1887

Chapter 15 : Species

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Species, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap15-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap15-2.gif

Abstract:

Foodborne infections with species are an important source of illness in both economically developed and developing countries. This chapter presents to food microbiologists important features of spp., the disease they cause, and the impact that these pathogens have with respect to food safety. It discusses the diagnosis, epidemiology, ecology, modes of transmission, and examples of recent foodborne outbreaks, along with the current understanding of the genetics of pathogenesis, the genes involved in causing disease, and how they are regulated. can be transmitted by consumption of raw or processed food. Generally, poor personal hygiene practices by food workers at the point of final preparation and food service are the major factors for food contamination. The single most effective means of preventing secondary transmission of is hand washing with soap and chlorination of water. While foodborne infections due to members of the spp. may not be as frequently reported as those caused by other foodborne pathogens, they have the potential for explosive spread due to the low infectious dose that can cause overt clinical disease.

Citation: Binet R, Lampel K. 2013. Species, p 377-399. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch15
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 15.1
Figure 15.1

Genetic steps that contribute to the formation of pathogenic species from an ancestor. These include the acquisition of the virulence plasmid, several pathogenicity islands (SHI-1 and SHI-2 are shown), and the loss of ancestral traits incompatible with virulence (e.g., and ; often referred to as antivirulence genes) ( ). doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch15f1

Citation: Binet R, Lampel K. 2013. Species, p 377-399. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 15.2
Figure 15.2

2a virulence plasmid map. A SalI restriction map of the 220-kb plasmid is shown in the center. Sections of SalI fragments B and P (upper map) and fragments P, H, and D (lower map) are expanded to illustrate the virulence loci carried in these regions. The expanded regions are contiguous and cover 32 kb. The open reading frame for is separated from that of by 314 bp. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch15f2

Citation: Binet R, Lampel K. 2013. Species, p 377-399. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818463.chap15
1. Adler, B.,, C. Sasakawa,, T. Tobe,, S. Makino,, K. Komatsu,, and M. Yoshikawa. 1989. A dual transcriptional activation system for the 230 kb plasmid genes coding for virulence-associated antigens of Shigella flexneri. Mol. Microbiol. 3:627635.
2. Agle, M. E.,, S. E. Martin,, and H. P. Blaschek. 2005. Survival of Shigella boydii 18 in bean salad. J. Food Prot. 68:838840.
3. Ahmed, A. M.,, K. Furuta,, K. Shimomura,, Y. Kasama,, and T. Shimamoto. 2006. Genetic characterization of multidrug resistance in Shigella spp. from Japan. J. Med. Microbiol. 55:16851691.
4. Al-Nimri, S.,, W. A. Miller,, B. A. Byrne,, G. Guibert,, and L. Chen. 2009. A unified approach to molecular epidemiology investigations: tools and patterns in California as a case study for endemic shigellosis. BMC Infect. Dis. 9:184.
5. Andrews, W. H., 1989. Methods for recovering injured classical entric pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella, Shigella and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) from foods, p. 55113. In B. Ray (ed.), Injured Index and Pathogenic Bacteria: Occurrence and Detection in Foods, Water and Feeds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
6. Anyanful, A.,, J. M. Dolan-Livengood,, T. Lewis,, S. Sheth,, M. N. Dezalia,, M. A. Sherman,, L. V. Kalman,, G. M. Benian,, and D. Kalman. 2005. Paralysis and killing of Caenorhabditis elegans by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli requires the bacterial tryptophanase gene. Mol. Microbiol. 57:9881007.
7. Arvelo, W.,, C. J. Hinkle,, T. A. Nguyen,, T. Weiser,, N. Steinmuller,, F. Khan,, S. Gladbach,, M. Parsons,, D. Jennings,, B. P. Zhu,, E. Mintz,, and A. Bowen. 2009. Transmission risk factors and treatment of pediatric shigellosis during a large daycare center-associated outbreak of multidrug resistant Shigella sonnei. Implications for the management of shigellosis outbreaks among children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 28:976980.
8. Bagamboula, C. F.,, M. Uyttendaele,, and J. Debevere. 2002. Acid tolerance of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri. J. Appl. Microbiol. 93:479486.
9. Bangtrakulnonth, A.,, A. R. Vieira,, D. M. A. L. Wong,, S. Pornreongwong,, C. Pulsrikarn,, P. Sawanpanyalert,, R. S. Hendriksen,, and F. M. Aarestrup. 2008. Shigella from humans in Thailand during 1993 to 2006: spatial-time trends in species and serotype distribution. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 5:773784.
9.a. Bardhan, P.,, A. S. G. Faruque,, A. Naheed,, and D. A. Sack. 2010. Decreasing shigellosis-related deaths without Shigella spp.-specific interventions. Asia Emerg. Infect. Dis. 16:17181723.
10. Baxt, L. A.,, and M. B. Goldberg. 2010. Anaerobic environment of the intestine primes pathogenic Shigella for infection. Exp. Rev. Anti Infect. Ther. 8:12251229.
11. Beloin, C.,, and C. J. Dorman. 2003. An extended role for the nucleoid structuring protein H-NS in the virulence gene regulatory cascade of Shigella flexneri. Mol. Microbiol. 47:825838.
12. Beloin, C.,, A. Roux,, and J. M. Ghigo. 2008. Escherichia coli biofilms. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 322:249289.
13. Bennish, M. L. 1991. Potentially lethal complications of shigellosis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13(Suppl. 4):S319S324.
14. Bernardini, M. L.,, J. Mounier,, H. D’Hauteville,, M. Coquis-Rondon,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 1989. Identification of icsA, a plasmid locus of Shigella flexneri that governs bacterial intra- and intercellular spread through interaction with F-actin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:38673871.
15. Blocker, A.,, N. Jouihri,, E. Larquet,, P. Gounon,, F. Ebel,, C. Parsot,, P. Sansonetti,, and A. Allaoui. 2001. Structure and composition of the Shigella flexneri “needle complex”, a part of its type III secretion. Mol. Microbiol. 39:652663.
16. Blocker, A. J.,, J. E. Deane,, A. K. Veenendaal,, P. Roversi,, J. L. Hodgkinson,, S. Johnson,, and S. M. Lea. 2008. What’s the point of the type III secretion system needle? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:65076513.
17. Botteaux, A.,, M. P. Sory,, L. Biskri,, C. Parsot,, and A. Allaoui. 2009. MxiC is secreted by and controls the substrate specificity of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion apparatus. Mol. Microbiol. 71:449460.
18. Boumghar-Bourtchai, L.,, P. Mariani-Kurkdjian,, E. Bingen,, I. Filliol,, A. Dhalluin,, S. A. Ifrane,, F. X. Weill,, and R. Leclercq. 2008. Macrolide-resistant Shigella sonnei. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:12971299.
19. Brahmbhatt, H. N.,, A. A. Lindberg,, and K. N. Timmis. 1992. Shigella lipopolysaccharide: structure, genetics, and vaccine development. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 180:4564.
20. Brandl, M. T. 2006. Fitness of human enteric pathogens on plants and implications for food safety. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 44:367392.
21. Buchrieser, C.,, P. Glaser,, C. Rusniok,, H. Nedjari,, H. D’Hauteville,, F. Kunst,, P. Sansonetti,, and C. Parsot. 2000. The virulence plasmid pWR100 and the repertoire of proteins secreted by the type III secretion apparatus of Shigella flexneri. Mol. Microbiol. 38:760771.
22. Bunning, V. K.,, R. B. Raybourne,, and D. L. Archer. 1988. Foodborne enterobacterial pathogens and rheumatoid disease. Soc. Appl. Bacteriol. Symp. Ser. 17:87S107S.
23.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1994. Outbreak of Shigella flexneri 2a infections on a cruise ship. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 43:657.
24.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997. Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3:581583.
25.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Outbreak of Shigella sonnei infections associated with eating a nationally distributed dip—California, Oregon, and Washington, January 2000. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49:6061.
26.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Shigella Surveillance: Annual Summary, 2006. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Altanta, GA.
27.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria (NARMS): Human Isolates Final Report, 2008. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA.
28.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food - 10 states, 2009. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 59:418422.
29. Charles, M.,, M. Perez,, J. H. Kobil,, and M. B. Goldberg. 2001. Polar targeting of Shigella virulence factor IcsA in Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrio. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:98719876.
30. Chart, H.,, R. M. A. Daniel,, and T. Cheasty. 2009. The expression of lipopolysaccharide by strains of Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri and Shigella boydii and their cross-reacting strains of Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 292:2126.
31. Chattopadhyay, S.,, S. J. Weissman,, V. N. Minin,, T. A. Russo,, D. E. Dykhuizen,, and E. V. Sokurenko. 2009. High frequency of hotspot mutations in core genes of Escherichia coli due to short-term positive selection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106:1241212417.
32. Cornelis, G. R. 2010. The type III secretion injectisome, a complex nanomachine for intracellular ‘toxin’ delivery. Biol. Chem. 391:745751.
33. Daskalakis, D. C.,, and M. J. Blaser. 2007. Another perfect storm: Shigella, men who have sex with men, and HIV. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:335337.
34. Davis, H.,, J. P. Taylor,, J. N. Perdue,, G. N. Stelma,, J. M. Humphreys,, R. Rowntree,, and K. D. Greene. 1988. A shigellosis outbreak traced to commercially distributed shredded lettuce. Am. J. Epidemiol. 128:13121321.
35. Deane, J. E.,, P. Abrusci,, S. Johnson,, and S. M. Lea. 2010. Timing is everything: the regulation of type III secretion. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 67:10651075.
36. Deer, D. M.,, and K. A. Lampel. 2010. Development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay with internal amplification control for the detection of Shigella species and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. J. Food Prot. 73:16181625.
37. Demali, K. A.,, A. L. Jue,, and K. Burridge. 2006. IpaA targets β1 integrins and rho to promote actin cytoskeleton rearrangements necessary for Shigella entry. J. Biol. Chem. 281:3953439541.
38. Dembek, Z. F.,, M. G. Kortepeter,, and J. A. Pavlin. 2007. Discernment between deliberate and natural infectious disease outbreaks. Epidemiol. Infect. 135:353371.
39. Dorman, C. J.,, S. McKenna,, and C. Beloin. 2001. Regulation of virulence gene expression in Shigella flexneri, a facultative intracellular pathogen. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 291:8996.
40. Dubois, V.,, M. P. Parizano,, C. Arpin,, L. Coulange,, M. C. Bezian,, and C. Quentin. 2007. High genetic stability of integrons in clinical isolates of Shigella spp. of worldwide origin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:13331340.
41. Dupont, H. L.,, M. M. Levine,, R. B. Hornick,, and S. B. Formal. 1989. Inoculum size in shigellosis and implications for expected mode of transmission. J. Infect. Dis. 159:11261128.
42. Ekdahl, K.,, and Y. Andersson. 2005. The epidemiology of travel-associated shigellosis—regional risks, seasonality and serogroups. J. Infect. 51:222229.
43. Escobar-Paramo, P.,, O. Clermont,, A. B. Blanc-Potard,, H. Bui,, B. C. Le,, and E. Denamur. 2004. A specific genetic background is required for acquisition and expression of virulence factors in Escherichia coli. Mol. Biol. Evol. 21:10851094.
44. Falconi, M.,, B. Colonna,, G. Prosseda,, G. Micheli,, and C. O. Gualerzi. 1998. Thermoregulation of Shigella and Escherichia coli EIEC pathogenicity. A temperature-dependent structural transition of DNA modulates accessibility of virF promoter to transcriptional repressor H-NS. EMBO J. 17:70337043.
45. Farfan, M. J.,, T. A. Garay,, C. A. Prado,, I. Filliol,, M. T. Ulloa,, and C. S. Toro. 2010. A new multiplex PCR for differential identification of Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei and detection of Shigella virulence determinants. Epidemiol. Infect. 138:525533.
46. Fasano, A.,, F. R. Noriega,, D. R. Maneval, Jr.,, S. Chanasongcram,, R. Russell,, S. Guandalini,, and M. M. Levine. 1995. Shigella enterotoxin 1: an enterotoxin of Shigella flexneri 2a active in rabbit small intestine in vivo and in vitro. J. Clin. Investig. 95:28532861.
47. Folster, J. P.,, G. Pecic,, A. Krueger,, R. Rickert,, K. Burger,, A. Carattoli,, and J. M. Whichard. 2010. Identification and characterization of CTX-M-producing Shigella isolates in the United States. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54:22692270.
48. Fontaine, A.,, J. Arondel,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 1988. Role of Shiga toxin in the pathogenesis of bacillary dysentery, studied by using a Tox- mutant of Shigella dysenteriae 1. Infect. Immun. 56:30993109.
49. Formal, S. B.,, E. H. LaBrec,, T. H. Kent,, and S. Falkow. 1965. Abortive intestinal infection with an Escherichia coli-Shigella flexneri hybrid strain. J. Bacteriol. 89:13741382.
50. Gassama Sow, A.,, A. Aidara-Kane,, O. Barraud,, M. Gatet,, F. Denis,, and M. C. Ploy. 2010. High prevalence of trimethoprim-resistance cassettes in class 1 and 2 integrons in Senegalese Shigella spp isolates. J. Infect. Dev. Ctries. 4:207212.
51. Germani, Y.,, and P. Sansonetti,. 2006. The Genus Shigella, p. 99122. In M. Dworkin,, S. Falkow,, E. Rosenberg,, K. H. Schleifer,, and E. Stackebrandt (ed.), The Prokaryotes. Springer, New York, NY.
52. Giannella, R. A.,, S. A. Broitman,, and N. Zamcheck. 1972. Gastric acid barrier to ingested microorganisms in man: studies in vivo and in vitro. Gut 13:251256.
53. Gikas, A.,, J. Pediaditis,, Z. Giti,, J. Papadakis,, and Y. Tselentis. 1996. Shigellosis on an Italian cruise ship. Lancet 348:15931594.
54. Groisman, E. A.,, and H. Ochman. 1993. Cognate gene clusters govern invasion of host epithelial cells by Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri. EMBO J. 12:37793787.
55. Guerrero, L.,, J. J. Calva,, A. L. Morrow,, F. R. Velazquez,, F. Tuzdzib,, Y. Lopezvidal,, H. Ortega,, H. Arroyo,, T. G. Cleary,, L. K. Pickering,, and G. M. Ruizpalacios. 1994. Asymptomatic Shigella infections in a cohort of mexican children younger than 2 years of age. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 13:597602.
56. Gunduz, G. T.,, and G. Tuncel. 2006. Biofilm formation in an ice cream plant. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 89:329336.
57. Haley, C. C.,, K. L. Ong,, K. Hedberg,, P. R. Cieslak,, E. Scallan,, R. Marcus,, S. Shin,, A. Cronquist,, J. Gillespie,, T. F. Jones,, B. Shiferaw,, C. Fuller,, K. Edge,, S. M. Zansky,, P. A. Ryan,, R. M. Hoekstra,, and E. Mintz. 2010. Risk factors for sporadic shigellosis, FoodNet 2005. Foodborne. Pathog. Dis. 7:741747.
58. Haltalin, K. C.,, J. D. Nelson,, R. Ring III,, M. Sladoje,, and L. V. Hinton. 1967. Double-blind treatment study of shigellosis comparing ampicillin, sulfadiazine, and placebo. J. Pediatr. 70:970981.
59. Heier, B. T.,, K. Nygard,, G. Kapperud,, B. A. Lindstedt,, G. S. Johannessen,, and H. Blekkan. 2009. Shigella sonnei infections in Norway associated with sugar peas, May-June 2009. Euro Surveill. 14:pii 19243.
60. Hershberg, R.,, H. Tang,, and D. A. Petrov. 2007. Reduced selection leads to accelerated gene loss in Shigella. Genome Biol. 8(8):R164.
61. High, N.,, J. Mounier,, M. C. Prevost,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 1992. IpaB of Shigella flexneri causes entry into epithelial cells and escape from the phagocytic vacuole. EMBO J. 11:19911999.
62. Hilbi, H.,, S. S. Weber,, C. Ragaz,, Y. Nyfeler,, and S. Urwyler. 2007. Environmental predators as models for bacterial pathogenesis. Environ. Microbiol. 9:563575.
63. Hird, S.,, C. Stein,, T. Kuchenmuller,, and R. Green. 2009. Meeting report: second annual meeting of the World Health Organization initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 133:210212.
64. Houng, H. S.,, O. Sethabutr,, and P. Echeverria. 1997. A simple polymerase chain reaction technique to detect and differentiate Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli in human feces. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 28:1925.
65. Hutchinson, R. I. 1956. Some observations on the method of spread of Sonne dysentery. Mon. Bull. Minist. Health Public Health Lab Serv. 15:110118.
66. Hyams, K. C.,, A. L. Bourgeois,, B. R. Merrell,, P. Rozmajzl,, J. Escamilla,, S. A. Thornton,, G. M. Wasserman,, A. Burke,, P. Echeverria,, K. Y. Green, et al. 1991. Diarrheal disease during Operation Desert Shield. N. Engl. J. Med. 325:14231428.
67. Islam, M. S.,, M. K. Hasan,, and S. I. Khan. 1993. Growth and survival of Shigella flexneri in common Bangladeshi foods under various conditions of time and temperature. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:652654.
68. Islam, M. S.,, M. Z. Hossain,, S. I. Khan,, A. Felsenstein,, R. B. Sack,, and M. J. Albert. 1997. Detection of non-culturable Shigella dysenteriae 1 from artificially contaminated volunteers’ fingers using fluorescent antibody and PCR techniques. J. Diarrhoeal Dis. Res. 15:6570.
69. Izumiya, H.,, Y. Tada,, K. Ito,, T. Morita-Ishihara,, M. Ohnishi,, J. Terajima,, and H. Watanabe. 2009. Characterization of Shigella sonnei isolates from travel-associated cases in Japan. J. Med. Microbiol. 58:14861491.
70. Jeong, H. J.,, E. S. Jang,, B. I. Han,, K. H. Lee,, M. S. Ock,, H. H. Kong,, D. Il Chung,, S. Y. Seol,, D. T. Cho,, and H. S. Yu. 2007. Acanthamoeba: could it be an environmental host of Shigella? Exp. Parasitol. 115:181186.
71. Jiang, Y.,, F. Yang,, X. Zhang,, J. Yang,, L. Chen,, Y. Yan,, H. Nie,, Z. Xiong,, J. Wang,, J. Dong,, Y. Xue,, X. Xu,, Y. Zhu,, S. Chen,, and Q. Jin. 2005. The complete sequence and analysis of the large virulence plasmid pSS of Shigella sonnei. Plasmid 54:149159.
72. Jin, Q.,, Z. Yuan,, J. Xu,, Y. Wang,, Y. Shen,, W. Lu,, J. Wang,, H. Liu,, J. Yang,, F. Yang,, X. Zhang,, J. Zhang,, G. Yang,, H. Wu,, D. Qu,, J. Dong,, L. Sun,, Y. Xue,, A. Zhao,, Y. Gao,, J. Zhu,, B. Kan,, K. Ding,, S. Chen,, H. Cheng,, Z. Yao,, B. He,, R. Chen,, D. Ma,, B. Qiang,, Y. Wen,, Y. Hou,, and J. Yu. 2002. Genome sequence of Shigella flexneri 2a: insights into pathogenicity through comparison with genomes of Escherichia coli K12 and O157. Nucleic Acids Res. 30:44324441.
73. Jin, Y. H.,, Y. H. Oh,, J. H. Jung,, S. J. Kim,, J. A. Kim,, K. Y. Han,, M. Y. Kim,, S. G. Park,, and Y. K. Lee. 2010. Antimicrobial resistance patterns and characterization of integrons of Shigella sonnei isolates in Seoul, 1999–2008. J. Microbiol. 48:236242.
74. Jonsson, J.,, M. C. Alvarez-Castillo,, J. C. Sanz,, R. Ramiro,, E. Ballester,, M. Fernanez,, M. A. Echeita,, and N. F. Martinez. 2005. Late detection of a shigellosis outbreak in a school in Madrid. Euro Surveill. 10:268270.
75. Jouihri, N.,, M. P. Sory,, A. L. Page,, P. Gounon,, C. Parsot,, and A. Allaoui. 2003. MxiK and MxiN interact with the Spa47 ATPase and are required for transit of the needle components MxiH and MxiI, but not of Ipa proteins, through the type III secretion apparatus of Shigella flexneri. Mol. Microbiol. 49:755767.
76. Kaminski, R. W.,, and E. V. Oaks. 2009. Inactivated and subunit vaccines to prevent shigellosis. Exp. Rev. Vaccines 8:16931704.
77. Kane, C. D.,, R. Schuch,, W. A. Day, Jr., and A. T. Maurelli. 2002. MxiE regulates intracellular expression of factors secreted by the Shigella flexneri 2a type III secretion system. J. Bacteriol. 184:44094419.
78. Kennedy, F. M.,, J. Astbury,, J. R. Needham,, and T. Cheasty. 1993. Shigellosis due to occupational contact with non-human primates. Epidemiol. Infect. 110:247251.
79. Kerneis, S.,, P. J. Guerin,, L. von Seidlein,, D. Legros,, and R. F. Grais. 2009. A look back at an ongoing problem: Shigella dysenteriae type 1 epidemics in refugee settings in Central Africa (1993–1995). PLoS One 4(2):e4494.
80. Kim, D. W.,, G. Lenzen,, A. L. Page,, P. Legrain,, P. J. Sansonetti,, and C. Parsot. 2005. The Shigella flexneri effector OspG interferes with innate immune responses by targeting ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1404614051.
81. Kimura, A. C.,, K. Johnson,, M. S. Palumbo,, J. Hopkins,, J. C. Boase,, R. Reporter,, M. Goldoft,, K. R. Stefonek,, J. A. Farrar,, T. J. Van Gilder,, and D. J. Vugia. 2004. Multistate shigellosis outbreak and commercially prepared food, United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:11471149.
82. Konkel, M. E.,, and K. Tilly. 2000. Temperature-regulated expression of bacterial virulence genes. Microbes Infect. 2:157166.
83. Kosek, M.,, P. P. Yori,, and M. P. Olortegui. 2010. Shigellosis update: advancing antibiotic resistance, investment empowered vaccine development, and green bananas. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 23:475480.
84. Kothary, M. H.,, and U. S. Babu. 2001. Infective dose of foodborne pathogens in volunteers: a review. J. Food Saf. 21:4973.
85. Kotloff, K. L.,, J. P. Winickoff,, B. Ivanoff,, J. D. Clemens,, D. L. Swerdlow,, P. J. Sansonetti,, G. K. Adak,, and M. M. Levine. 1999. Global burden of Shigella infections: implications for vaccine development and implementation of control strategies. Bull. W. H. O. 77:651666.
86. LaBrec, E. H.,, H. Schneider,, T. J. Magnani,, and S. B. Formal. 1964. Epithelial cell penetration as an essential step in the pathogenesis of bacillary dysentery. J. Bacteriol. 88:15031518.
87. Lan, R.,, M. C. Alles,, K. Donohoe,, M. B. Martinez,, and P. R. Reeves. 2004. Molecular evolutionary relationships of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. Infect. Immun. 72:50805088.
88. Lawlor, K. M.,, P. A. Daskaleros,, R. E. Robinson,, and S. M. Payne. 1987. Virulence of iron transport mutants of Shigella flexneri and utilization of host iron compounds. Infect. Immun. 55:594599.
89. Le, G. T.,, M. Mavris,, M. C. Martino,, M. L. Bernardini,, E. Denamur,, and C. Parsot. 2005. Analysis of virulence plasmid gene expression defines three classes of effectors in the type III secretion system of Shigella flexneri. Microbiology 151:951962.
90. Levine, M. M.,, K. L. Kotloff,, E. M. Barry,, M. F. Pasetti,, and M. B. Sztein. 2007. Clinical trials of Shigella vaccines: two steps forward and one step back on a long, hard road. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 5:540553.
91. Lew, J. F.,, D. L. Swerdlow,, M. E. Dance,, P. M. Griffin,, C. A. Bopp,, M. J. Gillenwater,, T. Mercatante,, and R. I. Glass. 1991. An outbreak of shigellosis aboard a cruise ship caused by a multiple-antibiotic-resistant strain of Shigella-flexneri. Am. J. Epidemiol. 134:413420.
92. Lewis, H. C.,, S. Ethelberg,, K. E. P. Olsen,, E. M. Nielsen,, M. Lisby,, S. B. Madsen,, J. Boel,, R. Stafford,, M. Kirk,, H. V. Smith,, S. Tikumrum,, A. Wisetrojana,, A. Bangtrakulnonth,, J. Vithayarungruangsri,, P. Siriarayaporn,, K. Ungchusak,, J. Bishop,, and K. Molbak. 2009. Outbreaks of Shigella sonnei infections in Denmark and Australia linked to consumption of imported raw baby corn. Epidemiol. Infect. 137:326334.
93. Lewis, H. C.,, M. Kirk,, S. Ethelberg,, R. Stafford,, K. Olsen,, E. M. Nielsen,, M. Lisby,, S. B. Madsen,, and K. Molbak. 2007. Outbreaks of shigellosis in Denmark and Australia associated with imported baby corn, August 2007—final summary. Euro Surveill. 12:E071004.
94. Li, H.,, H. Xu,, Y. Zhou,, J. Zhang,, C. Long,, S. Li,, S. Chen,, J. M. Zhou,, and F. Shao. 2007. The phosphothreonine lyase activity of a bacterial type III effector family. Science 315:10001003.
95. Li, Y. Y.,, B. Y. Cao,, B. Liu,, D. Liu,, Q. L. Gao,, X. Peng,, J. L. Wu,, D. A. Bastin,, L. Feng,, and L. Wang. 2009. Molecular detection of all 34 distinct O-antigen forms of Shigella. J. Med. Microbiol. 58:6981.
96. Lofdahl, M.,, S. Ivarsson,, S. Andersson,, J. Langmark,, and L. Plym-Forshell. 2009. An outbreak of Shigella dysenteriae in Sweden, May-June 2009, with sugar snaps as the suspected source. Euro Surveill. 14(28):pii 19268.
97. Lynch, M. F.,, R. V. Tauxe,, and C. W. Hedberg. 2009. The growing burden of foodborne outbreaks due to contaminated fresh produce: risks and opportunities. Epidemiol. Infect. 137:307315.
98. Magdalena, J.,, A. Hachani,, M. Chamekh,, N. Jouihri,, P. Gounon,, A. Blocker,, and A. Allaoui. 2002. Spa32 regulates a switch in substrate specificity of the type III secreton of Shigella flexneri from needle components to Ipa proteins. J. Bacteriol. 184:34333441.
99. Mandal, J.,, N. Mondal,, S. Mahadevan,, and S. C. Parija. 2010. Emergence of resistance to third-generation cephalosporin in Shigella—a case report. J. Trop. Pediatr. 56:278279.
100. Mandomando, I.,, D. Jaintilal,, M. J. Pons,, X. Valles,, M. Espasa,, L. Mensa,, B. Sigauque,, S. Sanz,, J. Sacarlal,, E. Macete,, F. Abacassamo,, P. L. Alonso,, and J. Ruiz. 2009. Antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of resistance in Shigella and Salmonella isolates from children under five years of age with diarrhea in rural Mozambique. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:24502454.
101. Marteyn, B.,, N. P. West,, D. F. Browning,, J. A. Cole,, J. G. Shaw,, F. Palm,, J. Mounier,, M. C. Prevost,, P. Sansonetti,, and C. M. Tang. 2010. Modulation of Shigella virulence in response to available oxygen in vivo. Nature 465:355358.
102. Martinez-Argudo, I.,, and A. J. Blocker. 2010. The Shigella T3SS needle transmits a signal for MxiC release, which controls secretion of effectors. Mol. Microbiol. 78:13651378.
103. Maurelli, A. T. 2007. Black holes, antivirulence genes, and gene inactivation in the evolution of bacterial pathogens. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 267:18.
104. Maurelli, A. T.,, B. Baudry,, H. D’Hauteville,, T. L. Hale,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 1985. Cloning of plasmid DNA sequences involved in invasion of HeLa cells by Shigella flexneri. Infect. Immun. 49:164171.
105. Maurelli, A. T.,, B. Blackmon,, and R. Curtiss III. 1984. Temperature-dependent expression of virulence genes in Shigella species. Infect. Immun. 43:195201.
106. Maurelli, A. T.,, R. E. Fernandez,, C. A. Bloch,, C. K. Rode,, and A. Fasano. 1998. “Black holes” and bacterial pathogenicity: a large genomic deletion that enhances the virulence of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:39433948.
107. Maurelli, A. T.,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 1988. Identification of a chromosomal gene controlling temperature-regulated expression of Shigella virulence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:28202824.
108. Mavris, M.,, A. L. Page,, R. Tournebize,, B. Demers,, P. Sansonetti,, and C. Parsot. 2002. Regulation of transcription by the activity of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion apparatus. Mol. Microbiol. 43:15431553.
109. Mavris, M.,, P. J. Sansonetti,, and C. Parsot. 2002. Identification of the cis-acting site involved in activation of promoters regulated by activity of the type III secretion apparatus in Shigella flexneri. J. Bacteriol. 184:67516759.
110. McKenna, S.,, C. Beloin,, and C. J. Dorman. 2003. In vitro DNA-binding properties of VirB, the Shigella flexneri virulence regulatory protein. FEBS Lett. 545:183187.
111. Mead, P. S.,, L. Slutsker,, V. Dietz,, L. F. McCaig,, J. S. Bresee,, C. Shapiro,, P. M. Griffin,, and R. V. Tauxe. 1999. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:607625.
112. Menard, R.,, M. C. Prevost,, P. Gounon,, P. Sansonetti,, and C. Dehio. 1996. The secreted Ipa complex of Shigella flexneri promotes entry into mammalian cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:12541258.
113. Menard, R.,, P. Sansonetti,, and C. Parsot. 1994. The secretion of the Shigella flexneri Ipa invasins is activated by epithelial cells and controlled by IpaB and IpaD. EMBO J. 13:52935302.
114. Menard, R.,, P. J. Sansonetti,, and C. Parsot. 1993. Nonpolar mutagenesis of the ipa genes defines IpaB, IpaC, and IpaD as effectors of Shigella flexneri entry into epithelial cells. J. Bacteriol. 175:58995906.
115. Miller, M. A.,, J. Sentz,, M. A. Rabaa,, and E. D. Mintz. 2008. Global epidemiology of infections due to Shigella, Salmonella serotype Typhi, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Epidemiol. Infect. 136:433435.
116. Morita-Ishihara, T.,, M. Ogawa,, H. Sagara,, M. Yoshida,, E. Katayama,, and C. Sasakawa. 2006. Shigella Spa33 is an essential C-ring component of type III secretion machinery. J. Biol. Chem. 281:599607.
117. Moss, J. E.,, T. J. Cardozo,, A. Zychlinsky,, and E. A. Groisman. 1999. The selC-associated SHI-2 pathogenicity island of Shigella flexneri. Mol. Microbiol. 33:7483.
118. Muller, L.,, T. Jensen,, R. F. Petersen,, K. Molbak,, and S. Ethelberg. 2009. Imported fresh sugar peas as suspected source of an outbreak of Shigella sonnei in Denmark, April-May 2009. Euro Surveill. 14:pii 19241.
119. Nakamura, M. 1962. The survival of Shigella sonnei on cotton, glass, wood, paper, and metal at various temperatures. J. Hyg. (London) 60:3539.
120. Nakamura, M.,, and B. C. Taylor. 1965. Survival of Shigella in biological materials. Health Lab Sci. 2:220226.
121. Nassif, X.,, M. C. Mazert,, J. Mounier,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 1987. Evaluation with an iuc::Tn10 mutant of the role of aerobactin production in the virulence of Shigella flexneri. Infect. Immun. 55:19631969.
122. Nataro, J. P.,, J. Seriwatana,, A. Fasano,, D. R. Maneval,, L. D. Guers,, F. Noriega,, F. Dubovsky,, M. M. Levine,, and J. G. Morris, Jr. 1995. Identification and cloning of a novel plasmid-encoded enterotoxin of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella strains. Infect. Immun. 63:47214728.
123. Navarro-Garcia, F.,, J. Gutierrez-Jimenez,, C. Garcia-Tovar,, L. A. Castro,, H. Salazar-Gonzalez,, and V. Cordova. 2010. Pic, an autotransporter protein secreted by different pathogens in the Enterobacteriaceae family, is a potent mucus secretagogue. Infect. Immun. 78:41014109.
124. Nguyen Thi, K. N.,, V. Ha,, T. N. Tran Vu,, R. Stabler,, T. D. Pham,, T. M. Le,, V, H. van Doorn,, A. Cerdeno-Tarraga,, N. Thomson,, J. Campbell,, M. H. Nguyen Van,, T. N. Tran Thi,, V. M. Pham,, T. T. Cao,, B. Wren,, J. Farrar,, and S. Baker. 2010. The sudden dominance of bla(CTX-M) harbouring plasmids in Shigella spp. circulating in southern Vietnam. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 4.
125. Oaks, E. V.,, T. L. Hale,, and S. B. Formal. 1986. Serum immune response to Shigella protein antigens in rhesus monkeys and humans infected with Shigella spp. Infect. Immun. 53:5763.
126. O’Brien, A. D.,, V. L. Tesh,, A. Donohue-Rolfe,, M. P. Jackson,, S. Olsnes,, K. Sandvig,, A. A. Lindberg,, and G. T. Keusch. 1992. Shiga toxin: biochemistry, genetics, mode of action, and role in pathogenesis. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 180:6594.
127. Ogawa, M.,, T. Yoshimori,, T. Suzuki,, H. Sagara,, N. Mizushima,, and C. Sasakawa. 2005. Escape of intracellular Shigella from autophagy. Science 307:727731.
128. Page, A. L.,, H. Ohayon,, P. J. Sansonetti,, and C. Parsot. 1999. The secreted IpaB and IpaC invasins and their cytoplasmic chaperone IpgC are required for intercellular dissemination of Shigella flexneri. Cell. Microbiol. 1:183193.
129. Parsot, C. 2009. Shigella type III secretion effectors: how, where, when, for what purposes? Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 12:110116.
130. Parsot, C.,, E. Ageron,, C. Penno,, M. Mavris,, K. Jamoussi,, H. D’Hauteville,, P. Sansonetti,, and B. Demers. 2005. A secreted anti-activator, OspD1, and its chaperone, Spa15, are involved in the control of transcription by the type III secretion apparatus activity in Shigella flexneri. Mol. Microbiol. 56:16271635.
131. Passwell, J. H.,, S. Ashkenzi,, Y. Banet-Levi,, R. Ramon-Saraf,, N. Farzam,, L. Lerner-Geva,, H. Even-Nir,, B. Yerushalmi,, C. Chu,, J. Shiloach,, J. B. Robbins,, and R. Schneerson. 2010. Age-related efficacy of Shigella O-specific polysaccharide conjugates in 1-4-year-old Israeli children. Vaccine 28:22312235.
132. Peng, J. P.,, J. Yang,, and Q. Jin. 2009. The molecular evolutionary history of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Infect. Genet. Evol. 9:147152.
133. Picking, W. L.,, H. Nishioka,, P. D. Hearn,, M. A. Baxter,, A. T. Harrington,, A. Blocker,, and W. D. Picking. 2005. IpaD of Shigella flexneri is independently required for regulation of Ipa protein secretion and efficient insertion of IpaB and IpaC into host membranes. Infect. Immun. 73:14321440.
134. Pilonieta, M. C.,, and G. P. Munson. 2008. The chaperone IpgC copurifies with the virulence regulator MxiE. J. Bacteriol. 190:22492251.
135. Prosseda, G.,, M. Falconi,, M. Nicoletti,, M. Casalino,, G. Micheli,, and B. Colonna. 2002. Histone-like proteins and the Shigella invasivity regulon. Res. Microbiol. 153:461468.
136. Rajakumar, K.,, C. Sasakawa,, and B. Adler. 1997. Use of a novel approach, termed island probing, identifies the Shigella flexneri she pathogenicity island which encodes a homolog of the immunoglobulin A protease-like family of proteins. Infect. Immun. 65:46064614.
137. Ram, P. K.,, J. A. Crump,, S. K. Gupta,, M. A. Miller,, and E. D. Mintz. 2008. Part II. Analysis of data gaps pertaining to Shigella infections in low and medium human development index countries, 1984–2005. Epidemiol. Infect. 136:577603.
138. Ramarao, N.,, C. C. Le,, T. Izard,, R. Bourdet-Sicard,, E. Ageron,, P. J. Sansonetti,, M. F. Carlier,, and N. G. Tran Van. 2007. Capping of actin filaments by vinculin activated by the Shigella IpaA carboxyl-terminal domain. FEBS Lett. 581:853857.
139. Ranjbar, R.,, M. M. S. Dallal,, M. Talebi,, and M. R. Pourshafie. 2008. Increased isolation and characterization of Shigella sonnei obtained from hospitalized children in Tehran, Iran. J. Health Popul. Nutr. 26:426430.
140. Reller, M. E.,, J. M. Nelson,, K. Molbak,, D. M. Ackman,, D. J. Schoonmaker-Bopp,, T. P. Root,, and E. D. Mintz. 2006. A large, multiple-restaurant outbreak of infection with Shigella flexneri serotype 2a traced to tomatoes. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42:163169.
141. Rohde, J. R.,, A. Breitkreutz,, A. Chenal,, P. J. Sansonetti,, and C. Parsot. 2007. Type III secretion effectors of the IpaH family are E3 ubiquitin ligases. Cell Host Microbe 1:7783.
142. Rout, W. R.,, S. B. Formal,, R. A. Giannella,, and G. J. Dammin. 1975. Pathophysiology of Shigella diarrhea in the rhesus monkey: intestinal transport, morphological, and bacteriological studies. Gastroenterology 68:270278.
143. Sabra, A. H.,, G. F. Araj,, M. M. Kattar,, R. Y. Abi-Rached,, M. T. Khairallah,, J. D. Klena,, and G. M. Matar. 2009. Molecular characterization of ESBL-producing Shigella sonnei isolates from patients with bacilliary dysentery in Lebanon. J. Infect. Dev. Ctries. 3:300305.
144. Saeed, A.,, H. Abd,, B. Edvinsson,, and G. Sandstrom. 2009. Acanthamoeba castellanii an environmental host for Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella sonnei. Arch. Microbiol. 191:8388.
145. Sandlin, R. C.,, K. A. Lampel,, S. P. Keasler,, M. B. Goldberg,, A. L. Stolzer,, and A. T. Maurelli. 1995. Avirulence of rough mutants of Shigella flexneri: requirement of O antigen for correct unipolar localization of IcsA in the bacterial outer membrane. Infect. Immun. 63:229237.
146. Sasakawa, C. 2010. A new paradigm of bacteria-gut interplay brought through the study of Shigella. Proc. Jpn. Acad. B 86:229243.
147. Scallan, E.,, R. M. Hoekstra,, F. J. Angulo,, R. V. Tauxe,, M. A. Widdowson,, S. L. Roy,, J. L. Jones,, and P. M. Griffin. 2011. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States—major pathogens. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 17:715.
148. Scheiring, J.,, A. Rosales,, and L. B. Zimmerhackl. 2010. Clinical practice. Today’s understanding of the haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Eur. J. Pediatr. 169:713.
149. Schroeder, G. N.,, and H. Hilbi. 2008. Molecular pathogenesis of Shigella spp.: controlling host cell signaling, invasion, and death by type III secretion. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 21:134156.
150. Schuch, R.,, and A. T. Maurelli. 1999. The mxi-Spa type III secretory pathway of Shigella flexneri requires an outer membrane lipoprotein, MxiM, for invasin translocation. Infect. Immun. 67:19821991.
151. Shere, K. D.,, S. Sallustio,, A. Manessis,, T. G. D’Aversa,, and M. B. Goldberg. 1997. Disruption of IcsP, the major Shigella protease that cleaves IcsA, accelerates actin-based motility. Mol. Microbiol. 25:451462.
152. Simon, D. G.,, R. A. Kaslow,, J. Rosenbaum,, R. L. Kaye,, and A. Calin. 1981. Reiter’s syndrome following epidemic shigellosis. J. Rheumatol. 8:969973.
153. Srinivasa, H.,, M. Baijayanti,, and Y. Raksha. 2009. Magnitude of drug resistant shigellosis: a report from Bangalore. Indian J. Med. Microbiol. 27:358360.
154. Stafford, R.,, M. Kirk,, C. Selvey,, D. Staines,, H. Smith,, C. Towner,, and M. Salter. 2007. An outbreak of multi-resistant Shigella sonnei in Australia: possible link to the outbreak of shigellosis in Denmark associated with imported baby corn from Thailand. Euro Surveill. 12:E070913.
155. Stensrud, K. F.,, P. R. Adam,, C. D. La Mar,, A. J. Olive,, G. H. Lushington,, R. Sudharsan,, N. L. Shelton,, R. S. Givens,, W. L. Picking,, and W. D. Picking. 2008. Deoxycholate interacts with IpaD of Shigella flexneri in inducing the recruitment of IpaB to the type III secretion apparatus needle tip. J. Biol. Chem. 283:1864618654.
156. Sur, D.,, T. Ramamurthy,, J. Deen,, and S. K. Bhattacharya. 2004. Shigellosis : challenges management issues. Indian J. Med. Res. 120:454462.
157. Tamano, K.,, S. Aizawa,, E. Katayama,, T. Nonaka,, S. Imajoh-Ohmi,, A. Kuwae,, S. Nagai,, and C. Sasakawa. 2000. Supramolecular structure of the Shigella type III secretion machinery: the needle part is changeable in length and essential for delivery of effectors. EMBO J. 19:38763887.
158. Tamano, K.,, E. Katayama,, T. Toyotome,, and C. Sasakawa. 2002. Shigella Spa32 is an essential secretory protein for functional type III secretion machinery and uniformity of its needle length. J. Bacteriol. 184:12441252.
159. Tobe, T.,, S. Nagai,, N. Okada,, B. Adler,, M. Yoshikawa,, and C. Sasakawa. 1991. Temperature-regulated expression of invasion genes in Shigella flexneri is controlled through the transcriptional activation of the virB gene on the large plasmid. Mol. Microbiol. 5:887893.
160. Tobe, T.,, M. Yoshikawa,, T. Mizuno,, and C. Sasakawa. 1993. Transcriptional control of the invasion regulatory gene virB of Shigella flexneri: activation by virF and repression by H-NS. J. Bacteriol. 175:61426149.
161. Todd, E. C.,, J. D. Greig,, C. A. Bartleson,, and B. S. Michaels. 2008. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 4. Infective doses and pathogen carriage. J. Food Prot. 71:23392373.
162. Touchon, M.,, C. Hoede,, O. Tenaillon,, V. Barbe,, S. Baeriswyl,, P. Bidet,, E. Bingen,, S. Bonacorsi,, C. Bouchier,, O. Bouvet,, A. Calteau,, H. Chiapello,, O. Clermont,, S. Cruveiller,, A. Danchin,, M. Diard,, C. Dossat,, M. E. Karoui,, E. Frapy,, L. Garry,, J. M. Ghigo,, A. M. Gilles,, J. Johnson,, C. Le Bouguenec,, M. Lescat,, S. Mangenot,, V. Martinez-Jehanne,, I. Matic,, X. Nassif,, S. Oztas,, M. A. Petit,, C. Pichon,, Z. Rouy,, C. S. Ruf,, D. Schneider,, J. Tourret,, B. Vacherie,, D. Vallenet,, C. Medigue,, E. P. C. Rocha,, and E. Denamur. 2009. Organised genome dynamics in the Escherichia coli species results in highly diverse adaptive paths. PLoS Genet. 5:e1000344.
163. TranVanNhieu, G.,, E. Caron,, A. Hall,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 1999. IpaC induces actin polymerization and filopodia formation during Shigella entry into epithelial cells. EMBO J. 18:32493262.
164. Van, G. F.,, S. Genin,, and C. Boucher. 1993. Conservation of secretion pathways for pathogenicity determinants of plant and animal bacteria. Trends Microbiol. 1:175180.
165. Venkatesan, M. M.,, M. B. Goldberg,, D. J. Rose,, E. J. Grotbeck,, V. Burland,, and F. R. Blattner. 2001. Complete DNA sequence and analysis of the large virulence plasmid of Shigella flexneri. Infect. Immun. 69:32713285.
166. Vokes, S. A.,, S. A. Reeves,, A. G. Torres,, and S. M. Payne. 1999. The aerobactin iron transport system genes in Shigella flexneri are present within a pathogenicity island. Mol. Microbiol. 33:6373.
167. von Seidlein, L.,, D. R. Kim,, M. Ali,, H. Lee,, X. Wang,, V. D. Thiem,, d. G. Canh,, W. Chaicumpa,, M. D. Agtini,, A. Hossain,, Z. A. Bhutta,, C. Mason,, O. Sethabutr,, K. Talukder,, G. B. Nair,, J. L. Deen,, K. Kotloff,, and J. Clemens. 2006. A multicentre study of Shigella diarrhoea in six Asian countries: disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology. PLoS Med. 3:e353.
168. Vrints, M.,, E. Mairiaux,, E. Van Meervenne,, J. M. Collard,, and S. Bertrand. 2009. Surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility patterns among Shigella sonnei strains isolated in Belgium during the 18-year period 1990 to 2007. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:13791385.
169. Warren, B. R.,, M. E. Parish,, and K. R. Schneider. 2006. Shigella as a foodborne pathogen and current methods for detection in food. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 46:551567.
170. Warren, B. R.,, H. G. Yuk,, and K. R. Schneider. 2007. Survival of Shigella sonnei on smooth tomato surfaces, in potato salad and in raw ground beef. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 116:400404.
171. Watarai, M.,, S. Funato,, and C. Sasakawa. 1996. Interaction of Ipa proteins of Shigella flexneri with α5-β1 integrin promotes entry of the bacteria into mammalian cells. J. Exp. Med. 183:991999.
172. Watarai, M.,, T. Tobe,, M. Yoshikawa,, and C. Sasakawa. 1995. Contact of Shigella with host cells triggers release of Ipa invasins and is an essential function of invasiveness. EMBO J. 14:24612470.
173. Wong, M. R.,, V. Reddy,, H. Hanson,, K. M. Johnson,, B. Tsoi,, C. Cokes,, L. Gallagher,, L. Lee,, A. Plentsova,, T. Dang,, A. Krueger,, K. Joyce,, and S. Balter. 2010. Antimicrobial resistance trends of Shigella serotypes in New York City, 2006-2009. Microb. Drug Resist. 16:155161.
174. Woodward, D. L.,, C. G. Clark,, R. A. Caldeira,, R. Ahmed,, G. Soule,, L. Bryden,, H. Tabor,, P. Melito,, R. Foster,, J. Walsh,, L. K. Ng,, G. B. Malcolm,, N. Strockbine,, F. G. Rodgers, and the Canadian Public Health Lab Network. 2005. Identification and characterization of Shigella boydii 20 serovar nov., a new and emerging Shigella serotype. J. Med. Microbiol. 54:741748.
175. Yang, F.,, J. Yang,, X. B. Zhang,, L. H. Chen,, Y. Jiang,, Y. L. Yan,, X. D. Tang,, J. Wang,, Z. H. Xiong,, J. Dong,, Y. Xue,, Y. F. Zhu,, X. Y. Xu,, L. L. Sun,, S. X. Chen,, H. Nie,, J. P. Peng,, J. G. Xu,, Y. Wang,, Z. H. Yuan,, Y. M. Wen,, Z. J. Yao,, Y. Shen,, B. Q. Qiang,, Y. D. Hou,, J. Yu,, and Q. Jin. 2005. Genome dynamics and diversity of Shigella species, the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery. Nucleic Acids Res. 33:64456458.
176. Yang, J.,, H. Nie,, L. H. Chen,, X. B. Zhang,, F. Yang,, X. Y. Xu,, Y. F. Zhu,, J. Yu,, and Q. Jin. 2007. Revisiting the molecular evolutionary history of Shigella spp. J. Mol. Evol. 64:7179.
177. Yang, J.,, V. Sangal,, Q. Jin,, and J. Yu,. 2011. Shigella genomes: a tale of convergent evolution and specialization through IS expansion and genome reduction, p. 2339. In P. Fratamico,, Y. Liu,, and S. Kathariou (ed.), Genomes of Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
178. Zagrebneviene, G.,, V. Jasulaitiene,, B. Morkunas,, S. Tarbunas,, and J. Ladygaite. 2005. Shigella sonnei outbreak due to consumption of unpasteurised milk curds in Vilnius, Lithuania, 2004. Euro Surveill. 10:E051201.
179. Zaika, L. L. 2002. The effect of NaCl on survival of Shigella flexneri in broth as affected by temperature and pH. J. Food Prot. 65:774779.
180. Zaika, L. L.,, and J. G. Phillips. 2005. Model for the combined effects of temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration on survival of Shigella flexneri strain 5348 under aerobic conditions. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 101:179187.
181. Zhang, G.,, and K. A. Lampel. 2010. Comparison of chromogenic Biolog Rainbow agar Shigella/Aeromonas with xylose lysine desoxycholate agar for isolation and detection of Shigella spp. from foods. J. Food Prot. 73:14581465.
182. Zychlinsky, A.,, B. Kenny,, R. Menard,, M. C. Prevost,, I. B. Holland,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 1994. IpaB mediates macrophage apoptosis induced by Shigella flexneri. Mol. Microbiol. 11:619627.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 15.1

Virulence-associated loci of

Citation: Binet R, Lampel K. 2013. Species, p 377-399. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch15

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error