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhymurium quorum sensing. Foodborne Pathog. 8: 169 178.
143. Soares, J. A.,, and B. M. Ahmer. 2011. Detection of acyl-homoserine lactones by Escherichia and Salmonella. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 14: 188 193.
144. Sogaard, P.,, and P. Kjaeldgaard. 1986. Two isolations of enteric group 69 from human clinical specimens. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Immunol. Scand. B 94: 365 367.
145. Sondheimer, J.,, D. Clark,, and E. Gervaise. 1985. Continuous gastric pH measurement in young and older healthy preterm infants receiving formula and clear liquid feedings. J. Ped. Gastr. Nutr. 4: 352 355.
146. Soriano, J. M.,, H. Rico,, J. C. Molto,, and J. Manes. 2001. Incidence of microbial flora in lettuce meat and Spanish potato omelette from restaurants. Food Microbiol. 18: 159 163.
147. Stoll, B. J.,, N. Hansen,, A. A. Fanaroff,, and J. A. Lemons. 2004. Enterobacter sakazakii is a rare cause of neonatal septicemia or meningitis in VLBW infants. J. Pediatr. 144: 821 823.
148. Styrvold, O. B.,, and A. R. Strom. 1991. Synthesis, accumulation, and excretion of trehalose in osmotically stressed Escherichia coli K-12 strains: influence of amber suppressors and function of the periplasmic trehalase. J. Bacteriol. 173: 1187 1192.
149. Sun, Y.,, M. Wang,, H. Liu,, J. Wang,, X. He,, J. Zeng,, X. Guo,, K. Li,, B. Cao,, and L. Wang. 2011. Development of an O-antigen serotyping scheme for Cronobacter sakazakii. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77: 2209 2214.
150. Telang, S.,, C. L. Berseth,, P. W. Ferguson,, J. M. Kinder,, M. Deroin,, and B. W. Petschow. 2005. Fortifying fresh human milk with commercial powdered human milk fortifiers does not affect bacterial growth during 6 hours at room temperature. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 105: 1567 1572.
151. Tift, W. L. 1977. Group B streptococcal infections in the neonate. J. Med. Assoc. Ga. 66: 703 705.
151.a. Townsend, S.,, J. Caubilla-Barron,, C. Loc-Carrillo,, and S. Forsythe. 2007. The presence of endotoxin in powdered infant formula milk and the influence of endotoxin and Enterobacter sakazakii on bacterial translocation in the infant rat. Food Microbiol. 24: 67 74.
152. Townsend, S.,, E. Hurrell,, and S. Forsythe. 2008. Virulence studies of Enterobacter sakazakii isolates associated with a neonatal intensive care unit outbreak. BMC Microbiol. 8: 64.
153. Townsend, S. M.,, E. Hurrell,, I. Gonzalez-Gomez,, J. Lowe,, J. G. Frye,, S. Forsythe,, and J. L. Badger. 2007. Enterobacter sakazakii invades brain capillary endothelial cells, persists in human macrophages influencing cytokine secretion and induces severe brain pathology in the neonatal rat. Microbiology 153: 3538 3547.
154. Urmenyi, A. M. C.,, and A. W. Franklin. 1961. Neonatal death from pigmented coliform infection. Lancet i: 313 315.
155. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2002. Isolation and enumeration of Enterobacter sakazakii from dehydrated powdered infant formula. http://www.fda.gov/food/scienceresearch/laboratorymethods/ucm114665.htm. Accessed 23 October 2012.
156. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling and Dietary Supplements. 2002. April 11, 2002; Revised October 10, 2002. Health Professionals Letter on Enterobacter sakazakii Infections Associated with Use of Powdered (Dry) Infant Formulas in Neonatal Intensive Care Units. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD.
157. van Acker, J.,, F. de Smet,, G. Muyldermans,, A. Bougatef,, A. Naessens,, and S. Lauwers. 2001. Outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis associated with Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered milk formula. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 293 297.
158. Van Os, M.,, P. G. Van Wikeselaar,, and S. F. Spoelstra. 1996. Formation of biogenic amines in well fermented grass silages. J. Agric. Sci. Cambridge 127: 97 107.
159. Weir, E. 2002. Powdered infant formula and fatal infection with Enterobacter sakazakii. CMAJ 166: 1570.
160. Whitehead, N. A.,, A. M. L. Barnard,, H. Slater,, N. J. L. Simpson,, and G. P. C. Salmond. 2001. Quorum-sensing in gram-negative bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 25: 365 404.
161. Williams, T. L.,, S. R. Monday,, S. Edelson-Mammel,, R. Buchanan,, and S. M. Musser. 2005. A top-down proteomics approach for differentiating thermal resistant strains of Enterobacter sakazakii. Proteomics 5: 4161 4169.
162. Willis, J.,, and J. E. Robinson. 1988. Enterobacter sakazakii meningitis in neonates. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 7: 196 199.
163. World Health Organization. 2008. Enterobacter sakazakii and Salmonella in Powdered Infant Formula: Meeting Report, Microbial Risk Assessment Series 10. Food Safety. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/micro/mra10/en/index.html. Accessed 17 February 2012.
164. Yemis, G. P.,, F. Pagotto,, S. Bach,, and P. Delaquis. 2011. Effect of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and vanillic acid on the growth and heat resistance of Cronobacter species. J. Food Prot. 74: 2062 2069.
165. Zuber, S.,, C. Boissin-Delaporte,, L. Michot,, C. Iversen,, B. Diep,, H. Brüssow,, and P. Breeuwer. 2008. Decreasing Enterobacter sakazakii ( Cronobacter spp.) food contamination level with bacteriophages: prospects and problems. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 1: 532 543.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 13.1

Biochemical characterization of species

Citation: Pagotto F, Abdesselam K. 2013. Species, p 311-337. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.2

Biochemical differentiation of species belonging to seven different biogroups

Citation: Pagotto F, Abdesselam K. 2013. Species, p 311-337. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.3

Guidelines for reconstituted PIF and BMF preparation and handling

Citation: Pagotto F, Abdesselam K. 2013. Species, p 311-337. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.4

Microbiological criteria to be applied to PIF

Citation: Pagotto F, Abdesselam K. 2013. Species, p 311-337. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.5

Foods from which spp. have been isolated

Citation: Pagotto F, Abdesselam K. 2013. Species, p 311-337. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.6

Summary of isolation and enumeration methods for spp.

Citation: Pagotto F, Abdesselam K. 2013. Species, p 311-337. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.7

Summary of species cases and outbreaks in infants reported in the literature

Citation: Pagotto F, Abdesselam K. 2013. Species, p 311-337. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch13

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error