1887

Chapter 17 :

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap17-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap17-2.gif

Abstract:

Botulism is a neuroparalytic disease in humans and animals resulting from the actions of botulinum neurotoxins produced by and rare strains of and . are widely dispersed in nature by virtue of their ability to form resistant endospores. Since botulism is a true toxemia and botulinum neurotoxin is solely responsible for the illness, foodborne, infant, and wound botulism are clinically similar. The major treatment of botulism is supportive nursing care, with specific attention given to respiratory ability and the need for mechanical ventilation. The current good safety record for commercial foods is due, in large part, to the diligence of food manufacturers in formulating, processing, and controlling temperature during distribution of foods. Foodborne botulism is the class of botulism that can most readily be prevented through proper food processing, preservation, and temperature control. Chlorine and related compounds are among the most effective chemicals for destruction of spores. In general, botulinal neurotoxins are not affected by freezing, particularly in the presence of proteins and organic acids at pH values of 5 to 6.5. Brining is the most common practice for reducing water activity (a) in food preservation. Temperature is commonly used to prevent growth in foods. Temperature abuse is one of the most common mishandling practices that result in botulinum neurotoxin production and botulism outbreaks. Botulinum neurotoxin is absorbed through mucous membranes, and three cases of botulism were documented in laboratory workers who apparently inhaled the toxin.

Citation: Johnson E. 2013. , p 441-463. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch17
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 17.1
Figure 17.1

Portrayal of a person with the flaccid paralysis symptoms characteristic of botulism. Drawing prepared by James K. Archer, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch17f1

Citation: Johnson E. 2013. , p 441-463. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch17
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818463.chap17
1. Alberts, B. 2005. Modeling attacks on the food supply. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102: 9737 9738.
2. Angulo, F. J.,, J. Getz,, J. P. Taylor,, K. A. Hendricks,, C. L. Hatheway,, S. S. Barth,, H. M. Solomon,, A. E. Larson,, E. A. Johnson,, L. N. Nickey,, and A. A. Ries. 1998. A large outbreak of botulism: the hazardous baked potato. J. Infect. Dis. 178: 172 177.
3. Anne, C.,, F. Cornille,, and C. Lenoir. 2001. High-throughput fluorogenic assay for determination of botulinum type B protease activity. Anal. Biochem. 291: 253 261.
4. Arndt, J. W.,, M. J. Jacobson,, E. E. Abole,, C. M. Forsyth,, W. H. Tepp,, J. D. Marks,, E. A. Johnson,, and R. C. Stevens. 2006. A structural perspective of the sequence variability within botulinum neurotoxin subtypes A1-A4. J. Mol. Biol. 362: 733 742.
5. Arnon, S. S., 2004. Infant botulism, p. 1758 1766. In R. D. Feigen, and J. D. Cherry (ed.), Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 5th ed. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
6. Arnon, S. S.,, K. Damus,, and J. Chin. 1981. Infant botulism: epidemiology and relation to sudden infant death syndrome. Epidemiol. Rev. 3: 45 66.
7. Arnon, S. S.,, R. Schechter,, T. V. Inglesby,, D. A. Henderson,, J. G. Bartlett,, M. Ascher,, E. Eitzen,, A. D. Fine,, J. Hauer,, M. Layton,, S. Lillibridge,, M. T. Osterholm,, E. O’Toole,, G. Parker,, T. M. Perl,, P. K. Russell,, D. L. Swerdlow,, K. Tonat, and the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. 2001. Botulinum toxin as a biological weapon. JAMA 285: 1059 1070.
8. Arnon, S. S.,, R. Schechter,, S. E. Maslanka,, N. P. Jewell,, and C. L. Hatheway. 2006. Human botulism immune globulin for the treatment of infant botulism. N. Engl. J. Med. 354: 462 471.
9. Baird-Parker, A. C.,, and B. Freame. 1967. Combined effect of water activity, spores, and temperature on the growth of Clostridium botulinum from spores and vegetative cell inocula. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 30: 420 429.
10. Baranyi, J.,, and T. A. Roberts,. 2000. Principles and applications of predictive modeling of the effects of preservative factors on microorganisms, p. 342 358. In B. M. Lund,, T. C. Baird-Parker,, and G. W. Gould (ed.), The Microbiological Safety and Quality of Foods, vol. 1. Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, MD.
11. Barr, J.,, H. Moura,, A. E. Boyer,, A. R. Wollfitt,, S. R. Kalb,, A. Pavlopoulos,, L. G. McWilliams,, J. G. Schmidt,, R. A. Martinez,, and D. L. Ashley. 2005. Botulinum neurotoxin detection and differentiation by mass spectroscopy. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10: 1578 1583.
12. Bell, C.,, and A. Kyriades. 2000. Clostridium botulinum. A Practical Approach to Its Control in Foods. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, United Kingdom.
13. Bradshaw, M.,, S. S. Dineen,, N. D. Maks,, and E. A. Johnson. 2004. Regulation of neurotoxin complex expression in Clostridium botulinum strains 62A, Hall A- hyper, and NCTC 2916. Anaerobe 10: 321 333.
14. Bradshaw, M.,, and E. A. Johnson,. 2010. Genetic manipulation of Clostridium, p. 238 261. In R. H. Baltz,, A. L. Demain,, and J. E. Davies (ed.), Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
15. Bradshaw, M.,, K. M. Marshall,, J. T. Heap,, W. H. Tepp,, N. P. Minton,, and E. A. Johnson. 2010. Construction of a nontoxigenic Clostridium botulinum strain for food challenge studies. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 387 393.
16. Cato, E. P.,, W. L. George,, and S. M. Finegold,. 1986. Genus Clostridium, p. 1141 1200. In P. H. A. Sneath,, N. S. Mair,, M. E. Sharpe,, and J. G. Holt (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2. The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, MD.
17. Caya, J. G. 2001. Clostridium botulinum and the ophthalmologist: a review of botulism, including biological warfare ramifications of botulinum toxin. Surv. Ophthamol. 56: 25 34.
18. Cengiz, M.,, M. Yilmaz,, L. Dosemici,, and A. Ramazanoglu. 2006. A botulism outbreak from roasted canned mushrooms. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 25: 273 278.
19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998. Botulism in the United States, 18991996. In Handbook for Epidemiologists, Clinicians, and Laboratory Workers. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
20. Cheng, L. W.,, B. Onisko,, E. A. Johnson,, J. R. Reader,, S. M. Griffey,, A. E. Larson,, W. H. Tepp,, L. H. Stanker,, D. L. Brandon,, and J. M. Carter. 2008. Effects of purification on the bioavailability of botulinum neurotoxin type A. Toxicology 249: 123 129.
21. Cherington, M. 2004. Botulism: update and review. Semin. Neurol. 24: 155 163.
22. Chertow, D. S.,, E. T. Tan,, S. E. Maslanka,, J. Schulte, et al. 2006. Botulism in 4 adults following cosmetic injections with an unlicensed, highly concentrated botulinum preparation. JAMA 296: 2476 2479.
23. Chotyakul, N.,, G. Velasquez,, and J. A. Torres. 2011. Assessment of the uncertainty in thermal food processing decisions based on microbial safety objectives. J. Food Eng. 102: 247 256.
24. Coban, A.,, Z. Matur,, H. A. Hanagasi,, and U. Parman. 2010. Iatrogenic botulism after botulinum toxin type A injections. Clin. Neuropharmacol. 33: 158 160.
25. Cooksley, C. M.,, I. J. Davis,, K. Winzer,, W. C. Chan,, M. W. Peck,, and N. P. Minton. 2010. Regulation of neurotoxin production and sporulation by a putative agrBD signaling system in proteolytic Clostridium botulinum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 4448 4460.
26. Devers, K. G.,, and J. S. Nine. 2010. Autopsy findings in botulinum toxin poisoning. J. Forensic Sci. 55: 1649 1651.
27. Dickson, E. C. 1918. Botulism. A clinical and experimental study. Rockefeller Inst. Med. Res. Monog. 8: 1 117.
28. Dodds, K. L., 1993. Clostridium botulinum in the environment, p. 21 51. In A. H. W. Hauschild, and K. L. Dodds (ed.), Clostridium botulinum: Ecology and Control in Foods. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
29. Dodds, K. L., 1993. Clostridium botulinum in foods, p. 53 68. In A. H. W. Hauschild, and K. L. Dodds (ed.), Clostridium botulinum: Ecology and Control in Foods. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
30. Dolman, E. C., 1964. Botulism as a world health problem. In K. H. Lewis, and K. Cassel (ed.), Botulism. U. S. Public Health Services, Washington, DC.
31. Domingo, R. M.,, J. S. Haller,, and M. Gruenthal. 2008. Infant botulism: two recent cases and literature review. J. Child Neurol. 23: 1336 1346.
32. Dong, M.,, W. H. Tepp,, E. A. Johnson,, and E. R. Chapman. 2004. Using fluorescent sensors to detect botulinum neurotoxin activity in vitro and in living cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 14701 14706.
33. Doyle, M. P. 1991. Evaluating the potential risk from extended-shelf-life refrigerated foods by Clostridium botulinum inoculation studies. Food Technol. 45: 154 156.
34. Dunn, E. C. 2008. Postsocialist spores: disease, bodies, and the state in the Republic of Georgia. Am. Ethnol. 35: 243 258.
35. Dürre, P. (ed.). 2005. Handbook of Clostridia. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
36. Eklund, M. W.,, D. I. Wieler,, and F. T. Poysky. 1967. Outgrowth and toxin production of non-proteolytic type B Clostridium botulinum at 3.3 to 5.6 oC. J. Bacteriol. 93: 1461 1462.
37. Eklund, M. W.,, and V. R. Dowell, Jr. (ed.). 1987. Avian Botulism: An International Perspective. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL.
38. Esty, J. R.,, and K. F. Meyer. 1922. The heat resistance of the spores of B. botulinus and allied anaerobes. XI. J. Infect. Dis. 31: 650 653.
39. Fagan, R. P.,, J. B. McLaughlin,, and J. P. Middaugh. 2009. Persistence of botulinum toxin patients’ sera, 1959-2009. J. Infect. Dis. 199: 1029 1031.
40. Foster, E. M. 1997. Historical overview of key issues in food safety. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3: 481 482.
41. Franciosa, G.,, J. L. Ferreira,, and C. L. Hatheway. 1994. Detection of type-A, type-B, and type-E botulism neurotoxin genes in Clostridium botulinum and other Clostridium species by PCR—evidence of unexpressed type-B toxin genes in type-A toxigenic organisms. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 1911 1917.
42. Franciosa, G.,, P. Aureli,, P., and R,. Schechter. 2003. Clostridium botulinum, p. 61 89. In M. D. Miliotis, and J. W. Bier (ed.), International Handbook of Foodborne Pathogens. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
43. Franciosa, G.,, A. Maugliani,, C. Scalfaro,, and P. Aureli. 2009. Evidence that plasmid-borne botulinum neurotoxin type B genes are widespread among Clostridium botulinum serotype B strains. PLoS ONE 4: e4829.
44. Franciosa, G.,, C. Scalfaro,, P. di Bonito,, M. Vitale,, and P. Aureli. 2011. Identification of novel linear megaplasmids carrying a beta-lactamase gene in neurotoxigenic Clostridium botulinum type E strains. PLoS ONE 6: 21706.
45. Ghoddusi, H.,, and R. Sherburn. 2010. Preliminary study on the isolation of Clostridium butyricum strains from natural sources in the UK and screening of the isolates for the presence of the type E botulinal toxin gene. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 142: 202 206.
46. Giménez, D. F.,, and J. A. Giménez,. 1993. Serological subtypes of botulinal neurotoxins, p. 421 431. In B. R. Dasgupta (ed.), Botulism and Tetanus Neurotoxins: Neurotransmission and Biomedical Aspects. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
47. Glass, K. A.,, and E. A. Johnson,. 2002. Formulating low-acid foods for botulinal safety, p. 323 350. In V. K. Juneja, and J. N. Sofos (ed.), Control of Foodborne Microorganisms. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
48. Hallis, B.,, B. A. F. James,, and C. C. Shone. 1996. Development of novel assays for botulinum type A and B neurotoxins based on their endopeptidase activity. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 1934 1938.
49. Hammes, W. P.,, and P. S. Tichaczek. 1994. The potential of lactic acid bacteria for the production of safe and wholesome food. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. 198: 193 201.
50. Hatheway, C. L., 1988. Botulism, p. 111 133. In A. Balows et al. (ed.), Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: Principles and Practice. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
51. Hatheway, C. L., 1993. Clostridium botulinum and other organisms that produce botulinum neurotoxin, p. 3 20. In A. H. W. Hauschild, and K. L. Dodds (ed.), Clostridium botulinum: Ecology and Control in Foods. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
52. Hatheway, C. L.,, and E. A. Johnson,. 1998. Clostridium: the spore-bearing anaerobes, p. 731 782. In L. Collier,, A. Balows,, and M. Sussman (ed.), Topley & Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 9th ed., vol. 2. Systematic Bacteriology. Arnold, London, United Kingdom.
53. Hauschild, A. H. W., 1993. Epidemiology of foodborne botulism, p. 69 104. In A. H. W. Hauschild, and K. L. Dodds (ed.), Clostridium botulinum: Ecology and Control in Foods. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
54. Hauschild, A. H. W., 1989. Clostridium botulinum, p. 111 189. In M. P. Doyle (ed.), Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
55. Heap, J. T.,, S. A. Kuehne,, M. Ehsaan,, S. T. Cartman,, C. M. Cooksley,, J. C. Scott,, and N. P. Minton. 2010. The ClosTron: Mutagenesis in Clostridium refined and streamlined. J. Microbiol. Methods 80: 49 55.
56. Hill, K. K.,, T. J. Smith,, C. H. Helma,, L. O. Ticknor,, B. T. Foley,, R. T. Svensson,, J. L. Brown,, E. A. Johnson,, L. A. Smith,, R. T. Okinaka,, P. J. Jackson,, and J. D. Marks. 2007. Genetic diversity among botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridial strains. J. Bacteriol. 189: 818 832.
57. Holdeman, L. V.,, E. P. Cato,, and W. E. C. Moore. 1979. Anaerobe Laboratory Manual, 4th ed. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.
58. Horowitz, B. Z. 2010. Type E botulism. Clin. Toxicol. 48: 880 895.
59. Horowitz, B. Z. 2011. The ripe olive scare and hotel Loch Maree tragedy: botulism under glass in the 1920’s. Clin. Toxicol. 49: 345 347.
60. Ito, K. A.,, D. J. Seslar,, W. A. Mercern,, and K. F. Meyer,. 1967. The thermal and chlorine resistance of C. botulinum types A, B, and E spores. In M. Ingram, and T. A. Roberts (ed.), Botulism 1966. Chapman and Hall, London, United Kingdom.
61. Jacobson, M. J.,, G. Lin,, W. Tepp,, J. Dupuy,, P. Stenmark,, R. C. Stevens,, and E. A. Johnson. 2011. Purification, modeling, and analysis of botulinum neurotoxin subtype A5 (BoNT/A5) from Clostridium botulinum strain A661222. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77: 4217 4222.
62. Johnson, E. A., 2005. Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani, p. 1035 1088. In S. P. Borriello,, P. R. Murray,, and G. Funke (ed.), Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 8th ed. Hodder Arnold, London, United Kingdom.
63. Johnson, E. A.,, and M. Bradshaw. 2001. Clostridium botulinum. A metabolic and cellular perspective. Toxicon 39: 1703 1722.
64. Johnson, E. A.,, and M. C. Goodnough,. 1998. Botulism, p. 723 741. In L. Collier,, A. Balows,, and M. Sussman (ed.), Topley & Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 9th ed., vol. 2. Systematic Bacteriology. Arnold, London, United Kingdom.
65. Johnson, E. A.,, and C. Montecucco,. 2008. Botulism, p. 333 368. In A. Engel (ed.), Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol. 91. Elsevier, New York, NY.
66. Johnson, E. A.,, W. H. Tepp,, M. Bradshaw,, R. J. Gilbert,, P. E. Cooke,, and E. D. G. McIntosh. 2006. Characterization of Clostridium botulinum strains associated with an infant botulism case in the United Kingdom. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 2602 2607.
67. Johnson, E. A.,, P. Summanen,, and S. M. Finegold,. 2007. Clostridium, p. 889 910. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. L. Landry,, and M. A. Pfaller (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th ed., vol. 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
68. Jones, R. G.,, M. Ochiai,, Y. Liu,, T. Ekong,, and D. Sesardic. 2008. Development of improved SNAP25 endopeptidase immuno-assays for botulinum type A and E toxins. J. Immunol. Methods 329: 92 101.
69. Jones, R. G. A.,, M. J. Corbel,, and D. Sesardic. 2006. A review of WHO international standards for botulinum antitoxins. Biologicals 34: 223 226.
70. Jousimies-Somer, H. R.,, P. Summanen,, D. M. Citron,, E. J. Baron,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 2002. Anaerobic Laboratory Manual, 6th ed. Star Publishing Company, Belmont, CA.
71. Kalb, S. R.,, H. Mooura,, A. E. Boyer,, L. G. McWilliams,, J. L. Pirkle,, and J. R. Barr. 2006. The use of Endopep-MS for the detection of botulinum neurotoxins in serum and stool samples. Anal. Biochem. 351: 84 92.
72. Kautter, D. A.,, S. M. Harmon,, R. Y. Lynt,, and T. Lilly. 1966. Antagonistic effect on Clostridium botulinum by organisms resembling it. Appl. Microbiol. 14: 616 622.
73. Keller, J. E,, E. A. Neale,, G. Oyler,, and M. Adler. 1999. Persistence of botulinum neurotoxin action in cultured spinal cord cells. FEBS Lett. 456: 137 142.
74. Kempner, W. 1897. Further contributions to the knowledge of meat poisoning. The antitoxin to botulism. Z. Hyg. Infekt. Krankh. 26: 481 500. (In German.)
75. Koepke, R.,, J. Sobel,, and S. S. Arnon. 2008. Global occurrence of infant botulism, 1976-2006. Pediatrics 122: e73 e82.
76. Lacy, D. B.,, W. Tepp,, A. C. Cohen,, B. R. DasGupta,, and R. C. Stevens. 1998. Crystal structure of botulinum neurotoxin type A and implications for toxicity. Nat. Struct. Biol. 5: 898 902.
77. Lambowitz, A. M.,, and S. Zimmerly. 2004. Mobile group II introns. Annu. Rev. Genet. 38: 1 35.
78. Larson, A. E.,, and E. A. Johnson. 1999. Evaluation of botulinal toxin production in packaged fresh-cut cantaloupe and honeydew melons. J. Food Prot. 62: 948 952.
79.Reference deleted.
80.Reference deleted.
81. Lindstrom, M.,, and H. Korkeala. 2006. Laboratory diagnostics of botulism. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 46: 86 94.
82. Lindstrom, M.,, M. Nevas,, K. Kurki,, R. Sauna-Aho,, A. Latvala-Kiesila,, I. Polonen,, and H. Korkeala. 2004. Type C botulism due to toxic feed affecting 52,000 farmed foxes and minks in Finland. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 4718 4725.
83. Ludwig, W.,, K.-H. Schleifer,, and W. Whitman,. 2009. Revised road map to the phylum Firmicutes, p. 1 13. In P. De Vos,, G. M. Garity,, D. Jones,, N. R. Krieg,, W. Ludwig,, F. A. Rainey,, K.-H. Schleifer,, and W. B. Whitman (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 2nd ed., vol. 3. The Firmicutes. Springer, New York, NY.
84. Lúquez, C.,, J. K. Dykes,, R. A. Yu,, B. H. Raphael,, and S. E. Maslanka. 2010. First report of an infant botulism case due to Clostridium botulinum type E. J. Clin. Microbiol. 48: 326 328.
85. Lynt, R. K.,, D. A. Kautter,, and R. B. Read, Jr. 1975. Botulism in commercially canned foods. J. Milk Food Technol. 38: 546 550.
86. Marshall, K. M.,, M. Bradshaw,, and E. A. Johnson. 2010. Conjugative botulinum neurotoxin-encoding plasmids. PLoS ONE 5: e11087.
87. Marshall, K. M.,, M. Bradshaw,, S. Pellett,, and E. A. Johnson. 2007. Plasmid encoded neurotoxin genes in Clostridium botulinum serotype A subtypes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 361: 49 54.
88. McKellar, R. C.,, and X. Lu (ed.). 2004. Modeling Microbial Responses in Foods. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
89. McLauchlin, K.,, A. Grant,, and C. L. Little. 2006. Food-borne botulism in the United Kingdom. J. Public Health 28: 337 342.
90. Meyer, K. F. 1956. The status of botulism as a world health problem. Bull. W. H. O. 15: 281 298.
91. Meyer, K. F.,, and B. Eddie. 1950. Fifty years of botulism in the United States and Canada. George Williams Hooper Foundation, San Francisco, CA.
92. Montal, M. 2010. Botulinum neurotoxin: a marvel of protein design. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 79: 591 617.
93. Montecucco, C.,, and G. Schiavo. 1995. Structure and function of tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins. Q. Rev. Biophys. 28: 423 472.
94. Myllykoski, M. Lindström, E. Bekema, I. Pölönen, and H. Korkeala. 2011. Fur animal botulism due to feed. Res. Vet. Sci. 90: 412 418.
95. NFPA/CMI Container Integrity Task Force, Microbiological Assessment Group Report. 1984. Botulism risk from post-processing contamination of commercially canned foods in metal containers. J. Food Prot. 47: 801816.
96. Odlaug, T. E.,, and I. J. Pflug. 1978. Clostridium botulinum and acid foods. J. Food Prot. 41: 566 573.
97. Onyenoke, R. U.,, J. A. Brill,, K. Farahi,, and J. Wiegel. 2004. Sporulation genes in members of the low G+C gram-type-positive phylogenetic branch (Firmicutes). Arch. Microbiol. 182: 182 192.
98. Paredes, C. J.,, K. V. Alsaker,, and E. T. Papoutsakis. 2005. A comparative genomic view of clostridial sporulation and physiology. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 3: 969 978.
99. Peck, M. W. 2009. Biology and genomic analysis of Clostridium botulinum. Adv. Microb. Physiol. 55: 183 265.
100. Peck, M. W.,, K. E. Goodburn,, R. P. Betts,, and S. C. Stringer. 2008. Assessment of the potential for growth and neurotoxin formation by non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum in short shelf-life commercial foods designed to be chilled. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 19: 201 216.
101. Peck, M. W.,, S. C. Stringer,, and A. T. Carter. 2011. Clostridium botulinum in the post-genomic era. Food Microbiol. 28: 183 191.
102. Pellett, S.,, W. H. Tepp,, C. M. Clancy,, G. E. Borodic,, and E. A. Johnson. 2007. A neuronal cell-based botulinum neurotoxin assay for highly sensitive detection of neutralizing serum antibodies. FEBS Lett. 581: 4803 4808.
103. Pellett, S.,, W. H. Tepp,, S. I. Toth,, and E. A. Johnson. 2010. Comparison of the primary rat spinal cord assay cell (RSC) assay and the mouse bioassay for botulinum neurotoxin type A potency determination. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Methods 61: 304 310.
104. Pellett, S.,, Z. W. Zu,, C. L. Pier,, W. H. Tepp,, S. C. Zhang,, and E. A. Johnson. 2011. Sensitive and quantitative detection of botulinum neurotoxin in neurons derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 404: 388 392.
105. Pflug, I. J. 2010. Science, practice, and human errors in controlling Clostridium botulinum in heat-preserved food in hermetic containers. J. Food Prot. 73: 993 1002.
106. Pickett, J.,, B. Berg,, E. Chaplin,, and M. A. Brunstershafer. 1976. Syndrome of botulism in infancy—clinical and electrophysiological study. N. Engl. J. Med. 295: 770 772.
107. Pitt, M. L. M.,, and R. D. LeClaire,. 2005. Pathogenesis by aerosol, p. 65 78. In L. E. Lindler,, F. J. Lebeda,, and G. W. Korch, (ed.), Biological Weapons Defense. Infectious Diseases and Counterbioterrorism. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
108. Rasooly, R.,, and P. M. Do. 2010. Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type B is heat-stable in milk and not inactivated by pasteurization. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58: 12557 12561.
109. Rebagliati, V.,, S. Chianelli,, M. Tornese,, L. Rossi,, and A. Troncoso. 2008. Documented outbreaks of botulism: the impact of food-borne transmission. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Med. 1: 71 75.
110. Reddy, N. R.,, H. M. Solomon,, R. C. Tetzloff,, and E. J. Rhodehamel. 2003. Inactivation of Clostridium botulinum type A spores by high-pressure processing at elevated temperatures. J. Food Prot. 66: 1402 1407.
111. Roberts, T. A. 1997. Maximizing the usefulness of food microbiology research. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3: 523 528.
112. Rodgers, S. 2004. Novel approaches in controlling safety of cook-chill meals. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 15: 366 372.
113. Rodolico, C.,, E. Barca,, L. Fenicia,, F. Anniballi,, A. U. Sinardi,, and P. Girlanda. 2010. Wound botulism in drug users: a still underestimated diagnosis. Neurol. Sci. 31: 825 827.
114. Rowlands, R. E. G.,, C. A. Ristori,, G. I. S. Lopez,, A. M. R. de Paula,, H. Sakuma,, R. Grigaliunas,, R. L. Filho,, D. S. Gelli,, M. B. Eduardo,, and M. Jakabi. 2010. Botulism in Brazil, 2000-2008: epidemiology, clinical findings and laboratory diagnosis. Rev. Inst. Trop. Sao Paulo 54: 183 186.
115. Sachdeva, A.,, S. L. H. Defibaugh-Chávez,, J. B. Day,, D. Zink,, and S. K. Sharma. 2010. Detection and confirmation of Clostridium botulinum in water used for cooling at a plant producing low-acid canned foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 7653 7657.
116. Sakaguchi, G. 1983. Clostridium botulinum toxins. Pharmacol. Ther. 19: 165 194.
117. Sanford, D. C.,, R. Barnewall,, M. L. Vassar,, N. Niemuth,, K. Metcalfe,, R. V. House,, I. Henderson,, and J. D. Shearer. 2010. Inhalational botulism in rhesus macaques exposed to botulinum neurotoxin complex serotypes A1 and B1. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 17: 1293 1304.
118. Schantz, E. J.,, and E. A. Johnson. 1992. Properties and use of botulinum toxin and other microbial neurotoxins in medicine. Microbiol. Rev. 56: 80 99.
119. Schantz, E. J.,, and D. A. Kautter. 1978. Microbiological methods: standardized assay for Clostridium botulinum toxins. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 61: 96 99.
120. Schiavo, G.,, M. Matteoli,, and C. Montecucco. 2000. Neurotoxins affecting neuroexocytosis. Physiol. Rev. 80: 717 766.
121. Shapiro, R. L.,, C. L. Hatheway,, and D. L. Swerdlow. 1998. Botulism in the United States: a clinical and epidemiologic review. Ann. Intern. Med. 129: 221 228.
122. Sheth, A. N.,, P. Wiersma,, D. Atrubin,, V. Dubey,, D. Zink,, G. Skinner,, F. Doer,, P. Juliao,, G. Gonzalez,, C. Burnett,, C. Drenzek,, C. Shuler,, J. Austin,, A. Ellis,, S. Maslanka,, and J. Sobel. 2008. International outbreak of severe botulism caused by commercial carrot juice. Clin. Infect. Dis. 47: 1245 1251.
123. Siegel, L. S., 1993. Destruction of botulinum toxins in food and water, p. 323 341. In A. H. W. Hauschild, and K. L. Dodds (ed.), Clostridium botulinum. Ecology and Control in Foods. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
124. Skarin, H.,, T. Hafstrom,, J. Westerberg,, and B. Segerman. 2011. Clostridium botulinum group III: A group with dual identity shaped by plasmids, phages and mobile elements. BMC Genomics 12: 185.
125. Sleator, R. D.,, and C. Hill. 2008. Molecular analysis of the microbial food safety implications of food reformulations for improved health. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 5: 499 504.
126. Smeldt, J. P. P. M.,, P. C. Hellemons,, P. C. Wouters,, and S. J. C. van Gerwen. 2002. Physiological and mathematical aspects in setting criteria for decontamination of foods by physical means. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 78: 57 77.
127. Smith, L. D. S.,, and H. Sugiyama. 1988. Botulism. The Organism, Its Toxins, the Disease. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL.
128. Smith, T. J.,, J. Lou,, I. N. Geren,, C. M. Forsyth,, R. Tsai,, S. L. LaPorte,, W. H. Tepp,, M. Bradshaw,, E. A. Johnson,, L. A. Smith,, and J. D. Marks. 2005. Sequence variation with botulinum neurotoxin serotypes impacts antibody binding and neutralization. Infect. Immun. 73: 5450 5457.
129. Sobel, J.,, N. Tucker,, A. Sulka,, J. McLaughlin,, and S. Maslanka. 2004. Foodborne botulism in the United States, 1990-2004. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10: 1606 1611.
130. Solomon, H. A.,, and D. A. Kautter. 1988. Outgrowth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in bottled, chopped garlic. J. Food Prot. 51: 862 865.
131. Solomon, H. M.,, E. A. Johnson,, D. T. Bernard,, S. S. Arnon,, and J. L. Ferreira,. 2001. Clostridium botulinum and its toxins, p. 317 324. In F. P. Downes, and K. Ito (ed.), Compendium for the Microbiological Examination of Foods, 4th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
132. Sugiyama, H. 1980. Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin. Microbiol. Rev. 44: 419 448.
133. Sugiyama, H., 1990. Botulism, p. 107 125. In D. O. Cliver (ed.), Foodborne Diseases. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
134. Tanaka, N.,, E. Traisman,, P. Plantinga,, L. Finn,, W. Flom,, L. Meske,, and J. Guggisberg. 1986. Evaluation of factors involved in antibotulinal properties of pasteurized process cheese spreads. J. Food Prot. 49: 526 53l.
135. Therre, H. 1999. Botulism in the European Union. Euro Surveill. 4: 2 7.
136. Topakaian, R.,, C. Heibl,, K. Stieglbauer,, B. Dreer,, M. Nagl,, P. Knoflaxh,, and F. T. Aichner. 2009. Quantitative autonomic testing in the management of botulism. J. Neurol. 256: 803 809.
137. Tsukamoto, K.,, M. Mikamoto,, T. Kohda,, H. Ihara,, S. Wang,, T. Maegawa,, S. Nakamura,, T. Karasawa,, and S. Kozaki. 2002. Characterization of Clostridium butyricum neurotoxin associated with food-borne botulism. Microb. Pathog. 33: 177 184.
138. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual (Online). http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~ebam/bam-toc.html
139. van Ermengem, E. 1979. Classics in infectious disease. A new anaerobic bacillus and its relation to botulism. Rev. Infect. Dis. 1: 701 719. Originally published in 1897 as: Ueber einen neuen anaeroben Bacillus und seine Beziehungen zum Botulismus. Z. Hyg. Infektionskr. 26:1-56.
140. Villar, R. G.,, R. L. Shapiro,, S. Busto,, C. Riva-Posse,, G. Verdejo,, M. I. Farace,, R. Rossetti,, J. A. San Juan,, C. M. Julia,, J. Becher,, S. E. Maslanka,, and D. L. Swerdlow. 1999. Outbreak of type A botulism and development of a botulism surveillance and antitoxin release system in Argentina. JAMA 281: 1334 1338.
141. Webster, K.,, C. Jardine,, S. B. Cash,, and L. M. McMullen. 2010. Risk ranking: investigating expert and public differences in evaluating food safety hazards. J. Food Prot. 73: 1875 1885.
142. Wein, L. M.,, and Y. Liu.. 2005. Analyzing a bioterror attack on the food supply: the case of botulinum toxin in milk. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 102: 9984 9989.
143. Weingart, O. G.,, T. Schreiber,, C. Mascher,, D. Pauly,, M. B. Dorner,, T. F. H. Berger,, C. Effer,, F. Gessler,, M. J. Loessner,, M.-A. Avondet,, and B. G. Dorner. 2010. The case of botulinum toxin in milk: experimental data. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 3293 3300.
144. Whiting, R. C.,, and K. A. Naftulin. 1992. Effect of headspace oxygen concentration on growth and toxin production by proteolytic strains of Clostridium botulinum. J. Food Prot. 55: 23 27.
145. Whitmer, M. E.,, and E. A. Johnson. 1988. Development of improved defined media for Clostridium botulinum serotypes A, B, and E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54: 753 759.
146. Woodburn, M. J.,, E. Somers,, J. Rodriguez,, and E. J. Schantz. 1979. Heat inactivation rates of botulinum toxins A, B, E, and F in some foods and buffers. J. Food Sci. 44: 1658 1661.
147. Zhang, J.-C.,, L. Sun,, and Q.-H. Nie. 2010. Botulism, where are we now. Clin. Toxicol. 48: 867 879.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 17.1

Primary hosts and gene location of toxin genes in serotypes A through G

Citation: Johnson E. 2013. , p 441-463. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch17
Generic image for table
Table 17.2

Groupings and relevant growth and resistance properties of botulinogenic clostridia

Citation: Johnson E. 2013. , p 441-463. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch17
Generic image for table
Table 17.3

Typical foods associated with foodborne botulism

Citation: Johnson E. 2013. , p 441-463. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch17
Generic image for table
Table 17.4

Primary physical treatments and antimicrobials used in formulation of botulism-safe foods

Citation: Johnson E. 2013. , p 441-463. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch17
Generic image for table
Table 17.5

Nutritional substrates metabolized by botulinogenic clostridia

Citation: Johnson E. 2013. , p 441-463. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch17

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error