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is transmitted to its host via flea bites or respiratory aerosols, whereas and are foodborne pathogens. These three species share a number of essential virulence determinants that enable them to overcome the innate defenses of their hosts. Given that is incapable of infecting the intestinal tract directly and not pathogenic when ingested and that the role of most other species in disease is uncertain, this chapter focuses on and . is a relatively homogenous species, which is subdivided into serotypes according to its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O antigens. is far more heterogenous than , being divisible into a large number of subgroups according to biochemical activity and LPS O antigens. Infection with the enteropathogenic yersiniae typically manifests as nonspecific, self-limiting diarrhea but may produce a variety of suppurative and autoimmune complications, the risk of which is determined partly by host factors, in particular age and underlying immune status. Indeed, is one of the most important causes of fatal bacteremia following transfusion with packed red blood cells or platelets. Explanations for the link between yersiniosis and autoimmunity include antigen persistence, molecular mimicry, impaired immune responsiveness, and infection-induced presentation of normally cryptic cellular antigens.

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
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Figure 14.1

Transmission electron micrograph showing the initial interaction (black arrowhead) and transport (white arrow) of through an intestinal M cell, 60 min after inoculation into mouse ileum. (Reprinted with permission from reference .) doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f1

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
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Figure 14.2

Light micrograph of a section through the colon of a gnotobiotic piglet 3 days after inoculation with a virulent strain of O:3. Note the microabscess, comprising mostly bacteria, the surrounding inflammatory cells (arrows), and the disrupted epithelium with vacuolated and necrotic cells. Epoxy section, methylene blue stain. (Reprinted with permission from reference .) doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f2

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
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Figure 14.3

Amino acid sequences of the mature heat-stable enterotoxins produced by ( ), enterotoxigenic of human (STh) and porcine (STp) subtypes ( ), ( ), non-O1 ( ), and the intestinal hormone guanylin ( ). Amino acid residues that are shaded are common to all seven peptides. The first 23 amino acids at the N terminus of the Yst-c mature toxin (denoted by superscript “a”) are not included in the sequence alignments. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f3

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
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Figure 14.4

A representation of the HPI of O:8 strain WA-C. Arrows indicate the positions of the open reading frames and the direction of transcription. The region that is conserved in and is indicated by a double-headed arrow. (Adapted from reference .) doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f4

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
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Figure 14.5

Map of the virulence plasmid pYVe of serogroup O:9 showing the location and direction of transcription (arrows) of the genes encoding (i) YadA; (ii) YlpA; (iii) Yops B, D, E, H, M, N, O, P, Q, T, and LcrV; (iv) specific Yop chaperones Syc D, E, H, and T; (v) secretion elements VirA, -B, -C, -G; and the regulatory element VirF (adapted from reference ). doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f5

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
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Figure 14.6

Schematic representation of Yop secretion and translocation by . The major structural proteins of the secretory apparatus are shown in relation to their known or deduced location in the cell wall. The effector Yop chaperone (Syc) and translocation pore comprising YopB and YopD are also depicted. Not to scale. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f6

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
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Figure 14.7

Antibody response of sheep infected with or to Yops. Yops were prepared from serogroup O:3, separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane, and subjected to reaction with preimmune (lanes 1 and 3) or immune (lanes 2 and 4) sera from lambs with naturally acquired infection with pYV-bearing (lanes 1 and 2) or (lanes 3 and 4). (Reprinted with permission from reference .) doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f7

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
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