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Chapter 23 : Mycotoxins

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Abstract:

This chapter talks about specific mycotoxins that are produced only by specific fungi, usually by only a few species. A particular species of fungus may produce more than one mycotoxin, though never more than one of the major compounds described here. A section deals with the most important mycotoxins that include aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone. The chapter discusses the chemical characterization, fungal sources, genetics, ecology, toxicity, chemical analysis, occurrence and regulations, and control of the mycotoxins. In addition, it deals with the analysis of aflatoxins, occurrence and regulation of aflatoxins in foods, control of aflatoxins in foods, and risk characterization. The most important general observation to be made about mycotoxins is that all species grow only at high (>0.9) water activities, so that toxin production in crops occurs only before harvest or during early stages of drying. The major source of fumonisins in foods is maize, though other small grains may have low levels at times. With the discovery that may produce fumonisins, the range of foodstuffs where fumonisins may be found has become much wider. Genomics, the study of entire genomes, provides basic information to build the knowledge base of gene function that will assist in understanding mycotoxin formation and reduction in crops. Studies on economically important fungi at the genomic level will assist in understanding mycotoxin biosynthesis and also help to understand the biology, evolution, biochemical function, and genetic regulation of the genes in these fungal systems.

Citation: Taniwaki M, Pitt J. 2013. Mycotoxins, p 597-618. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch23
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Figure 23.1

Structures of aflatoxin B, aflatoxin G, aflatoxin M, and ochratoxin A. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch23f1

Citation: Taniwaki M, Pitt J. 2013. Mycotoxins, p 597-618. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch23
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Figure 23.2

(a) , CYA, 7 days at 25°C; (b) fruiting structure (bar = 20 μm); (c) conidia (bar = 5 μm). (d) , CYA, 7 days at 25°C; (b) fruiting structure (bar = 10 μm); (c) conidia (bar = 5 μm) doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch23f2

Citation: Taniwaki M, Pitt J. 2013. Mycotoxins, p 597-618. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch23
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Figure 23.3

(a) , CYA, 7 days at 25°C; (b) fruiting structure (bar = 20 μm); (c) conidia (bar = 5 μm). (d) , CYA, 7 days at 25°C; (e) fruiting structure (bar = 40 μm); (f) conidia (bar = 5 μm). (g) , CYA, 7 days at 25°C; (h) fruiting structure (bar = 10 μm); (i) conidia (bar = 5 μm). doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch23f3

Citation: Taniwaki M, Pitt J. 2013. Mycotoxins, p 597-618. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch23
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Figure 23.4

Structures of fumonisin B, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch23f4

Citation: Taniwaki M, Pitt J. 2013. Mycotoxins, p 597-618. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch23
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Figure 23.5

(a) , PDA, 7 days at 25°C; (b) macroconidia (bar = 10 μm). (c) , PDA, 7 days at 25°C; (d) macroconidia (bar = 10 μm). doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch23f5

Citation: Taniwaki M, Pitt J. 2013. Mycotoxins, p 597-618. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch23
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Tables

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Table 23.1

Evaluation of mycotoxins in humans

Citation: Taniwaki M, Pitt J. 2013. Mycotoxins, p 597-618. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch23

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