1887

Chapter 14 :

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap14-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap14-2.gif

Abstract:

is transmitted to its host via flea bites or respiratory aerosols, whereas and are foodborne pathogens. These three species share a number of essential virulence determinants that enable them to overcome the innate defenses of their hosts. Given that is incapable of infecting the intestinal tract directly and not pathogenic when ingested and that the role of most other species in disease is uncertain, this chapter focuses on and . is a relatively homogenous species, which is subdivided into serotypes according to its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O antigens. is far more heterogenous than , being divisible into a large number of subgroups according to biochemical activity and LPS O antigens. Infection with the enteropathogenic yersiniae typically manifests as nonspecific, self-limiting diarrhea but may produce a variety of suppurative and autoimmune complications, the risk of which is determined partly by host factors, in particular age and underlying immune status. Indeed, is one of the most important causes of fatal bacteremia following transfusion with packed red blood cells or platelets. Explanations for the link between yersiniosis and autoimmunity include antigen persistence, molecular mimicry, impaired immune responsiveness, and infection-induced presentation of normally cryptic cellular antigens.

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 14.1
Figure 14.1

Transmission electron micrograph showing the initial interaction (black arrowhead) and transport (white arrow) of through an intestinal M cell, 60 min after inoculation into mouse ileum. (Reprinted with permission from reference .) doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f1

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14.2
Figure 14.2

Light micrograph of a section through the colon of a gnotobiotic piglet 3 days after inoculation with a virulent strain of O:3. Note the microabscess, comprising mostly bacteria, the surrounding inflammatory cells (arrows), and the disrupted epithelium with vacuolated and necrotic cells. Epoxy section, methylene blue stain. (Reprinted with permission from reference .) doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f2

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14.3
Figure 14.3

Amino acid sequences of the mature heat-stable enterotoxins produced by ( ), enterotoxigenic of human (STh) and porcine (STp) subtypes ( ), ( ), non-O1 ( ), and the intestinal hormone guanylin ( ). Amino acid residues that are shaded are common to all seven peptides. The first 23 amino acids at the N terminus of the Yst-c mature toxin (denoted by superscript “a”) are not included in the sequence alignments. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f3

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14.4
Figure 14.4

A representation of the HPI of O:8 strain WA-C. Arrows indicate the positions of the open reading frames and the direction of transcription. The region that is conserved in and is indicated by a double-headed arrow. (Adapted from reference .) doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f4

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14.5
Figure 14.5

Map of the virulence plasmid pYVe of serogroup O:9 showing the location and direction of transcription (arrows) of the genes encoding (i) YadA; (ii) YlpA; (iii) Yops B, D, E, H, M, N, O, P, Q, T, and LcrV; (iv) specific Yop chaperones Syc D, E, H, and T; (v) secretion elements VirA, -B, -C, -G; and the regulatory element VirF (adapted from reference ). doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f5

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14.6
Figure 14.6

Schematic representation of Yop secretion and translocation by . The major structural proteins of the secretory apparatus are shown in relation to their known or deduced location in the cell wall. The effector Yop chaperone (Syc) and translocation pore comprising YopB and YopD are also depicted. Not to scale. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f6

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14.7
Figure 14.7

Antibody response of sheep infected with or to Yops. Yops were prepared from serogroup O:3, separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane, and subjected to reaction with preimmune (lanes 1 and 3) or immune (lanes 2 and 4) sera from lambs with naturally acquired infection with pYV-bearing (lanes 1 and 2) or (lanes 3 and 4). (Reprinted with permission from reference .) doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f7

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818463.chap14
1. Abe, J.,, M. Onimaru,, S. Matsumoto,, S. Noma,, K. Baba,, Y. Ito,, T. Kohsaka,, and T. Takeda. 1997. Clinical role for a superantigen in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection. J. Clin. Investig. 99:18231830.
2. Achtman, M.,, K. Zurth,, G. Morelli,, G. Torrea,, A. Guiyoule,, and E. Carniel. 1999. Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a recently emerged clone of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:1404314048.
3. Ackers, M. L.,, S. Schoenfeld,, J. Markman,, M. G. Smith,, M. A. Nicholson,, W. DeWitt,, D. N. Cameron,, P. M. Griffin,, and L. Slutsker. 2000. An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 infections associated with pasteurized milk. J. Infect. Dis. 181:18341837.
4. Adams, M. R.,, C. L. Little,, and M. C. Easter. 1991. Modelling the effect of pH, acidulant and temperature on the growth rate of Yersinia enterocolitica. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 71:6571.
5. Aepfelbacher, M.,, R. Zumbihl,, K. Ruckdeschel,, C. A. Jacobi,, C. Barz,, and J. Heesemann. 1999. The tranquilizing injection of Yersinia proteins: a pathogen’s strategy to resist host defense. Biol. Chem. 380:795802.
6. Ahvonen, P.,, K. Sievers,, and K. Aho. 1969. Arthritis associated with Yersinia enterocolitica. Acta Rheumatol. Scand. 15:232255.
7. Aili, M.,, E. L. Isaksson,, S. E. Carlsson,, H. Wolf-Watz,, R. Rosqvist,, and M. S. Francis. 2008. Regulation of Yersinia Yop-effector delivery by translocated YopE. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 298:183192.
8. Aimoto, S.,, T. Takao,, Y. Shimonishi,, S. Hara,, T. Takeda,, Y. Takeda,, and T. Miwatani. 1982. Amino-acid sequence of a heat-stable enterotoxin produced by human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Eur. J. Biochem. 129:257263.
9. Aleksic, S.,, G. Suchan,, J. Bockemuhl,, and V. Aleksic. 1991. An extended antigenic scheme for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 12:235238.
10. Andersen, J. K.,, R. Sorensen,, and M. Glensbjerg. 1991. Aspects of the epidemiology of Yersinia enterocolitica: a review. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 13:231237.
11. Annamalai, T.,, and K. Venkitanarayanan. 2005. Expression of major cold shock proteins and genes by Yersinia enterocolitica in synthetic medium and foods. J. Food Prot. 68:24542458.
12.Anonymous. 1983. Yersiniosis, p. 131. World Health Organization, Copenhagen, Denmark.
13. Arduino, M. J.,, L. A. Bland,, M. A. Tipple,, S. M. Aguero,, M. S. Favero,, and W. R. Jarvis. 1989. Growth and endotoxin production of Yersinia enterocolitica and Enterobacter agglomerans in packed erythrocytes. J.?Clin. Microbiol. 27:14831485.
14. Autenrieth, I. B.,, R. Reissbrodt,, E. Saken,, R. Berner,, U. Vogel,, W. Rabsch,, and J. Heesemann. 1994. Desferrioxamine-promoted virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica in mice depends on both desferrioxamine type and mouse strain. J. Infect. Dis. 169:562567.
15. Badger, J. L.,, and V. L. Miller. 1995. Role of RpoS in survival of Yersinia enterocolitica to a variety of environmental stresses. J. Bacteriol. 177:53705373.
16. Badger, J. L.,, and V. L. Miller. 1998. Expression of invasin and motility are coordinately regulated in Yersinia enterocolitica. J. Bacteriol. 180:793800.
17. Baumler, A.,, R. Koebnik,, I. Stojiljkovic,, J. Heesemann,, V. Braun,, and K. Hantke. 1993. Survey on newly characterized iron uptake systems of Yersinia enterocolitica. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. Virol. Parasitol. Infect. Dis. 278:416424.
18. Baumler, A. J.,, and K. Hantke. 1992. Ferrioxamine uptake in Yersinia enterocolitica: characterization of the receptor protein FoxA. Mol. Microbiol. 6:13091321.
19. Bengoechea, J. A.,, H. Najdenski,, and M. Skurnik. 2004. Lipopolysaccharide O antigen status of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 is essential for virulence and absence of O antigen affects the expression of other Yersinia virulence factors. Mol. Microbiol. 52:451469.
20. Bercovier, H.,, and H. H. Mollaret,. 1984. Genus XIV. Yersinia Van Loghem 1944, 15AL, p. 498506. In N. R. Krieg, and J. G. Holt (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 1. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
21. Bhaduri, S.,, B. Cottrell,, and A. R. Pickard. 1997. Use of a single procedure for selective enrichment, isolation, and identification of plasmid-bearing virulent Yersinia enterocolitica of various serotypes from pork samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:16571660.
22. Bhaduri, S.,, and J. G. Phillips. 2011. Growth model of a plasmid-bearing virulent strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in raw ground beef. Zoonoses Public Health 58:7784. doi:10.1111/j.1863-2378.20009.0127.x.
23. Bhagat, N.,, and J. S. Virdi. 2009. Molecular and biochemical characterization of urease and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A in acidic pH in vitro. BMC Microbiol. 9:262.
24. Biedzka-Sarek, M.,, S. Salmenlinna,, M. Gruber,, A. N. Lupas,, S. Meri,, and M. Skurnik. 2008. Functional mapping of YadA- and Ail-mediated binding of human factor H to Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3. Infect. Immun. 76:50165027.
25. Biedzka-Sarek, M.,, R. Venho,, and M. Skurnik. 2005. Role of YadA, Ail, and lipopolysaccharide in serum resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3. Infect. Immun. 73:22322244.
26. Black, R. E.,, R. J. Jackson,, T. Tsai,, M. Medvesky,, M. Shayegani,, J. C. Feeley,, K. I. E. MacLeod,, and A. M. Wakelee. 1978. Epidemic Yersinia enterocolitica infection due to contaminated chocolate milk. N. Engl. J. Med. 298:7679.
27. Bleves, S.,, M. N. Marenne,, G. Detry,, and G. R. Cornelis. 2002. Up-regulation of the Yersinia enterocolitica yop regulon by deletion of the flagellum master operon flhDC. J. Bacteriol. 184:32143223.
28. Borg, A. A.,, J. Gray,, and P. T. Dawes. 1992. Yersinia-related arthritis in the United Kingdom. A report of 12 cases and review of the literature. Q. J. Med. 84:575582.
29. Bos, J. L.,, H. Rehmann,, and A. Wittinghofer. 2007. GEFs and GAPs: critical elements in the control of small G proteins. Cell 129:865877.
30. Bottone, E. J. 1977. Yersinia enterocolitica: a panoramic view of a charismatic microorganism. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 5:211241.
31. Bottone, E. J. 1997. Yersinia enterocolitica: the charisma continues. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10:257276.
32. Bowe, F.,, P. O’Gaora,, D. Maskell,, M. Cafferkey,, and G. Dougan. 1989. Virulence, persistence, and immunogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 aroA mutants. Infect. Immun. 57:32343236.
33. Branger, C. G.,, A. Torres-Escobar,, W. Sun,, R. Perry,, J. Fetherston,, K. L. Roland,, and R. Curtiss III. 2009. Oral vaccination with LcrV from Yersinia pestis KIM delivered by live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium elicits a protective immune response against challenge with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica. Vaccine 27:53635370.
34. Brecher, M. E.,, and S. N. Hay. 2005. Bacterial contamination of blood components. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18:195204.
35. Brem, D.,, C. Pelludat,, A. Rakin,, C. A. Jacobi,, and J. Heesemann. 2001. Functional analysis of yersiniabactin transport genes of Yersinia enterocolitica. Microbiology 147:11151127.
36. Bresolin, G.,, K. Neuhaus,, S. Scherer,, and T. M. Fuchs. 2006. Transcriptional analysis of long-term adaptation of Yersinia enterocolitica to low-temperature growth. J. Bacteriol. 188:29452958.
37. Brett, S. J.,, A. V. Mazurov,, I. G. Charles,, and J. P. Tite. 1993. The invasin protein of Yersinia spp. provides co-stimulatory activity to human T cells through interaction with beta 1 integrins. Eur. J. Immunol. 23:16081614.
38. Brix, T. H.,, P. S. Hansen,, L. Hegedus,, and B. E. Wenzel. 2008. Too early to dismiss Yersinia enterocolitica infection in the aetiology of Graves’ disease: evidence from a twin case-control study. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxford) 69:491496.
39. Brodsky, I. E.,, N. W. Palm,, S. Sadanand,, M. B. Ryndak,, F. S. Sutterwala,, R. A. Flavell,, J. B. Bliska,, and R. Medzhitov. 2010. A Yersinia effector protein promotes virulence by preventing inflammasome recognition of the type III secretion system. Cell Host Microbe 7:376387.
40. Brubaker, R. R. 1991. Factors promoting acute and chronic diseases caused by yersiniae. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 4:309324.
41. Bruce-Staskal, P. J.,, C. L. Weidow,, J. J. Gibson,, and A. ?H. Bouton. 2002. Cas, Fak and Pyk2 function in diverse signaling cascades to promote Yersinia uptake. J.?Cell Sci. 115:26892700.
42. Butler, R. C.,, V. Lund,, and D. A. Carlson. 1987. Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica to UV radiation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:375378.
43. Carniel, E. 2001. The Yersinia high-pathogenicity island: an iron-uptake island. Microbes Infect. 3:561569.
44. Carniel, E.,, I. Autenrieth,, G. Cornelis,, H. Fukushima,, F. Guinet,, R. Isberg,, J. Pham,, M. Prentice,, M. Simonet,, M. Skurnik,, and G. Wauters,. 2006. Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, p. 270398. In M. Dworkin,, S. Falkow,, E. Rosenberg,, K.-H. Schleifer,, and E. Stackebrandt (ed.), The Prokaryotes, vol. 6, 3rd ed. Springer, New York, NY.
45. Carnoy, C.,, H. Müeller-Alouf,, S. Haentjens,, and M. Simonet. 1998. Polymorphism of ypm, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis superantigen encoding gene. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 29(Suppl.):397398.
46. Casutt-Meyer, S.,, F. Renzi,, M. Schmaler,, N. J. Jann,, M. Amstutz,, and G. R. Cornelis. 2010. Oligomeric coiled-coil adhesin YadA is a double-edged sword. PLoS ONE 5:e15159.
47.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Yersinia enterocolitica gastroenteritis among infants exposed to chitterlings—Chicago, Illinois, 2002. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 52:956958.
48.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food—10 states, 2007. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 57:336370.
49. Chao, W. L.,, R. J. Ding,, and R. S. Chen. 1988. Survival of Yersinia enterocolitica in the environment. Can. J. Microbiol. 34:753756.
50. China, B.,, B. T. N’Guyen,, M. de Bruyere,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1994. Role of YadA in resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica to phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Infect. Immun. 62:12751281.
51. China, B.,, M. P. Sory,, B. T. N’Guyen,, M. de Bruyere,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1993. Role of the YadA protein in prevention of opsonization of Yersinia enterocolitica by C3b molecules. Infect. Immun. 61:31293136.
52. Clark, M. A.,, B. H. Hirst,, and M. A. Jepson. 1998. M-cell surface beta1 integrin expression and invasin-mediated targeting of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to mouse Peyer’s patch M cells. Infect. Immun. 66:12371243.
53. Colmegna, I.,, and L. R. Espinoza. 2005. Recent advances in reactive arthritis. Curr. Rheumatol. Rep. 7:201207.
54. Cornelis, G.,, Y. Laroche,, G. Balligand,, M. P. Sory,, and G. Wauters. 1987. Yersinia enterocolitica, a primary model for bacterial invasiveness. Rev. Infect. Dis. 9:6487.
55. Cornelis, G.,, C. Sluiters,, C. L. de Rouvroit,, and T. Michiels. 1989. Homology between virF, the transcriptional activator of the Yersinia virulence regulon, and AraC, the Escherichia coli arabinose operon regulator. J. Bacteriol. 171:254262.
56. Cornelis, G.,, C. Sluiters,, I. Delor,, D. Geib,, K. Kaninga,, C. Lambert de Rouvroit,, M.-P. Sory,, J.-C. Vanooteghem,, and T. Michiels. 1991. ymoA, a Yersinia enterocolitica chromosomal gene modulating the expression of virulence functions. Mol. Microbiol. 5:10231034.
57. Cornelis, G. R. 2002. The Yersinia Ysc-Yop ‘type III’ weaponry. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 3:742752.
58. Cornelis, G. R. 2002. Yersinia type III secretion: send in the effectors. J. Cell Biol. 158:401408.
59. Cornelis, G. R.,, T. Biot,, C. Lambert de Rouvroit,, T. Michiels,, B. Mulder,, C. Sluiters,, M. P. Sory,, M. Van Bouchaute,, and J. C. Vanooteghem. 1989. The Yersinia yop regulon. Mol. Microbiol. 3:14551459.
60. Cornelis, G. R.,, A. Boland,, A. P. Boyd,, C. Geuijen,, M. Iriarte,, C. Neyt,, M.-P. Sory,, and I. Stainier. 1998. The virulence plasmid of Yersinia, an antihost genome. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62:13151352.
61.Reference deleted.
62. Cornelis, G. R.,, C. Sluiters,, I. Delor,, D. Geib,, K. Kaniga,, C. Lambert de Rouvroit,, M. P. Sory,, J. C. Vanooteghem,, and T. Michiels. 1991. ymoA, a Yersinia enterocolitica chromosomal gene modulating the expression of virulence functions. Mol. Microbiol. 5:10231034.
63. Cornelius, C.,, L. Quenee,, D. Anderson,, and O. Schneewind. 2007. Protective immunity against plague. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 603:415424.
64. Cotter, S. E.,, N. K. Surana,, and J. W. St Geme III. 2005. Trimeric autotransporters: a distinct subfamily of autotransporter proteins. Trends Microbiol. 13:199205.
65. Cover, T. L.,, and R. C. Aber. 1989. Yersinia enterocolitica. N. Engl. J. Med. 321:1624.
66. Cowan, C.,, A. V. Philipovskiy,, C. R. Wulff-Strobel,, Z. Ye,, and S. C. Straley. 2005. Anti-LcrV antibody inhibits delivery of Yops by Yersinia pestis KIM5 by directly promoting phagocytosis. Infect. Immun. 73:61276137.
67.Reference deleted.
68. Currie, M. G.,, K. F. Fok,, J. Kato,, R. J. Moore,, F. K. Hamra,, K. L. Duffin,, and C. E. Smith. 1992. Guanylin: an endogenous activator of intestinal guanylate cyclase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:947951.
69. Daniel, C.,, F. Sebbane,, S. Poiret,, D. Goudercourt,, J. Dewulf,, C. Mullet,, M. Simonet,, and B. Pot. 2009. Protection against Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection conferred by a Lactococcus lactis mucosal delivery vector secreting LcrV. Vaccine 27:11411144.
70. D’Aoust, J. Y.,, C. E. Park,, R. A. Szabo,, E. C. Todd,, D. B. Emmons,, and R. C. McKellar. 1988. Thermal inactivation of Campylobacter species, Yersinia enterocolitica, and hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fluid milk. J. Dairy Sci. 71:32303236.
71. Darby, C. 2008. Uniquely insidious: Yersinia pestis biofilms. Trends Microbiol. 16:158164.
72. de Giusti, M.,, and E. de Vito. 1992. Inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica by nitrite and nitrate in food. Food Addit. Contam. 9:405408.
73. de Koning, J.,, J. Heesemann,, J. A. Hoogkamp-Korstanje,, J. J. Festen,, P. M. Houtman,, and P. L. van Oijen. 1989. Yersinia in intestinal biopsy specimens from patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathy: correlation with specific serum IgA antibodies. J. Infect. Dis. 159:109112.
74. de Koning-Ward, T. F.,, T. Grant,, F. Oppedisano,, and R. M. Robins-Browne. 1998. Effect of bacterial invasion of macrophages on the outcome of assays to assess bacterium-macrophage interactions. J. Immunol. Methods 215:3944.
75. de Koning-Ward, T. F.,, and R. M. Robins-Browne. 1995. Contribution of urease to acid tolerance in Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect. Immun. 63:37903795.
76. Delor, I.,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1992. Role of Yersinia enterocolitica Yst toxin in experimental infection of young rabbits. Infect. Immun. 60:42694277.
77. Delor, I.,, A. Kaeckenbeeck,, G. Wauters,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1990. Nucleotide sequence of yst, the Yersinia enterocolitica gene encoding the heat-stable enterotoxin, and prevalence of the gene among pathogenic and nonpathogenic yersiniae. Infect. Immun. 58:29832988.
78. Dewoody, R.,, P. M. Merritt,, A. S. Houppert,, and M. M. Marketon. 2011. YopK regulates the Yersinia pestis type III secretion system from within host cells. Mol. Microbiol. 79:14451461. doi:10.1111/j.13652958.2011.07534.x.
79. Diepold, A.,, M. Amstutz,, S. Abel,, I. Sorg,, U. Jenal,, and G. R. Cornelis. 2010. Deciphering the assembly of the Yersinia type III secretion injectisome. EMBO J. 29:19281940.
80. Dion, P.,, R. Charbonneau,, and C. Thibault. 1994. Effect of ionizing dose rate on the radioresistance of some food pathogenic bacteria. Can. J. Microbiol. 40:369374.
81. Donadini, R.,, and B. A. Fields. 2007. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis superantigens. Chem. Immunol. Allergy 93:7791.
82. Doyle, M. P. 1990. Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Lancet 336:11111115.
83. Eberth, C. J. 1885. Zwei Mykosen des Meerschweinchens. Archiv. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 100:1527.
84. Eitel, J.,, and P. Dersch. 2002. The YadA protein of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis mediates high-efficiency uptake into human cells under environmental conditions in which invasin is repressed. Infect. Immun. 70:48804891.
85. Escudero, M. E.,, L. Velazquez,, M. S. Di Genaro,, and A. M. de Guzman. 1999. Effectiveness of various disinfectants in the elimination of Yersinia enterocolitica on fresh lettuce. J. Food Prot. 62:665669.
86. Falgarone, G.,, H. S. Blanchard,, B. Riot,, M. Simonet,, and M. Breban. 1999. Cytotoxic T-cell-mediated response against Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in HLA-B27 transgenic rat. Infect. Immun. 67:37733779.
87. Farmer, J. J., III,, G. P. Carter,, V. L. Miller,, S. Falkow,, and I. K. Wachsmuth. 1992. Pyrazinamidase, CR-MOX agar, salicin fermentation-esculin hydrolysis, and D-xylose fermentation for identifying pathogenic serotypes of Yersinia enterocolitica. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:25892594.
88. Feng, P.,, and S. D. Weagant,. 1993. Yersinia, p. 427460. In Y. H. Hui,, J. R. Gorham,, K. D. Murrell,, and D. O. Cliver (ed.), Foodborne Disease Handbook, vol. 1. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
89. Ferracci, F.,, F. D. Schubot,, D. S. Waugh,, and G. V. Plano. 2005. Selection and characterization of Yersinia pestis YopN mutants that constitutively block Yop secretion. Mol. Microbiol. 57:970987.
90. Foberg, U.,, A. Fryden,, E. Kihlstrom,, K. Persson,, and O. Weiland. 1986. Yersinia enterocolitica septicemia: clinical and microbiological aspects. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 18:269279.
91. Forsberg, A.,, R. Rosqvist,, and H. Wolf-Watz. 1994. Regulation and polarized transfer of the Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) involved in antiphagocytosis. Trends Microbiol. 2:1419.
92. Forsberg, A.,, A. M. Viitanen,, M. Skurnik,, and H. Wolf-Watz. 1991. The surface-located YopN protein is involved in calcium signal transduction in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Mol. Microbiol. 5:977986.
93. Franchi, L.,, J. H. Park,, M. H. Shaw,, N. Marina-Garcia,, G. Chen,, Y. G. Kim,, and G. Núñez. 2008. Intracellular NOD-like receptors in innate immunity, infection and disease. Cell. Microbiol. 10:18.
94. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M.,, M. Bucher,, C. Hank,, A. Stolle,, and H. Korkeala. 2001. High prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica 4:O3 on pig offal in southern Germany: a slaughtering technique problem. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 24:457463.
95. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M.,, and H. Korkeala. 2003. Low occurrence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in clinical, food, and environmental samples: a methodological problem. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 16:220229.
96. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M.,, A. Stolle,, and H. Korkeala. 2006. Molecular epidemiology of Yersinia enterocolitica infections. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 47:315329.
97. Fukushima, H.,, M. Gomyoda,, S. Ishikura,, T. Nishio,, S. Moriki,, J. Endo,, S. Kaneko,, and M. Tsubokura. 1989. Cat-contaminated environmental substances lead to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection in children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:27062709.
98. Fukushima, H.,, M. Gomyoda,, and S. Kaneko. 1990. Mice and moles inhabiting mountainous areas of Shimane Peninsula as sources of infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:24482455.
99. Gaastra, W.,, and A. M. Svennerholm. 1996. Colonization factors of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Trends Microbiol. 4:444452.
100. Galyov, E. E.,, S. Hakansson,, A. Forsberg,, and H. Wolf-Watz. 1993. A secreted protein kinase of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an indispensable virulence determinant. Nature 361:730732.
101. Gaston, J. S.,, C. Cox,, and K. Granfors. 1999. Clinical and experimental evidence for persistent Yersinia infection in reactive arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 42:22392242.
102. Ghosh, P. 2004. Process of protein transport by the type III secretion system. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68:771795.
103. Goverde, R. L.,, J. H. J. Huis in’t Veld,, J.G. Kusters,, and F. R. Mooi. 1998. The psychrotrophic bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica requires expression of pnp, the gene for polynucleotide phosphorylase, for growth at low temperature (5°C). Mol. Microbiol. 28:555569.
104. Granfors, K.,, S. Jalkanen,, R. von Essen,, R. Lahesmaa-Rantala,, O. Isomaki,, K. Pekkola-Heino,, R. Merilahti-Palo,, R. Saario,, H. Isomaki,, and A. Toivanen. 1989. Yersinia antigens in synovial-fluid cells from patients with reactive arthritis. N. Engl. J. Med. 320:216221.
105. Grant, T.,, V. Bennett-Wood,, and R. M. Robins-Browne. 1998. Identification of virulence-associated characteristics in clinical isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica lacking classical virulence markers. Infect. Immun. 66:11131120.
106. Grant, T.,, V. Bennett-Wood,, and R. M. Robins-Browne. 1999. Characterization of the interaction between Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A and phagocytes and epithelial cells in vitro. Infect. Immun. 67:43674375.
107. Graumann, P. L.,, and M. A. Marahiel. 1998. A superfamily of proteins that contain the cold-shock domain. Trends Biochem. Sci. 23:286290.
108. Gripenberg-Lerche, C.,, M. Skurnik,, L. Zhang,, K.-O. Söderström,, and P. Toivanen. 1994. Role of YadA in arthritogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:8: experimental studies with rats. Infect. Immun. 62:55685575.
109. Gripenberg-Lerche, C.,, L. Zhang,, P. Ahtonen,, P. Toivanen,, and M. Skurnik. 2000. Construction of urease-negative mutants of Yersinia enterocolitica serotypes O:3 and O:8: role of urease in virulence and arthritogenicity. Infect. Immun. 68:942947.
110. Grosdent, N.,, I. Maridonneau-Parini,, M. P. Sory,, and G. R. Cornelis. 2002. Role of Yops and adhesins in resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica to phagocytosis. Infect. Immun. 70:41654176.
111. Grützkau, A.,, C. Hanski,, H. Hahn,, and E. O. Riecken. 1990. Involvement of M cells in the bacterial invasion of Peyer’s patches: a common mechanism shared by Yersinia enterocolitica and other enteroinvasive bacteria. Gut 31:10111015.
112. Guarino, A.,, R. Giannella,, and M. R. Thompson. 1989. Citrobacter freundii produces an 18-amino-acid heat-stable enterotoxin identical to the 18-amino-acid Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STIa). Infect. Immun. 57:649652.
113. Gurtler, M.,, T. Alter,, S. Kasimir,, M. Linnebur,, and K. Fehlhaber. 2005. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in fattening pigs. J. Food Prot. 68:850854.
114. Håkansson, S.,, T. Bergman,, J. C. Vanooteghem,, G. Cornelis,, and H. Wolf-Watz. 1993. YopB and YopD constitute a novel class of Yersinia Yop proteins. Infect. Immun. 61:7180.
115. Hamburger, Z. A.,, M. S. Brown,, R. R. Isberg,, and P. J. Bjorkman. 1999. Crystal structure of invasin: a bacterial integrin-binding protein. Science 286:291295.
116. Han, Y. W.,, and V. L. Miller. 1997. Reevaluation of the virulence phenotype of the inv yadA double mutants of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Infect. Immun. 65:327330.
117. Hanna, M. O.,, J. C. Stewart,, D. L. Zink,, Z. L. Carpenter,, and C. Vanderzant. 1977. Development of Yersinia enterocolitica on raw and cooked beef and pork at different temperatures. J. Food Sci. 42:11801184.
118. Hansen, P. S.,, B. E. Wenzel,, T. H. Brix,, and L. Hegedus. 2006. Yersinia enterocolitica infection does not confer an increased risk of thyroid antibodies: evidence from a Danish twin study. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 146:3238.
119. Hanski, C.,, U. Kutschka,, H. P. Schmoranzer,, M. Naumann,, A. Stallmach,, H. Hahn,, H. Menge,, and E. O. Riecken. 1989. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study of interaction of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O8 with intestinal mucosa during experimental enteritis. Infect. Immun. 57:673678.
120. Harakeh, M. S.,, J. D. Berg,, J. C. Hoff,, and A. Matin. 1985. Susceptibility of chemostat-grown Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiella pneumoniae to chlorine dioxide. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49:6972.
121. Hartland, E. L.,, and R. M. Robins-Browne. 1998. Infections with enteropathogenic Yersinia species: paradigms of bacterial pathogenesis. Rev. Med. Microbiol. 9:191205.
122. Hayashidani, H.,, Y. Hara-Kudo,, S. Kinoshita,, K. Saeki,, A. T. Okatani,, Y. Nomura,, and S. Kumagai. 2005. Differences in heat resistance among pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica depended on growth temperature and serotype. J. Food Prot. 68:10811082.
123. Hayashidani, H.,, Y. Ohtomo,, Y. Toyokawa,, M. Saito,, K. Kaneko,, J. Kosuge,, M. Kato,, M. Ogawa,, and G. Kapperud. 1995. Potential sources of sporadic human infection with Yersinia enterocolitica serovar O:8 in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:12531257.
124. Heesemann, J.,, K. Gaede,, and I. B. Autenrieth. 1993. Experimental Yersinia enterocolitica infection in rodents: a model for human yersiniosis. APMIS 101:417429.
125. Heesemann, J.,, K. Hantke,, T. Vocke,, E. Saken,, A. Rakin,, I. Stojiljkovic,, and R. Berner. 1993. Virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica is closely associated with siderophore production, expression of an iron-repressible outer membrane polypeptide of 65,000 Da and pesticin sensitivity. Mol. Microbiol. 8:397408.
126. Heise, T.,, and P. Dersch. 2006. Identification of a domain in Yersinia virulence factor YadA that is crucial for extracellular matrix-specific cell adhesion and uptake. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:33753380.
127. Henderson, I. R.,, F. Navarro-Garcia,, M. Desvaux,, R. C. Fernandez,, and D. Ala’Aldeen. 2004. Type V protein secretion pathway: the autotransporter story. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68:692744.
128. Hermann, E. 1993. T cells in reactive arthritis. APMIS 101:177186.
129. Hermann, E.,, D. T. Yu,, K. H. Meyer zum Buschenfelde,, and B. Fleischer. 1993. HLA-B27-restricted CD8 T cells derived from synovial fluids of patients with reactive arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Lancet 342:646650.
130. Herrlinger, J. D.,, and J. U. Asmussen. 1992. Long term prognosis in yersinia arthritis: clinical and serological findings. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 51:13321334.
131. Heusipp, G.,, M. A. Schmidt,, and V. L. Miller. 2003. Identification of rpoE and nadB as host responsive elements of Yersinia enterocolitica. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 226:291298.
132. Hinnebusch, B. J.,, and D. L. Erickson. 2008. Yersinia pestis biofilm in the flea vector and its role in the transmission of plague. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 322:229248.
133. Hoiczyk, E.,, and G. Blobel. 2001. Polymerization of a single protein of the pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica into needles punctures eukaryotic cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:46694674.
134. Hölmstrom, A.,, J. Petterson,, R. Rosqvist,, S. Hakansson,, F. Tafazoli,, M. Fallman,, K. E. Magnusson,, H. Wolf-Watz,, and A. Forsberg. 1997. YopK of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis controls translocation of Yop effectors across the eukaryotic cell membrane. Mol. Microbiol 24:7391.
135. Hölmstrom, A.,, R. Rosqvist,, H. Wolf-Watz,, and A. Forsberg. 1995. Virulence plasmid-encoded YopK is essential for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to cause systemic infection in mice. Infect. Immun. 63:22692276.
136. Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J. A. A.,, and V. M. M. Stolk-Engelaar. 1995. Yersinia enterocolitica infection in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 14:771775.
137. Howard, S. L.,, M. W. Gaunt,, J. Hinds,, A. A. Witney,, R. Stabler,, and B. W. Wren. 2006. Application of comparative phylogenomics to study the evolution of Yersinia enterocolitica and to identify genetic differences relating to pathogenicity. J. Bacteriol. 188:36453653.
138. Huang, X.,, K. Yoshino,, H. Nakao,, and T. Takeda. 1997. Nucleotide sequence of a gene encoding the novel Yersinia enterocolitica heat-stable enterotoxin that includes a pro-region-like sequence in its mature toxin molecule. Microb. Pathog. 22:8997.
139. Iriarte, M.,, and G. R. Cornelis.1999. Identification of SycN, YscX, and YscY, three new elements of the Yersinia yop virulon. J. Bacteriol. 181:675680.
140. Iriarte, M.,, I. Stainier,, A. V. Mikulskis,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1995. The fliA gene encoding s28 in Yersinia enterocolitica. J. Bacteriol. 177:22992304.
141. Iriarte, M.,, J. C. Vanooteghem,, I. Delor,, R. Diaz,, S. Knutton,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1993. The Myf fibrillae of Yersinia enterocolitica. Mol. Microbiol. 9:507520.
142. Isberg, R. R. 1990. Pathways for the penetration of enteroinvasive Yersinia into mammalian cells. Mol. Biol. Med. 7:7382.
143. Isberg, R. R.,, and P. Barnes. 2001. Subversion of integrins by enteropathogenic Yersinia. J. Cell Sci. 114:2128.
144. Isberg, R. R.,, and S. Falkow. 1985. A single genetic locus encoded by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis permits invasion of cultured animal cells by Escherichia coli K-12. Nature 317:262264.
145. Isberg, R. R.,, and G. T. Van Nhieu. 1994. Two mammalian cell internalization strategies used by pathogenic bacteria. Annu. Rev. Genet. 28:395422.
146. Israël, A. 2010. The IKK complex, a central regulator of NF-kB activation. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 2:a000158.
147. Iteman, I.,, A. Guiyoule,, and E. Carniel. 1996. Comparison of three molecular methods for typing and subtyping pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains. J. Med. Microbiol. 45:4856.
148. Iwobi, A.,, J. Heesemann,, E. Garcia,, E. Igwe,, C. Noelting,, and A. Rakin. 2003. Novel virulence-associated type II secretion system unique to high-pathogenicity Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect. Immun. 71:18721879.
149. Jackson, M. W.,, and G. V. Plano. 2000. Interactions between type III secretion apparatus components from Yersinia pestis detected using the yeast two-hybrid system. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 186:8590.
150. Jacobi, C. A.,, A. Roggenkamp,, A. Rakin,, R. Zumbihl,, L. Leitritz,, and J. Heesemann. 1998. In vitro and in vivo expression studies of yopE from Yersinia enterocolitica using the gfp reporter gene. Mol. Microbiol. 30:865882.
151. Jalava, K.,, M. Hakkinen,, M. Valkonen,, U. M. Nakari,, T. Palo,, S. Hallanvuo,, J. Ollgren,, A. Siitonen,, and J. P. Nuorti. 2006. An outbreak of gastrointestinal illness and erythema nodosum from grated carrots contaminated with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. J. Infect. Dis. 194:12091216.
152. Jepson, M. A.,, and M. A. Clark. 1998. Studying M cells and their role in infection. Trends Microbiol. 9:359365.
153. Jones, T. F. 2003. From pig to pacifier: chitterling-associated yersiniosis outbreak among black infants. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:10071009.
154. Kapperud, G. 1982. Enterotoxin production at 4o, 22o, and 37o among Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. enterocolitica-like bacteria. APMIS 90B:185189.
155. Kapperud, G. 1991. Yersinia enterocolitica in food hygiene. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 12:5365.
156. Kasatiya, S. S. 1976. Yersinia enterocolitica gastroenteritis outbreak—Montreal. Can. Dis. Wkly. Rep. 2:7374.
157. Keet, E. E. 1974. Yersinia enterocolitica septicemia: source of infection and incubation period identified. N. Y. State J. Med. 74:22262229.
158. Kerschen, E. J.,, D. A. Cohen,, A. M. Kaplan,, and S. C. Straley. 2004. The plague virulence protein YopM targets the innate immune response by causing a global depletion of NK cells. Infect. Immun. 72:45894602.
159. Kim, T. J.,, B. M. Young,, and G. M. Young. 2008. Effect of flagellar mutations on Yersinia enterocolitica biofilm formation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:54665474.
160. King, C. H.,, E. B. Shotts,, R. E. Wooley,, and K. G. Porter. 1988. Survival of coliforms and bacterial pathogens within protozoa during chlorination. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:30233033.
161. Kirjavainen, V.,, H. Jarva,, M. Biedzka-Sarek,, A. M. Blom,, M. Skurnik,, and S. Meri. 2008. Yersinia enterocolitica serum resistance proteins YadA and Ail bind the complement regulator C4b-binding protein. PLoS Pathog. 4:e1000140.
162. Koster, M.,, W. Bitter,, H. de Cock,, A. Allaoui,, G. R. Cornelis,, and J. Tommassen. 1997. The outer membrane component, YscC, of the Yop secretion machinery of Yersinia enterocolitica forms a ring-shaped multimeric complex. Mol. Microbiol. 26:789797.
163. Kotetishvili, M.,, A. Kreger,, G. Wauters,, J. G. Morris, Jr., A. Sulakvelidze, and O. C. Stine. 2005. Multilocus sequence typing for studying genetic relationships among Yersinia species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:26742684.
164. Kraehenbuhl, J. P.,, and M. R. Neutra. 2000. Epithelial M cells: differentiation and function. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 16:301332.
165. Lahesmaa, R.,, M. Skurnik,, K. Granfors,, T. Mottonen,, R. Saario,, A. Toivanen,, and P. Toivanen. 1992. Molecular mimicry in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthropathies. A critical appraisal of cross-reactivity between microbial antigens and HLA-B27. Br. J. Rheumatol. 31:221229.
166. Larsen, J. H. 1980. Yersinia enterocolitica infection and rheumatic diseases. Scand. J. Rheumatol. 9:129137.
167. Leclercq, A.,, L. Martin,, M. L. Vergnes,, N. Ounnoughene,, J. F. Laran,, P. Giraud,, and E. Carniel. 2005. Fatal Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 4 serovar O:3 sepsis after red blood cell transfusion. Transfusion 45:814818.
168. Lee, L. A.,, A. R. Gerber,, D. R. Lonsway,, J. D. Smith,, G. P. Carter,, N. D. Puhr,, C. M. Parrish,, R. K. Sikes,, R. J. Finton,, and R. V. Tauxe. 1990. Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 infections in infants and children, associated with the household preparation of chitterlings. N. Engl. J. Med. 322:984987.
169. Lee, V. T.,, D. M. Anderson,, and O. Schneewind. 1998. Targeting of Yersinia Yop proteins into the cytosol of HeLa cells: one-step translocation of YopE across bacterial and eukaryotic membranes is dependent on SycE chaperone. Mol. Microbiol. 28:593601.
170. Leirisalo-Repo, M. 1987. Yersinia arthritis. Acute clinical picture and long-term prognosis. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 9:145154.
171. Lesic, B.,, and E. Carniel. 2005. Horizontal transfer of the high-pathogenicity island of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. J. Bacteriol. 187:33523358.
172. Leung, K. Y.,, and S. C. Straley. 1989. The yopM gene of Yersinia pestis encodes a released protein having homology with the human platelet surface protein GPIb alpha. J. Bacteriol. 171:46234632.
173. Lian, C. J.,, W. S. Hwang,, J. K. Kelly,, and C. H. Pai. 1987. Invasiveness of Yersinia enterocolitica lacking the virulence plasmid: an in-vivo study. J. Med. Microbiol. 24:219226.
174. Lian, C. J.,, W. S. Hwang,, J. K. Kelly,, and C. H. Pai. 1987. Penetration of the intestinal mucosa by Yersinia enterocolitica lacking the virulence plasmid. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 9:239242.
175. Lindler, L. E.,, and B. D. Tall. 1993. Yersinia pestis pH 6 antigen forms fimbriae and is induced by intracellular association with macrophages. Mol. Microbiol. 8:311324.
176. Lo, W. F.,, A. S. Woods,, A. DeCloux,, R. J. Cotter,, E. S. Metcalf,, and M. J. Soloski. 2000. Molecular mimicry mediated by MHC class Ib molecules after infection with gram-negative pathogens. Nat. Med. 6:215218.
177. Long, C.,, T. F. Jones,, D. J. Vugia,, J. Scheftel,, N. Strockbine,, P. Ryan,, B. Shiferaw,, R. V. Tauxe,, and L. H. Gould. 2010. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica infections, FoodNet, 1996-2007. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 16:566567.
178. Malassez, L.,, and W. Vignal. 1883. Tuberculose zoogloeique (forme ou espèce de tuberculose sans bacille). Arch. Physiol. Normale Pathol. Ser. 3 2:369412.
179. Marjai, E.,, M. Kalman,, I. Kajary,, A. Belteky,, and M. Rodler. 1987. Isolation from food and characterization by virulence tests of Yersinia enterocolitica associated with an outbreak. Acta Microbiol. Hung. 34:97109.
180. Marks, M. I.,, C. H. Pai,, L. Lafleur,, L. Lackman,, and O. Hammerberg. 1980. Yersinia enterocolitica gastroenteritis: a prospective study of clinical, bacteriologic, and epidemiologic features. J. Pediatr. 96:2631.
181. Marra, A.,, and R. R. Isberg. 1997. Invasin-dependent and invasin-independent pathways for translocation of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis across the Peyer’s patch intestinal epithelium. Infect. Immun. 65:34123421.
182. Maruyama, T. 1987. Yersinia enterocolitica infection in humans and isolation of the microorganism from pigs in Japan. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 9:4855.
183. Matsumoto, H.,, and G. M. Young. 2006. Proteomic and functional analysis of the suite of Ysp proteins exported by the Ysa type III secretion system of Yersinia enterocolitica Biovar 1B. Mol. Microbiol. 59:689706.
184. McDonald, C.,, P. O. Vacratsis,, J. B. Bliska,, and J. E. Dixon. 2003. The Yersinia virulence factor YopM forms a novel protein complex with two cellular kinases. J.?Biol. Chem. 278:1851418523.
185. McIver, M. A.,, and R. M. Pike. 1934. Chronic glanders-like infection of the face caused by an organism resembling Flavobacterium pseudomallei Whitmore, p. 1621. In Clinical Miscellany, Mary Imogene Bassett Hospital, vol. 1. Cooperstown, New York, NY.
186. Meysick, K. C.,, J. Seidman,, and J. R. Falconio. 2009. The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis YplA phospholipase differs in its activity, regulation and secretion from that of the Yersinia enterocolitica YplA. Microb. Pathog. 47:2432.
187. Michiels, T.,, P. Wattiau,, R. Brasseur,, J. M. Ruysschaert,, and G. Cornelis. 1990. Secretion of Yop proteins by yersiniae. Infect. Immun. 58:28402849.
188. Mikulskis, A. V.,, I. Delor,, V. H. Thi,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1994. Regulation of the Yersinia enterocolitica enterotoxin Yst gene. Influence of growth phase, temperature, osmolarity, pH and bacterial host factors. Mol. Microbiol. 14:905915.
189. Miller, V. L. 1992. Yersinia invasion genes and their products. ASM News 58:2633.
190. Miller, V. L.,, K. B. Beer,, G. Heusipp,, B. M. Young,, and M. R. Wachtel. 2001. Identification of regions of Ail required for the invasion and serum resistance phenotypes. Mol. Microbiol. 41:10531062.
191. Miller, V. L.,, and S. Falkow. 1988. Evidence for two genetic loci in Yersinia enterocolitica that can promote invasion of epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 56:12421248.
192. Miller, V. L.,, B. B. Finlay,, and S. Falkow. 1988. Factors essential for the penetration of mammalian cells by Yersinia. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 138:1539.
193. Mittal, R.,, S. Y. Peak-Chew,, and H. T. McMahon. 2006. Acetylation of MEK2 and IkB kinase (IKK) activation loop residues by YopJ inhibits signaling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:1857418579.
194. Miyoshi-Akiyama, T.,, W. Fujimaki,, X. J. Yan,, J. Yagi,, K. Imanishi,, H. Kato,, K. Tomonari,, and T. Uchiyama. 1997. Identification of murine T cells reactive with the bacterial superantigen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen (YPM) and factors involved in YPM-induced toxicity in mice. Microbiol. Immunol. 41:345352.
195. Mollaret, H. H.,, H. Bercovier,, and J. M. Alonso. 1979. Summary of the data received at the WHO Reference Centre for Yersinia enterocolitica. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 5:174184.
196. Morse, D. L.,, M. Shayegani,, and R. J. Gallo. 1984. Epidemiologic investigation of a Yersinia camp outbreak linked to a food handler. Am. J. Public Health 74:589592.
197. Mueller, C. A.,, P. Broz,, S. A. Muller,, P. Ringler,, F. Erne-Brand,, I. Sorg,, M. Kuhn,, A. Engel,, and G. R. Cornelis. 2005. The V-antigen of Yersinia forms a distinct structure at the tip of injectisome needles. Science 310:674676.
198. Mukherjee, S.,, G. Keitany,, Y. Li,, Y. Wang,, H. L. Ball,, E. J. Goldsmith,, and K. Orth. 2006. Yersinia YopJ acetylates and inhibits kinase activation by blocking phosphorylation. Science 312:12111214.
199. Murros-Kontiainen, A. E.,, M. Fredriksson-Ahomaa,, H. Korkeala,, P. Johansson,, R. Rahkila,, and J. Bjorkroth. 2011. Yersinia nurmii sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 61:23682372.
200. Murros-Kontiainen, A. E.,, P. Johansson,, T. Niskanen,, M. Fredriksson-Ahomaa,, H. Korkeala,, and J. Bjorkroth. 2010. Yersinia pekkanenii sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 61:23632367.
201. Navarro, L.,, A. Koller,, R. Nordfelth,, H. Wolf-Watz,, S. Taylor,, and J. E. Dixon. 2007. Identification of a molecular target for the Yersinia protein kinase A. Mol. Cell 26:465477.
202. Navarro Llorens, J. M.,, A. Tormo,, and E. Martinez-Garcia. 2010. Stationary phase in gram-negative bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 34:476495.
203. Neilands, J. B. 1981. Microbial iron compounds. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 50:715731.
204. Nesbakken, T.,, G. Kapperud,, K. Dommarsnes,, M. Skurnik,, and E. Hornes. 1991. Comparative study of a DNA hybridization method and two isolation procedures for detection of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 in naturally contaminated pork products. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:389394.
205. Neubauer, H.,, S. Aleksic,, A. Hensel,, E. J. Finke,, and H. Meyer. 2000. Yersinia enterocolitica 16S rRNA gene types belong to the same genospecies but form three homology groups. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 290:6164.
206. Neuhaus, K.,, K. P. Francis,, S. Rapposch,, A. Gorg,, and S. Scherer. 1999. Pathogenic Yersinia species carry a novel, cold-inducible major cold shock protein tandem gene duplication producing both bicistronic and monocistronic mRNA. J. Bacteriol. 181:64496455.
207. Neyt, C.,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1999. Insertion of a Yop translocation pore into the macrophage plasma membrane by Yersinia enterocolitica: requirement for translocators YopB and YopD, but not LcrG. Mol. Microbiol. 33:971981.
208. Neyt, C.,, M. Iriarte,, V. H. Thi,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1997. Virulence and arsenic resistance in yersiniae. J.?Bacteriol. 179:612619.
209. Nilehn, B. 1969. Studies on Yersinia enterocolitica with special reference to bacterial diagnosis and occurrence in human acute enteric disease. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. Suppl. 206:148.
210. Nilles, M. L.,, A. W. Williams,, E. Skrzypek,, and S. C. Straley. 1997. Yersinia pestis LcrV forms a stable complex with LcrG and may have a secretion-related regulatory role in the low-Ca2+ response. J. Bacteriol. 179:13071316.
211. Nuorti, J. P.,, T. Niskanen,, S. Hallanvuo,, J. Mikkola,, E. Kela,, M. Hatakka,, M. Fredriksson-Ahomaa,, O. Lyytikainen,, A. Siitonen,, H. Korkeala,, and P. Ruutu. 2004. A widespread outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:3 infection from iceberg lettuce. J. Infect. Dis. 189:766774.
212. Oellerich, M. F.,, C. A. Jacobi,, S. Freund,, K. Niedung,, A. Bach,, J. Heesemann,, and K. Trulzsch. 2007. Yersinia enterocolitica infection of mice reveals clonal invasion and abscess formation. Infect. Immun. 75:38023811.
213. Orth, K. 2002. Function of the Yersinia effector YopJ. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 5:3843.
214. Ostroff, S. 1995. Yersinia as an emerging infection: epidemiologic aspects of yersiniosis. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 13:510.
215. Ostroff, S. M.,, G. Kapperud,, L. C. Hutwagner,, T. Nesbakken,, N. H. Bean,, J. Lassen,, and R. V. Tauxe. 1994. Sources of sporadic Yersinia enterocolitica infections in Norway: a prospective case-control study. Epidemiol. Infect. 112:133141.
216. Pai, C. H.,, and L. De Stephano. 1982. Serum resistance associated with virulence in Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect. Immun. 35:605611.
217. Pai, C. H.,, V. Mors,, and S. Toma. 1978. Prevalence of enterotoxigenicity in human and nonhuman isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect. Immun. 22:334338.
218. Palonen, E.,, M. Lindstrom,, and H. Korkeala. 2010. Adaptation of enteropathogenic Yersinia to low growth temperature. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 36:5467.
219. Park, H.,, K. Teja,, J. J. O’Shea,, and R. M. Siegel. 2007. The Yersinia effector protein YpkA induces apoptosis independently of actin depolymerization. J. Immunol. 178:64266434.
220. Peixotto, S. S.,, G. Finne,, M. O. Hanna,, and C. Vanderzant. 1979. Presence, growth and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica in oyster, shrimp and crab. J.?Food Prot. 42:974981.
221. Pepe, J. C.,, J. L. Badger,, and V. L. Miller. 1994. Growth phase and low pH affect the thermal regulation of the Yersinia enterocolitica inv gene. Mol. Microbiol. 11:123135.
222. Pepe, J. C.,, and V. L. Miller. 1993. Yersinia enterocolitica invasin: a primary role in the initiation of infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:64736477.
223. Pepe, J. C.,, M. R. Wachtel,, E. Wagar,, and V. L. Miller. 1995. Pathogenesis of defined invasion mutants of Yersinia enterocolitica in a BALB/c mouse model of infection. Infect. Immun. 63:48374848.
224. Perry, R. D. 1993. Acquisition and storage of inorganic iron and hemin by the yersiniae. Trends Microbiol. 1:142147.
225. Perry, R. D.,, and J. D. Fetherston. 1997. Yersinia pestis—etiologic agent of plague. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10:3566.
226. Persson, C.,, N. Carballeira,, H. Wolf-Watz,, and M. Fallman. 1997. The PTPase YopH inhibits uptake of Yersinia, tyrosine phosphorylation of p130Cas and FAK, and the associated accumulation of these proteins in peripheral focal adhesions. EMBO J. 16:23072318.
227. Pfeiffer, A. 1889. Ueber die bacillare Pseudotuberculose bei Nagethieren. Verlag von Georg Thieme, Leipzig, Germany.001290
228. Prehna, G.,, M. I. Ivanov,, J. B. Bliska,, and C. E. Stebbins. 2006. Yersinia virulence depends on mimicry of host Rho-family nucleotide dissociation inhibitors. Cell 126:869880.
229. Pujol, C.,, and J. B. Bliska. 2005. Turning Yersinia pathogenesis outside in: subversion of macrophage function by intracellular yersiniae. Clin. Immunol. 114:216226.