Chapter 16 : Species

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The presence and distribution of species in coastal waters are dependent upon a variety of environmental factors such as temperature, salt concentration, pH, and nutrients. Vibrios tend to be more common in warmer waters, especially when temperatures rise above 17°C, and depending on the species, they tolerate a range of salinities. Vibrios, which are generally the predominant bacterial genus in estuarine waters, are associated with a great variety of seafood. This chapter discusses isolation and identification of species before going on to explain enumeration in seafood and susceptibility to physical/chemical treatments such as irradiation and high pressure. Various species – , , , , , and are individually discussed in this chapter.

Citation: Oliver J, Pruzzo C, Vezzulli L, Kaper J. 2013. Species, p 401-439. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch16
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Figure 16.1

Classic model of CT mode of action involving cAMP. More recent evidence indicates that prostaglandins and the enteric nervous system are also involved in the response to CT (see the text for details). (A) Adenylate cyclase, located in the basolateral membrane of intestinal epithelial cells, is regulated by G proteins. CT binds via the B subunit pentamer (shown as open circles with the A subunit as the inverted solid triangle) to the GM1 ganglioside receptor inserted into the lipid bilayer. (B) The toxin enters the cell via endosomes, and the A1 peptide ADP-ribosylates G located in the basolateral membrane. (C) Increased cAMP activates protein kinase A, leading to protein phosphorylation. In crypt cells, the protein phosphorylation leads to increased Cl secretion; in villus cells, it leads to decreased NaCl absorption. Adapted from reference . doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch16f1

Citation: Oliver J, Pruzzo C, Vezzulli L, Kaper J. 2013. Species, p 401-439. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch16
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Figure 16.2

Correlation between culturability of spp. from estuarine environments and water temperature. From Pfeffer et al. ( ). doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch16f2

Citation: Oliver J, Pruzzo C, Vezzulli L, Kaper J. 2013. Species, p 401-439. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch16
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Figure 16.3

Correlation between incidence of human infection and seasonality. A total of 33 cases occurring during 2008 in the United States are shown. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch16f3

Citation: Oliver J, Pruzzo C, Vezzulli L, Kaper J. 2013. Species, p 401-439. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch16
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Figure 16.4

Morphology of “opaque” (encapsulated) and “translucent” (nonencapsulated) colonies of . doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch16f4

Citation: Oliver J, Pruzzo C, Vezzulli L, Kaper J. 2013. Species, p 401-439. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch16
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