1887

Chapter 24 : Foodborne Viral Pathogens

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Foodborne Viral Pathogens, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap24-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap24-2.gif

Abstract:

Human enteric viruses have properties that are unique from those of bacterial foodborne pathogens. Viruses are usually species-specific and tissue-tropic, meaning that the human enteric viruses are believed to infect only humans. From an epidemiologic perspective, human norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are the two most important. From a foodborne disease standpoint, three types of commodities are commonly associated with viral disease outbreaks, namely, (i) molluscan shellfish contaminated by feces-impacted growing waters; (ii) fresh produce items contaminated by human feces during production or packing, usually through workers’ hands or contact with contaminated water; and (iii) ready-to-eat (RTE) and prepared foods contaminated by infected food handlers as a result of poor personal hygiene. The major steps for the detection of viruses in foods can be designated as follows: (i) virus concentration and purification, (ii) nucleic acid extraction, (iii) detection of amplicons, and (iv) confirmation of amplicon identity. Epidemiologic evidence reveals that foods play an important role in the transmission of human enteric viruses. Improved and more widespread reporting and investigation of foodborne viral disease outbreaks, as well as targeted epidemiologic studies to identify the risk factors for acquiring viral gastroenteritis, would improve our understanding of source attribution.

Citation: Jaykus L, D'Souza D, Moe C. 2013. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 619-649. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch24
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 24.1
Figure 24.1

Norwalk virus genome organization (adapted from Kapikian et al. [ ]). VPg, genome-linked virion protein. ORF1 encodes polyprotein posttranslationally cleaved into nonstructural proteins helicase (with a predicted nucleotide triphosphate-binding domain [NTPase]), proteinase (Pro), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Pol). ORF2 encodes capsid protein, which is translated into major and minor structural proteins which consist of shell and protruding domains. N, NH2-terminal arm. ORF3 encodes a basic protein of unknown function. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch24f1

Citation: Jaykus L, D'Souza D, Moe C. 2013. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 619-649. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch24
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 24.2
Figure 24.2

HAV genome organization (adapted from Hollinger and Emerson [ ]). 5´UTR, 624 to 1,199 nt long; VPg, genome-linked virion protein, 22 to 24 amino acids. The single ORF encodes polyprotein posttranslationally cleaved into VP1, VP2, and VP3, which form the capsid; VP4 is the inner surface capsid protein. 2A, unknown function; 2B, RNA synthesis and cell membrane permeability; 2C, RNA replication; 3A and 3B, RNA replication proteins, cofactor for 3D; 3C, viral proteinases; 3D, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Poly(A) tail, about 35 to 100 nt long; 3´UTR, 47 to 125 nt long. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch24f2

Citation: Jaykus L, D'Souza D, Moe C. 2013. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 619-649. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch24
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 24.3
Figure 24.3

Transmission routes of foodborne viruses. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch24f3

Citation: Jaykus L, D'Souza D, Moe C. 2013. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 619-649. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch24
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 24.4
Figure 24.4

Candidate methods for the concentration and detection of viruses in foods. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch24f4

Citation: Jaykus L, D'Souza D, Moe C. 2013. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 619-649. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch24
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818463.chap24
1. Abad, F. X.,, R. M. Pintó,, and A. Bosch. 1997. Disinfection of human enteric viruses on fomites. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 156:107111.
2. Agus, S. G.,, R. Dolin,, R. G. Wyatt,, A. J. Tousimis,, and R. S. Northup. 1973. Acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis: intestinal histopathology. Histologic and enzymatic alterations during illness produced by the Norwalk agent in man. Ann. Intern. Med. 79:1825.
3. Allwood, P. B.,, Y. S. Malik,, C. W. Hedberg,, and S. M. Goyal. 2003. Survival of F-specific RNA coliphage, feline calicivirus, and Escherichia coli in water: a comparative study. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:57075710.
4. Amar, C. F.,, J. Gray,. M. Iturriza-Gomar,, E. A. Maclure,, and J. McLauchlin. 2007. Detection by PCR of eight groups of enteric pathogens in 4,627 faecal samples: re-examination of the English case-control Infectious Intestinal Disease Study (1993-1996). Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 26:311323.
5. Amon, J. J.,, R. Devasia,, G. Xia,, O. V. Nainan,, S. Hall,, B. Lawson,, J. S. Wolthuis,, P. D. M. MacDonald,, C. W. Shepard,, I. T. Williams,, G. L. Armstrong,, J. A. Gabel,, P. Erwin,, L. Sheeler,, W. Kuhnert,, P. Patel,, G. Vaughan,, A. Weltman,, A. S. Craig,, B. P. Bell,, and A. Fiore. 2005. Molecular epidemiology of foodborne hepatitis A outbreaks in the United States, 2003. J. Infect. Dis. 192:13231330.
6. Arauz-Ruiz, P.,, L. Sundqvist,, Z. García,, L. Taylor,, K. Visoná,, H. Norder,, and L. O. Magnius. 2001. Presumed common source outbreaks of hepatitis A in an endemic area confirmed by limited sequencing within the VP1 region. J. Med. Virol. 65:449456.
7. Asher, L. V.,, L. N. Binn,, T. L. Mensing,, R. H. Marchwicki,, R. A. Vassell,, and G. D. Young. 1995. Pathogenesis of hepatitis A in orally inoculated owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus). J. Med. Virol. 47:260268.
8. Atmar, R. L.,, A. R. Opekun,, M. A. Gilger,, M. K. Estes,, S. E. Crawford,, F. H. Neill,, and D. Y. Graham. 2008. Norwalk virus shedding after experimental human infection. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:15531557.
9. Ayodeji, M.,, M. Kulka,, S. A. Jackson,, I. Patel,, M. Mammel,, T. A. Cebula,, and B. B. Goswami. 2009. A microarray based approach for the identification of common foodborne viruses. Open Virol. J. 3:720.
10. Bae, J.,, and K. J. Schwab. 2008. Evaluation of murine norovirus, feline calicivirus, poliovirus, and MS2 as surrogates for human norovirus in a model of viral persistence in surface water and groundwater. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:477484.
11. Baert, L.,, C. E. Wobus,, E. V. Coillie,, L. B. Thackray,, J. Debevere,, and M. Uyttendaele. 2008. Detection of murine norovirus 1 by using plaque assay, transfection assay, and real-time reverse transcription-PCR before and after heat exposure. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:543546.
12. Ball, J. M.,, D. Y. Graham,, A. R. Opekun,, M. A. Gilger,, R. A. Guerrero,, and M. K. Estes. 1999. Recombinant Norwalk virus-like particles given orally to volunteers: phase I study. Gastroenterology 117:4048.
13. Bank-Wolf, B. R.,, M. König,, and H. J. Thiel. 2010. Zoonotic aspects of infections with noroviruses and sapoviruses. Vet. Microbiol. 140:204212.
14. Becker, K. M.,, C. L. Moe,, K. L. Southwick,, and J. N. MacCormack. 2000. Transmission of Norwalk virus during a football game. N. Engl. J. Med. 343:12231227.
15. Belliot, G.,, A. Lavaux,, D. Souihel,, D. Agnello,, and P. Pothier. 2008. Use of murine norovirus as a surrogate to evaluate resistance of human norovirus to disinfectants. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:33153318.
16. Berg, D.E.,, M. A. Kohn,, T. A. Farley,, and L. M. McFarland. 2000. Multi-state outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis traced to fecal-contaminated oysters harvested in Louisiana. J. Infect. Dis. 181(Suppl. 2):S381S386.
17. Beuret, C.,, A. Baumgartner,, and J. Schluep. 2003. Virus-contaminated oysters: a three-month monitoring of oysters imported to Switzerland. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:22922297.
18. Bidawid, S.,, N. Malik,, O. Adegbunrin,, S. A. Sattar,, and J. M. Farber. 2004. Norovirus cross-contamination during food handling and interruption of virus transfer by hand antisepsis: experiments with feline calicivirus as a surrogate. J. Food Prot. 67:103109.
19. Bidawid, S.,, J. M. Farber,, and S. A. Sattar. 2000. Contamination of foods by food handlers: experiments on hepatitis A virus transfer to food and its interruption. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:27592763.
20. Bok, K.,, G. I. Parra,, T. Mitra,, E. Abente,, C. K. Shaver,, D. Boon,, R. Engle,, C. Yu,, A. Z. Kapikian,, S. V. Sosnovtsev,, R. H. Purcell,, and K. Y. Green. 2011. Chimpanzees as an animal model for human norovirus infection and vaccine development. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:325330.
21. Boone, S. A.,, and C. P. Gerba. 2007. Significance of fomites in the spread of respiratory and enteric viral disease. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:16871696.
22. Boxman, I. L.,, L. Verhoef,, R. Dijkman,, G. Hägele,, N. A. te Loeke,, and M. Koopmans. 2011. Year-round prevalence of norovirus in the environment of catering companies without a recently reported outbreak of gastroenteritis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77:29682974.
23. Boxman, I. L.,, R. Dijkman,, N. A. te Loeke,, G. Hägele,, J. J. Tilburg,, H. Vennema,, and M. Koopmans. 2009. Environmental swabs as a tool in norovirus outbreak investigation, including outbreaks on cruise ships. J. Food Prot. 72:111119.
24. Boxman, I.,, R. Dijkman,, L. Verhoee,, A. Maat,, G. van Dijk,, H. Vennema,, and M. Koopmans. 2009. Norovirus on swabs taken from hands illustrate route of transmission: a case study. J. Food Prot. 72:17531755.
25. Boxman, I. L.,, J. J. Tilburg,, N. A. te Loeke,, H. Vennema,, E. de Boer,, and M. Koopmans. 2007. An efficient and rapid method of recovery for norovirus from food associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis. J. Food Prot. 70:504508.
26. Bresee, J. S.,, M. A. Widdowson,, S. S. Monroe,, and R. I. Glass. 2002. Foodborne viral gastroenteritis: challenges and opportunities. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35:748753.
27. Bull, R. A.,, J. S. Eden,, W. D. Rawlinson,, and P. A. White. 2010. Rapid evolution of pandemic noroviruses of the GII.4 lineage. PLoS Pathog. 6:e1000831.
28. Butot, S.,, T. Putallaz,, R. Amoroso,, and G. Sánchez. 2009. Inactivation of enteric viruses in minimally processed berries and herbs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75:41554161.
29. Butot, S.,, T. Putallaz,, and G. Sánchez. 2007. Procedure for rapid concentration and detection of enteric viruses from berries and vegetables. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:186192.
30. Calci, K. R.,, G. K. Meade,, R. C. Tezloff,, and D. H. Kingsley. 2005. High-pressure inactivation of hepatitis A virus within oysters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:339343.
31. Cannon, J. L.,, and J. Vinjé. 2008. Histo-blood group antigen assay for detecting noroviruses in water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:68186819.
32. Cannon, J. L.,, E. Papafragkou,, G. W. Park,, J. Osborne,, L. Jaykus,, and J. Vinjé. 2006. Surrogates for the study of norovirus stability and inactivation in the environment: a comparison of murine norovirus and feline calicivirus. J. Food Prot. 69:27612765.
33. Carrique-Mas, J.,, Y. Andersson,, B. Petersén,, K.-O. Hedlund,, N. Sjögren,, and J. Giesecke. 2003. A Norwalk-like virus waterborne community outbreak in a Swedish village during peak holiday season. Epidemiol. Infect. 131:737744.
34.Centers for Disease Controland Prevention. 2009. Surveillance of foodborne disease outbreaks—United States, 2006. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 58:609615.
35.Centers for Disease Controland Prevention. 2011. Updated norovirus outbreak management and disease prevention guidelines. MMWR Recomm. Rep. 60(RR-3):118.
36.Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention. 2005. Hepatitis A vaccination coverage among children aged 24-35 months—United States, 2003. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 54:141144.
37.Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention. 2003. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with noroviruses on cruise ships—United States, 2002. JAMA 289:167169.
38.Centers for Disease Controland Prevention. 2003. Hepatitis A outbreak associated with green onions at a restaurant—Monaca, Pennsylvania. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 52:11551157.
39. Chalmers, J. W. T.,, and J. H. McMillan. 1995. An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis associated with adequately prepared oysters. Epidemiol. Infect. 115:163167.
40. Chang, K. O.,, and D. W. George. 2007. Interferons and ribavirin effectively inhibit Norwalk virus replication in replicon-bearing cells. J. Virol. 81:1211112118.
41. Cliver, D. O. 1997. Virus transmission via food. Food Technol. 51:7178.
42. Cliver, D. O.,, and S. M. Matsui,. 2002. Viruses, p.161175. In D. O. Cliver, and H. P. Reimann (ed.), Foodborne Diseases, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Boston, MA.
43.Committee on InfectiousDiseases, American Academy of Pediatrics. 1991. HepatitisA, p. 234237. In Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 22nd ed. American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove, IL.
44. Cotterelle, B.,, C. Drougard,, J. Rolland,, M. Becamel,, M. Boudon,, S. Pinede,, O. Traoré,, K. Balay,, P. Pothier,, and E. Espié. 2005. Outbreak of norovirus infection associated with the consumption of frozen raspberries, France, March 2005. Euro Surveill. 10:E050428.1.
45. Croci, L.M., N. Losio,, E. Suffredini,, E. Pavoni,, S. Di Pasquale,, F. Fallacara,, and G. Ancangeli. 2007. Assessment of human enteric viruses in shellfish from the northern Adriatic sea. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 114:252257.
46. Croci, L.,, D. De Medici,, G. Morace,, A. Fiore,, C. Scalfaro,, F. Beneduce,, and L. Toti. 2002. The survival of hepatitis A virus in fresh produce. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 73:2934.
47. Croci, L.,, M. Ciccozzi,, D. De Medici,, S. Di Pasquale,, A. Fiore,, A. Mele,, and L. Toti. 1999. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus in heat-treated mussels. J. Appl. Microbiol. 87:884888.
48. Cromeans, T.,, O. V. Nainan,, H. A. Fields,, M. O. Favorov,, and H. S. Margolis,. 1994. Hepatitis A and E viruses, p. 156. In Y. H. Hui,, J. R. Gorham,, K. D. Murrell,, and D. O. Cliver (ed.), Foodborne Disease Handbook, vol. 2. Diseases Caused by Viruses, Parasites, and Fungi. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
49. Cuthbert, J. A. 2002. Hepatitis A: old and new. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14:3858.
50. Dalton, C. B.,, A. Haddix,, R. E. Hoffman,, and E. E. Mast. 1996. The cost of a food-borne outbreak of hepatitis A in Denver, Colo. Arch. Intern. Med. 156:10131016.
51. DePaola, A.,, J. L. Jones,, J. Woods,, W. Burkhardt III,, K. R. Calci,, J. A. Krantz,, J. C. Bowers,, K. Kasturi,, R. H. Byars,, E. Jacobs,, D. Williams-Hill,, and K. Nabe. 2010. Bacterial and viral pathogens in live oysters: 2007 United States market survey. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76:27542768.
52. Desselberger, U., 2000. Rotaviruses: methods and protocols, p. 18. In J. Gray, and U. Desselberger (ed.), Methods in Molecular Medicine, vol. 34. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
53. de Wit, M. A.,, M. A. Widdowson,, H. Vennema,, E. de Bruin,, T. Fernandes,, and M. Koopmans. 2007. Large outbreak of norovirus: the baker who should have known better. J. Infect. 55:188193.
54. Divizia, M.,, R. Gabrielli,, A. Macaluso,, B. Bagnato,, L. Palombi,, E. Buonomo,, F. Cenko,, L. Leno,, S. Bino,, A. Basha,, and A. Panà. 2005. Nucleotide correlation between HAV isolates from human patients and environmental samples. J. Med. Virol. 75:812.
55. Dolin, R.,, N. R. Blacklow,, H. DuPont,, R. F. Buscho,, R. G. Wyatt,, J. A. Kasel,, R. Hornick,, and R. M. Chanock. 1972. Biological properties of Norwalk agent of acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 140:578583.
56. Donaldson, E. F.,, L. C. Lindesmith,, A. D. LoBue,, and R. S. Baric. 2010. Viral shape-shifting: norovirus evasion of the human immune system. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8:231241.
57. Donaldson, E. F.,, L. C. Lindesmith,, A. D. Lobue,, and R. S. Baric. 2008. Norovirus pathogenesis: mechanisms of persistence and immune evasion in human populations. Immunol. Rev. 225:190211.
58. Doré, W. J.,, M. Mackie,, and D. N. Lees. 2003. Levels of male-specific RNA bacteriophage and Escherichia coli in molluscan bivalve shellfish from commercial harvesting areas. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 36:9296.
59. Doultree, J. C.,, J. D. Druce,, C. J. Birch,, D. S. Bowden,, and J. A. Marshall. 1999. Inactivation of feline calicivirus, a Norwalk virus surrogate. J. Hosp. Infect. 41:5157.
60. D’Souza, D. H.,, and L. Jaykus,. 2006. Molecular approaches for the detection of foodborne viral pathogens, p. 91118. In J. Maurer (ed.), PCR Methods in Foods, Springer, New York, NY.
61. D’Souza, D. H.,, J. Jean,, and L. Jaykus,. 2006. Methods for detection of viral and parasitic pathogens, p. 188-1188-23. In Y. H. Hui (ed.), Handbook of Food Technology and Engineering, vol. 4. CRC/Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
62. Duizer, E.,, P. Bijkerk,, B. Rockx,, A. de Groot,, F. Twisk,, and M. Koopmans. 2004. Inactivation of caliciviruses. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:45384543.
63. El-Kamary, S. S.,, M. F. Pasetti,, P. M. Mendelman,, S. E. Frey,, D. I. Bernstein,, J. J. Treanor,, J. Ferreira,, W. H. Chen,, R. Sublett,, C. Richardson,, R. F. Bargatze,, M. B. Sztein,, and C. O. Tacket. 2010. Adjuvanted intranasal Norwalk virus-like particle vaccine elicits antibodies and antibody-secreting cells that express homing receptors for mucosal and peripheral lymphoid tissues. J. Infect. Dis. 202:16491658.
64. Falkenhorst, G.,, L. Krusell,, M. Lisby,, S. B. Madsen,, B. Böttiger,, and K. Mølbak. 2005. Imported frozen raspberries cause a series of norovirus outbreaks in Denmark, 2005. Euro Surveill. 10:E050922.2.
64a. Fauquet, C. M.,, M. A. Mayo,, J. Maniloff,, U. Desselberger,, and L. A. Ball. 2005. Virus Taxonomy, Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, New York, NY.
65. Feng, K.,, E. Diver,, Y. Ma,, and J. Li. 2011. Inactivation of a human norovirus surrogate, human norovirus virus-like particles, and vesicular stomatitis virus by gamma irradiation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77:35073517.
66. Fino, V. R.,, and K. E. Kniel. 2008. Comparative recovery of foodborne viruses from fresh produce. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 5:819825.
67. Fino, V. R.,, and K. E. Kniel. 2008. UV light inactivation of hepatitis A virus, Aichi virus, and feline calicivirus on strawberries, green onions, and lettuce. J. Food Prot. 71:908913.
68. Fiore, A. E. 2004. Hepatitis A transmitted by food. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:705715.
69. Fleet, G. H.,, P. Heiskanen,, I. Reid,, and K. A. Buckle. 2000. Foodborne viral illness—status in Australia. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 59:127136.
70.Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. 2008. Viruses in Food: Scientific Advice to Support Risk Management Activities, Meeting Report. Microbiological Risk Assessment Series No. 13. Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization, Rome, Italy and Geneva, Switzerland.
71. Formiga-Cruz, M.,, A. K. Allard,, A. C. Conden-Hansson,, K. Henshilwood,, B. E. Hernroth,, J. Jofre,, D. N. Lees,, F. Lucena,, M. Papapetropoulou,, R. E. Rangdale,, A. Tsibouxi,, A. Vantarakis,, and R. Girones. 2003. Evaluation of potential indicators of viral contamination in shellfish and their applicability to diverse geographical areas. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:15561563.
72. Formiga-Cruz, M.,, G. Tofiño-Quesada,, S. Bofill-Mas,, D. N. Lees,, K. Henshilwood,, A. K. Allard,, A. C. Conden-Hansson,, B. E. Hernroth,, A. Vantarakis,, A. Tsibouxi,, M. Papapetropoulou,, M. D. Furones,, and R. Girones. 2002. Distribution of human virus contamination in shellfish from different growing areas in Greece, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:59905998.
73. Friedman, D. S.,, D. Heisey-Grove,, F. Argyros,, E. Berl,, J. Nsubuga,, T. Stiles,, J. Fontana,, R. S. Beard,, A. Moneow,, M. E. McGrath,, H. Sutherby,, R. C. Dicker,, A. DeMaria,, and B. T. Matyas. 2005. An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with wedding cakes. Epidemiol. Infect. 133:10571063.
74. Gallimore, C. I.,, D. Cubitt,, N. du Plessis,, and J. J. Gray. 2004. Asymptomatic and symptomatic excretion of noroviruses during a hospital outbreak of gastroenteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:22712274.
75. Gandhi, K. M.,, R. E. Mandrell,, and P. Tian. 2010. Binding of virus-like particles of Norwalk virus to romaine lettuce veins. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76:79978003.
76. Gaulin, C.,, M. Frigon,, D. Poirier,, and C. Fournier. 1999. Transmission of calicivirus by a foodhandler in the pre-symptomatic phase of illness. Epidemiol. Infect. 123:475478.
77. Gehrke, C.,, J. Steinmann,, and P. Goroncy-Bermes. 2004. Inactivation of feline calicivirus, a surrogate of norovirus (formerly Norwalk-like viruses), by different types of alcohol in vitro and in vivo. J. Hosp. Infect. 56:4955.
78. Gerba, C. P.,, D. M. Gramos,, and N. Nwachuku. 2002. Comparative inactivation of enteroviruses and adenovirus 2 by UV light. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:51675169.
79. Gersberg, R. M.,, M. A. Rose,, R. Robles-Sikisaka,, and A. K. Dhar. 2006. Quantitative detection of hepatitis A virus and enteroviruses near the United States-Mexico border and correlation with levels of fecal indicator bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:74387444.
80. Girard, M.,, S. Ngazoa,, K. Mattison,, and J. Jean. 2010. Attachment of noroviruses to stainless steel and their inactivation, using household disinfectants. J. Food Prot. 73:400404.
81. Glass, R. I.,, U. D. Parashar,, and M. K. Estes. 2009. Norovirus gastroenteritis: an update. N. Engl. J. Med. 361:17761785.
82. Green, K. Y.,, R. M. Chanock,, and A. Z. Kapikian,. 2001. Humancaliciviruses, p. 841874. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, and S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
83. Green, K. Y.,, J. F. Lew,, X. Jiang,, A. Z. Kapikian,, and M. K. Estes. 1993. Comparison of the reactivities of baculovirus-expressed recombinant Norwalk virus capsid antigen with those of the native Norwalk virus antigen in serologic assays and some epidemiologic observations. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:21852191.
84. Gulati, B. R.,, P. B. Allwood,, C. W. Hedberg,, and S. M. Goyal. 2001. Efficacy of commonly used disinfectants for the inactivation of calicivirus on strawberry, lettuce, and a food-contact surface. J. Food Prot. 64:14301434.
85. Halliday, M. L.,, L. Y. Kang,, T. K. Zhou,, M. D. Hu,, Q. C. Pan,, T. Y. Fu,, Y. S. Huang,, and S. L. Hu. 1991. An epidemic of hepatitis A attributable to the ingestion of raw clams in Shanghai, China. J. Infect. Dis. 164:852859.
86. Halperin, T.,, H. Vennema,, M. Koopmans,, G. K. Bar-Gal,, R. Kayouf,, T. Sela,, R. Ambar,, and E. Klement. 2008. No association between histo-blood group antigens and susceptibility to clinical infections with genogroup II norovirus. J. Infect. Dis. 197:6365.
87. Harewood, P.,, S. Rippey,, and M. Montesalvo. Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life and bacterial and viral loads in hard-shelled clams (Mercenaria mercenaria). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:26662670.
88. Harrington, P. R.,, L. Lindesmith,, B. Yount,, C. L. Moe,, J. LePendu,, and R. S. Baric. 2003. Norovirus attachment, susceptibility and vaccine design. Recent Res. Dev. Virol. 5:1944.
89. Harrington, P. R.,, L. Lindesmith,, B. Yount,, C. L. Moe,, and R. S. Baric. 2002. Binding of Norwalk virus-like particles to ABH histo-blood group antigens is blocked by antisera from infected human volunteers or experimentally vaccinated mice. J. Virol. 76:1233512343.
90. Harris, J. P.,, W. J. Edmunds,, R. Pebody,, D. W. Brown,, and B. A. Lopman. 2008. Deaths from norovirus among the elderly, England and Wales. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:15461552.
91. Hata, A.,, H. Katayama,, M. Kitajima,, C. Visvanathan,, C. Nol,, and H. Furumai. 2011. Validation of internal controls for extraction and amplification of nucleic acids from enteric viruses in water samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77:43364343.
92. Herbst-Kralovetz, M.,, H. S. Mason,, and Q. Chen. 2010. Norwalk virus-like particles as vaccines. Expert Rev. Vaccines 9:299307.
93. Hennessy, E. P.,, A. D. Green,, M. P. Connor,, R. Darby,, and P. MacDonald. 2003. Norwalk virus infection and disease is associated with ABO histo-blood group type. J. Infect. Dis. 188:176177.
94. Hewitt, J.,, M. Rivera-Aban,, and G. E. Greening. 2009. Evaluation of murine norovirus as a surrogate for human norovirus and hepatitis A virus in heat activation studies. J. Appl. Microbiol. 107:6571.
95. Hewitt, J.,, and G. E. Greening. 2004. Survival and persistence of norovirus, hepatitis A virus, and feline calicivirus in marinated mussels. J. Food Prot. 67:17431750.
96. Hirneisen, K. A.,, S. M. Markland,, and K. E. Kniel. 2011. Ozone inactivation of norovirus surrogates on fresh produce. J. Food Prot. 74:836839.
97. Hjertqvist, M.,, A. Johansson,, N. Svensson,, P. E. Abom,, C. Magnusson,, M. Olsson,, K. O. Hedlund,, and Y. Andersson. 2006. Four outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis after consuming raspberries, Sweden, June-August 2006. Euro Surveill. 11:E060907.1.
98. Hofmann, F.,, G. Wehrle,, H. Berthold,, and D. Koster. 1992. Hepatitis A as an occupational hazard. Vaccine 10:8284.
99. Hollinger, F.B.,, and S. U. Emerson,. 2001. Hepatitis Avirus, p. 799840. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, and S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
100. Hollinger, F. B.,, and J. R. Ticehurst,. 1996. Hepatitis A virus, p. 735774. In B. N. Fields,, D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, M. Chanock,, J. L. Melnick,, and T. P. Monath (ed.), Fields Virology, 3rd ed. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, PA.
101. Huang, P.,, T. Farkas,, S. Marionneau,, W. Zhong,, N. Ruvoën-Clouet,, A. L. Morrow,, M. Altaye,, L. K. Pickering,, D. S. Newburg,, J. LePendu,, and X. Jiang. 2003. Noroviruses bind to human ABO, Lewis and secretor histo-blood group antigens: identification of 4 distinct strain-specific patterns. J. Infect. Dis. 188:1931.
102. Hutin, Y. J.,, V. Pool,, E. H. Cramer,, O. V. Nainan,, J. Weth,, I. T. Williams,, S. T. Goldstein,, K. F. Gensheimer,, B. P. Bell,, C. N. Shapiro,, M. J. Alter,, and H. S. Margolis for the National Hepatitis A Investigation Team. 1999. A multistate, foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A. N. Engl. J. Med. 340:595601.
103. Hutson, A. M.,, R. L. Atmar,, D. Y. Graham,, and M. K. Estes. 2002. Norwalk virus infection and disease is associated with ABO histo-blood group type. J. Infect. Dis. 185:13351337.
104. Isakbaeva, E. T.,, M. A. Widdowson,, R. S. Beard,, S. N. Bulens,, J. Mullins,, S. S. Monroe,, J. Bresee,, P. Sassano,, E. H. Cramer,, and R. I. Glass. 2005. Norovirus transmission on cruise ship. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:154158.
105. Jaykus, L.,, and B. Escudero-Abarca,. 2010. Human pathogenic viruses in food, p. 195232. In V. J. Juneja, and J. N. Sofos (ed.), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods: Challenges and Interventions. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
106. Jaykus, L.,, M. T. Hemard,, and M. D. Sobsey,. 1994. Human enteric pathogenic viruses, p. 92153. In C. R. Hackney, and M. D. Pierson (ed.), Environmental Indicators and Shellfish Safety. Chapman and Hall, New York, NY.
107. Jean, J.,, J.-F. Vachon,, O. Moroni,, A. Darveau,, I. Kukavica-Ibrulj,, and I. Fliss. 2003. Effectiveness of commercial disinfectants for inactivating hepatitis A virus on agri-food surfaces. J. Food Prot. 66:115119.
108. Johnson, P. C.,, J. J. Mathewson,, H. L. DuPont,, and H. B. Greenberg. 1990. Multiple-challenge study of host susceptibility to Norwalk gastroenteritis in US adults. J. Infect. Dis. 161:1821.
109. Jothikumar, N.,, T. L. Cromeans,, B. H. Robertson,, X. J. Meng,, and V. R. Hill. 2006. A broadly reactive one-step real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid and sensitive detection of hepatitis E virus. J. Virol. Methods 131:6571.
110. Jothikumar, N.,, T. L. Cromeans,, M. D. Sobsey,, and B. H. Robertson. 2005. Development and evaluation of a broadly reactive TaqMan assay for rapid detection of hepatitis A virus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:33593363.
111. Jothikumar, N.,, J. A. Lowther,, K. Henshilwood,, D. N. Lees,, V. R. Hill,, and J. Vinjé. 2005. Rapid and sensitive detection of noroviruses by using TaqMan-based one-step reverse transcription-PCR assays and application to naturally contaminated shellfish samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:18701875.
112. Kageyama, T.,, S. Kojima,, M. Shinohara,, K. Uchida,, S. Fukushi,, F. B. Hoshino,, N. Takeda,, and K. Katayama. 2003. Broadly reactive and highly sensitive assay for Norwalk-like viruses on real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:15481557.
113. Kampf, G.,, D. Grotheer,, and J. Steinmann. 2005. Efficacy of three ethanol-based hand rubs against feline calicivirus, a surrogate virus for norovirus. J. Hosp. Infect. 60:144149.
114. Kapikian, A. Z.,, M. K. Estes,, and R. M. Chanock,. 1996. Norwalk group of viruses, p. 783810. In B. N. Fields,, D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, M. Chanock,, J. L. Melnick,, and T. P. Monath (ed.), Fields Virology, 3rd ed. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, PA.
115. Kingsley, D. H.,, D. R. Holliman,, K. R. Calci,, H. Chen,, and G. J. Flick. 2007. Inactivation of a norovirus by high-pressure processing. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:581585.
116. Kingsley, D. H.,, and G. P. Richards. 2003. Persistence of hepatitis A virus in oysters. J. Food Prot. 66:331334.
117. Kingsley, D. H.,, D. G. Hoover,, E. Papafragkou,, and G. P. Richards. 2002. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus and a calicivirus by high hydrostatic pressure. J. Food Prot. 65:16051609.
118. Kobayashi, S.,, K. Natori,, N. Takeda,, and K. Sakae. 2004. Immunomagnetic capture RT-PCR for detection of norovirus from foods implicated in a foodborne outbreak. Microbiol. Immunol. 48:201204.
119. Kohn, M. A.,, T. A. Farley,, T. Ando,, M. Curtis,, S. A. Wilson,, Q. Jin,, S. S. Monroe,, R. C. Baron,, L. M. McFarland,, and R. I. Glass. 1995. An outbreak of Norwalk virus gastroenteritis associated with eating raw oysters. JAMA 273:466471.
120. Koopmans, M.,, and E. Duizer. 2004. Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 90:2341.
121. Kroneman, A.,, L. Verhoef,, J. Harris,, H. Vennema,, E. Duizer,, Y. van Duynhoven,, J. Gray,, M. Iturriza,, B. Böttiger,, G. Falkenhorst,, C. Johnsen,, C. H. von Bonsdorff,, L. Maunula,, M. Kuusi,, P. Pothier,, A. Gallay,, E. Schreier,, M. Höhne,, J. Koch,, G. Szücs,, G. Reuter,, K. Krisztalovics,, M. Lynch,, P. McKeown,, B. Foley,, S. Coughlan,, F. M. Ruggeri,, I. Di Bartolo,, K. Vainio,, E. Isakbaeva,, M. Poljsak-Prijatelj,, A. H. Grom,, J. Z. Mijovski,, A. Bosch,, J. Buesa,, A. S. Fauquier,, G. Hernandéz-Pezzi,, K. O. Hedlund,, and M. Koopmans. 2008. Analysis of integrated virological and epidemiological reports of norovirus outbreaks collected within the Foodborne Viruses in Europe network from 1 July 2001 to 30 June 2006. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:29592965.
122. Lages, S. L.,, M. A. Ramakrishnan,, and S. M. Goyal. 2008. In-vivo efficacy of hand sanitisers against feline calicivirus: a surrogate for norovirus. J. Hosp. Infect. 68:159163.
123. Lee, N.,, M. C. Chan,, B. Wong,, K. W. Choi,, W. Sin,, G. Lui,, P. K. Chan,, R. W. Lai,, C. S. Crockram,, J. J. Sung,, and W. K. Leung. 2007. Fecal viral concentration and diarrhea in norovirus gastroenteritis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:13991401.
124. Le Guyader, F. S.,, S. Parnaudeau,, J. Schaeffer,, A. Bosch,, F. Loisy,, M. Pommepuy,, and R. L. Atmar. 2009. Detection and quantification of noroviruses in shellfish. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75:618624.
125. Le Guyader, F.,, L. Haugarreau,, L. Miossec,, E. Dubois,, and M. Pommepuy. 2000. Three-year study to assess human enteric viruses in shellfish. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:32413248.
126. Lemon, S. M. 1997. Type A hepatitis: epidemiology, diagnosis, and prevention. Clin. Chem. 43:14941499.
127. Leon, J. S.,, D. H. Kingsley,, J. S. Montes,, G. P. Richards,, G. M. Lyon,, G. M. Abdulhafid,, S. R. Seitz,, M. L. Fernandez,, P. F. Teunis,, G. J. Flick,, and C. L. Moe. 2011. Randomized, double-blinded clinical trial for human norovirus inactivation in oysters by high hydrostatic pressure processing. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77:54765482.
128. Leon, J. S.,, S. Menira,, Q. Wang,, E. R. Smith,, L. J. Saif,, and C. L. Moe,. 2008. Immunology of norovirus infection, p. 219262. In M. Vajdy (ed.), Immunity against Mucosal Pathogens. Springer, Boston, MA.
129. León-Félix, J.,, R. A. Martínez-Bustillos,, M. Báez-Sañudo,, F. Peraza-Garay,, and C. Chaidez. 2010. Norovirus contamination of bell pepper from handling during harvesting and packing. Food Environ. Virol. 2:211217.
130. Li, D.,, L. Baert,, M. De Jonghe,, E. Van Coillie,, J. Ryckeboer,, F. Devlieghere,, and M. Uyttendaele. 2011. Inactivation of murine norovirus 1, coliphage ϑX174, and Bacteroides [corrected] fragilis phage B40-8 on surfaces and fresh-cut iceberg lettuce by hydrogen peroxide and UV light. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77:13991404.
131. Lim, M. Y.,, J. M. Kim,, J. E. Lee,, and G. P. Ko. 2010. Characterization of ozone disinfection of murine norovirus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76:11201124.
132. Lindesmith, L.,, E. Donaldson,, J. Leon,, C. L. Moe,, J. A. Frelinger,, R. E. Johnston,, D. J. Weber,, and R. S. Baric. 2010. Heterotypic humoral and cellular immune response following Norwalk virus infection. J. Virol. 84:18001815.
133. Lindesmith, L. C.,, E. F. Donaldson,, A. D. LoBue,, J. L. Cannon,, D. P. Zheng,, J. Vinje,, and R. S. Baric. 2008. Mechanisms of GII.4 norovirus persistence in human populations. PLoS Med. 5:e31.
134. Lindesmith, L.,, C. Moe,, J. LePendu,, J. A. Frelinger,, J. Treanor,, and R. S. Baric. 2005. Cellular and humoral immunity following Snow Mountain virus challenge. J. Virol. 79:29002909.
135. Lindesmith, L.,, C. Moe,, S. Marionneau,, N. Ruvoen,, X. Jiang,, J. Lindblad,, P. Stewart,, J. LePendu,, and R. Baric. 2003. Human susceptibility and resistance to Norwalk virus infection. Nat. Med. 9:548553.
136. Liu, B.,, P. Maywood,, L. Gupta,, and B. Campbell. 2003. An outbreak of Norwalk-like virus gastroenteritis in an aged-care residential hostel. N. S. W. Public Health Bull. 14:105109.
137. Liu, P.,, Y. Yuen,, H.-M. Hsiao,, L. Jaykus,, and C. Moe. 2010. Effectiveness of liquid soap and hand sanitizer against Norwalk virus on contaminated hands. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76:394399.
138. Liu, P.,, Y.-W. Chien,, E. Papafragkou,, H.-M. Hsiao,, L. Jaykus,, and C. L. Moe. 2009. Persistence of human noroviruses on food preparation surfaces and human hands. Food Environ. Virol. 1:141147.
139. Lopman, B.,, M. Reacher,, Y. van Duijnhoven,, F. X. Hanon,, D. Brown,, and M. Koopmans. 2003. Viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Europe, 1995–2000. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:9096.
140. Lukasik, J.,, M. L. Bradley,, T. M. Scott,, M. Dea,, A. Koo,, W.-Y. Hsu,, J. A. Bartz,, and S. R. Farrah. 2003. Reduction of poliovirus 1, bacteriophages, Salmonella montevideo, and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 on strawberries by physical and disinfectant washes. J. Food Prot. 66:188193.
141. Macinga, D. R.,, S. A. Sattar,, L. Jaykus,, and J. W. Arbogast. 2008. Improved inactivation of non-enveloped enteric viruses and their surrogates by a novel alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:50475052.
142. Maier, K.,, P. Gabriel,, E. Koscielniak,, Y.-D. Stierhof,, K. H. Wiedmann,, K. B. Flehmig,, and A. Vallbracht. 1998. Human gamma interferon production by cytotoxic T lymphocytes sensitized during hepatitis A virus infection. J. Virol. 62:37563763.
143. Malek, M.,, E. Barzilay,, A. Kramer,, B. Camp,, L. Jaykus,, B. Escudero-Abarca,, G. Derrick,, P. White,, C. Gerba,, C. Higgins,, J. Vinje,, R. Glass,, M. Lynch,, and M. A. Widdowson. 2009. Outbreak of norovirus infection among river rafters associated with packaged delicatessen meat, Grand Canyon, 2005. Clin. Infect. Dis. 48:3137.
144. Mallet, J. C.,, L. E. Beghian,, T. G. Metcalf,, and J. D. Kaylor. 1991. Potential of irradiation technology for improving shellfish sanitation. J. Food Safety 11:231245.
145. Marks, P. J.,, I. B. Vipond,, D. Carlisle,, D. Deakin,, R. E. Fey,, and E. O. Caul. 2000. Evidence for airborne transmission of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) in a hotel restaurant. Epidemiol. Infect. 124:481487.
146. Maunula, L.,, M. Roivainen,, M. Keränen,, S. Mäkela,, K. Söderberg,, M. Summa,, C. H. von Bonsdorff,, M. Lappalainen,, T. Korhonen,, M. Kuusi,, and T. Niskanen. 2009. Detection of human noroviruses from frozen raspberries in a cluster of gastroenteritis outbreaks. Euro Surveill. 14:pii=19435.
147. Mattison, K.,, J. Harlow,, V. Morton,, A. Cook,, F. Pollari,, S. Bidawid,, and J. M. Farber. 2010. Enteric viruses in ready-to-eat packaged leafy greens. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:18151817.
148. Mattison, K.,, E. Grudeski,, B. Auk,, H. Charest,, S. J. Drews,, A. Fritzinger,, N. Gregoricus,, S. Hayward,, A. Houde,, B. E. Lee,, X. L. Pang,, J. Wong,, T. F. Booth,, and J. Vinjé. 2009. Multicenter comparison of two norovirus ORF2-based genotyping protocols. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:39273932.
149. Mbithi, J. N.,, V. S. Springthorpe,, and S. A. Sattar. 1993. Comparative in vivo efficiencies of hand-washing agents against hepatitis A virus (HM-175) and poliovirus type 1 (Sabin). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:34633469.
150. Mbithi, J. N.,, V. S. Springthorpe,, and S. A. Sattar. 1990. Chemical disinfection of hepatitis A virus on environmental surfaces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:36013604.
151. McDonnell, S.,, K. B. Kirkland,, W. G. Hlady,, C. Aristeguieta,, R. S. Hopkins,, S. S. Monroe,, and R. I. Glass. 1997. Failure of cooking to prevent shellfish-associated viral gastroenteritis. Arch. Intern. Med. 157:111116.
152. Meltzer, M. I.,, C. N. Shapiro,, E. E. Mast,, and C. Arcari. 2001. The economics of vaccinating restaurant workers against hepatitis A. Vaccine 19:21382145.
153. Michaels, B.,, C. Keller,, M. Blevins,, G. Paoli,, T. Ruthman,, E. Todd,, and C. J. Griffith. 2004. Prevention of food worker transmission of foodborne pathogens: risk assessment and evaluation of effective hygiene intervention strategies. Food Service Technol. 4:3149.
154. Millard, J.,, H. Appleton,, and J. V. Parry. 1987. Studies on heat inactivation of hepatitis A virus with special reference to shellfish. Epidemiol. Infect. 98:397414.
155. Moe, C. L. 2003. Next time you have vomiting patients in your office—consider noroviruses. Atlanta Med. 77:1319.
156. Moe, C. L. 2009. Preventing norovirus transmission: how should we handle food handlers? Clin. Infect. Dis. 48:3840.
157. Moe, C. L.,, E. Honorat,, J. Leon,, and J. Eisenberg. 2007. Epidemiologic patterns in published norovirus outbreak reports, 1981-2006, abstract P3-18. Third International Calicivirus Conference, Cancun, Mexico, November 2007.
158. Mokhtari, A.,, and L. Jaykus. 2009. Quantitative exposure model for the transmission of norovirus in retail food preparation. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 133:3847.
159. Mormann, S.,, M. Dabisch,, and B. Becker. 2010. Effects of technological processes on the tenacity and inactivation of norovirus genogroup II in experimentally contaminated foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76:536545.
160. Morse, D. L.,, J. J. Guzewich,, J. P. Hanrahan,, R. Stricof,, M. Shayegani,, R. Deibel,, J. C. Grabau,, N. A. Nowak,, J. E. Herrmann,, G. Cukor,, and N. R. Blacklow. 1986. Widespread outbreaks of clam- and oyster-associated gastroenteritis. Role of Norwalk virus. N. Engl. J. Med. 314:678681.
161. Morton, V.,, J. Jean,, J. Farber,, and K. Mattison. 2009. Detection of noroviruses in ready-to-eat foods by using carbohydrate-coated magnetic beads. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75:46414643.
162. Muniain-Mujika, I.,, M. Calvo,, F. Lucena,, and R. Girones. 2003. Comparative analysis of viral pathogens and potential indicators in shellfish. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 83:7585.
163. Niu, M. T.,, L. B. Polish,, B. H. Robertson,, B. K. Khanna,, B. A. Woodruff,, C. N. Shapiro,, M. A. Miller,, J. D. Smith,, J. K. Gedrose,, M. J. Alterand,, and H. S. Margolis. 1992. Multistate outbreak of hepatitis A associated with frozen strawberries. J. Infect. Dis. 166:518524.
164. Nowak, P.,, J. R. Topping,, V. Fotheringham,, C. I. Gallimore,, J. J. Gray,, M. Iturriza-Gomara,, and A. I. Knight. 2011. Measurement of the virolysis of human GII.4 norovirus in response to disinfectants and sanitisers. J. Virol. Methods 174:711.
165. Okabayashi, T.,, S. Yokota,, Y. Ohkoshi,, H. Ohuchi,, Y. Yoshida,, M. Kikuchi,, K. Yano,, and N. Fujii. 2008. Occurrence of norovirus unrelated to norovirus outbreaks in an asymptomatic food handler population. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:19851988.
166. Ozawa, K.,, T. Oka,, N. Tekeda,, and G. S. Hansman. 2007. Norovirus infections in symptomatic and asymptomatic food handlers in Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:39964005.
167. Pagotto, F.,, N. Corneau,, K. Mattison,, and S. Bidawid. 2008. Development of a DNA microarray for the simultaneous detection and genotyping of noroviruses. J. Food Prot. 71:14341441.
168. Pallansch, M.A.,, and R. P. Roos,. 2001. Enteroviruses:polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses, p. 723775. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, and S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
169. Papafragkou, E.,, M. Plante,, K. Mattison,, S. Bidawid,, K. Karthikeyan,, J. M. Farber,, and L. Jaykus. 2007. Rapid and sensitive detection of hepatitis A virus in representative food matrices. J. Virol. Methods 147:177187.
170. Papafragkou, E.,, D. H. D’Souza,, and L. Jaykus,. 2006. Foodborne viruses: prevention and control, p. 289330. In S.M. Goyal (ed.), Food Virology. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY.
171. Park, G. W.,, and M. D. Sobsey. 2011. Simultaneous comparison of murine norovirus, feline calicivirus, coliphage MS2, and GII.4 norovirus to evaluate the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite against human norovirus on a fecally soiled stainless steel surface. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 8:10051010.
172. Park, G. W.,, L. Barclay,, D. Macinga,, D. Charbonneau,, C. A. Pettigrew,, and J. Vinjé. 2010. Comparative efficacy of seven hand sanitizers against murine norovirus, feline calicivirus, and GII.4 norovirus. J. Food Prot. 73:22322238.
173. Parker, T. D.,, N. Kitamoto,, T. Tanaka,, A. M. Hutson,, and M. K. Estes. 2005. Identification of genogroup I and genogroup II broadly reactive epitopes on the norovirus capsid. J. Virol. 79:74027409.
174. Parrino, T. A.,, D. S. Schreiber,, J. S. Trier,, A. Z. Kapikian,, and N. R. Blacklow. 1977. Clinical immunity in acute gastroenteritis caused by Norwalk agent. N. Engl. J. Med. 297:8689.
175. Parshionikar, S.,, I. Laseke,, and G. S. Fout. 2010. Use of propidium monoazide in reverse transcriptase PCR to distinguish between infectious and noninfectious enteric viruses in water samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76:43184326.
176. Patel, M. M.,, V. R. López-Collada,, M. M. Bulhões,, L. H. De Oliveira,, A. Bautista Márquez,, B. Flannery,, M. Esparza-Aguilar,, E. I. Montenegro Renoiner,, M. E. Luna-Cruz,, H. K. Sato,, L. del Carmen Hernández-Hernández,, G. Toledo-Cortina,, M. Cerón-Rodríguez,, N. Osnaya-Romero,, M. Martínez-Alcazar,, R. G. Aguinaga-Villasenor,, A. Plascencia-Hernández,, F. Fojaco-González,, G. Hernández-Peredo Rezk,, S. F. Gutierrez-Ramírez,, R. Dorame-Castillo,, R. Tinajero-Pizano,, B. Mercado-Villegas,, M. R. Barbosa,, E. M. Maluf,, L. B. Ferreira,, F. M. de Carvalho,, A. R. dos Santos,, E. D. Cesar,, M. E. de Oliveira,, C. L. Silva,, M. de Los Angeles Cortes,, C. Ruiz Matus,, J. Tate,, P. Gargiullo,, and U. D. Parashar. 2011. Intussusception risk and health benefits of rotavirus vaccination in Mexico and Brazil. N. Engl. J. Med. 364:22832292.
177. Patel, M. M.,, M. A. Widdowson,, R. I. Glass,, K. Akazawa,, J. Vinjé,, and U. D. Parashar. 2008. Systematic literature review of role of norovirus in sporadic gastroenteritis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:12241231.
178. Patterson, W.,, P. Haswell,, P. T. Fryers,, and J. Green. 1997. Outbreak of small round structured virus gastroenteritis arose after kitchen assistant vomited. Commun. Dis. Rep. CDR Rev. 7:R101R103.
179. Pavia, A. T.,, L. Nielson,, L. Armington,, D. J. Thurman,, E. Tierney,, and C. R. Nichols. 1990. A community-wide outbreak of hepatitis A in a religious community: impact of mass administration of immune globulin. Am. J. Epidemiol. 131:10851093.
180. Poschetto, L. F.,, A. Ike,, T. Papp,, U. Mohn,, R. Böhm,, and R. E. Marschang. 2007. Comparison of the sensitivities of noroviruses and feline calicivirus to chemical disinfection under field-like conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:54945500.
181. Predmore, A.,, and J. Li. 2011. Enhanced removal of a human norovirus surrogate from fresh vegetables and fruits by a combination of surfactants and sanitizers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77:48294838.
182. Purdy, M. A.,, and Y. E. Khudyakov. 2011. The molecular epidemiology of hepatitis E virus infection. Virus Res. 161:3139.
183. Richards, G. P. 2001. Enteric virus contamination of foods through industrial practices: a primer on intervention strategies. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 27:117125.
184. Rockx, B.,, M. de Wit,, H. Vennema,, J. Vinjé,, E. de Bruin,, Y. van Duynhoven,, and M. Koopmans. 2002. Natural history of human calicivirus infection: a prospective cohort study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35:246253.
185. Rodriguez, R. A.,, I. L. Pepper,, and C. P. Gerba. 2009. Application of PCR-based methods to assess the infectivity of enteric viruses in environmental samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75:297307.
186. Rutjes, S. A.,, F. Lodder-Verschoor,, W. H. van der Poel,, Y. T. van Duijnhoven,, and A. M. de Roda Husman. 2006. Detection of noroviruses in foods: a study on virus extraction procedures in foods implicated in outbreaks of human gastroenteritis. J. Food Prot. 69:19491956.
187. Sano, D.,, R. M. Pinto,, T. Omura,, and A. Bosch. 2010. Detection of oxidative damages on viral capsid protein for evaluating structural integrity and infectivity of human norovirus. Environ. Sci. Technol. 44:808812.
188. Santi, L.,, L. Batchelor,, Z. Huang,, B. Hjelm,, J. Kilbourne,, C. J. Arntzen,, Q. Chen,, and H. S. Mason. 2008. An efficient plant viral expression system generating orally immunogenic Norwalk virus-like particles. Vaccine 26:18461854.
189. Sattar, S. A. 2004. Microbicides and the environmental control of nosocomial viral infections. J. Hosp. Infect. 56:564569.
190. Sattar, S. A.,, M. Ali,, and J. A. Tetro. 2011. In vivo comparison of two human norovirus surrogates for testing ethanol-based handrubs: the mouse chasing the cat! PLoS One 6:e17340.
191. Sattar, S. A.,, V. S. Springthorpe,, J. Tetro,, R. Vashon,, and B. Keswick. 2002. Hygienic hand antiseptics: should they not have activity and label claims against viruses? Am. J. Infect. Control 30:355372.
192. Scallan, E.,, R. M. Hoekstra,, F. J. Angulo,, R. V. Tauxe,, M. A. Widdowson,, S. L. Roy,, J. L. Jones,, and P. M. Griffin. 2011. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States—major pathogens. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 17:715.
193. Scallan, E.,, P. M. Griffin,, F. J. Angulo,, R. V. Tauxe,, and R. M. Hoekstra. 2011. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States—unspecified agents. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 17:1622.
194. Schultz, A. C.,, E. Vega,, A. Dalsgaard,, L. S. Christensen,, B. Nørrung,, J. Hoorfar,, and J. Vinjé. 2011. Development and evaluation of novel one-step TaqMan realtime RT-PCR assays for the detection and direct genotyping of genogroup I and II noroviruses. J. Clin. Virol. 50:230234.
195. Schultz, A. C.,, S. Perelle,, S. Di Pasquale,, K. Kovac,, D. De Medici,, P. Fach,, H. M. Sommer,, and J. Hoorfar. 2011. Collaborative validation of a rapid method for efficient virus concentration in bottled water. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 145(Suppl. 1):S158S166.
196. Schwab, K. J.,, F. H. Neill,, F. Le Guyader,, M. K. Estes,, and R. L. Atmar. 2001. Development of a reverse transcription-PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay for detection of “Norwalk-like” viruses and hepatitis A virus in stool and shellfish. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:742749.
197. Schwab, K. J.,, F. H. Neill,, M. K. Estes,, T. G. Metcalf,, and R. L. Atmar. 1998. Distribution of Norwalk virus within shellfish following bioaccumulation and subsequent depuration by detection using RT-PCR. J. Food Prot. 61:16741680.
198. Shirato, H. 2011. Norovirus and histo-blood group antigens. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 64:95103.
199. Sinton, L. W.,, C. H. Hall,, P. A. Lynch,, and R. J. Davies-Colley. 2002. Sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria and bacteriophages from waste stabilization pond effluent in fresh and saline waters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:11221131.
200. Slomka, M. J.,, and H. Appleton. 1998. Feline calicivirus as a model system for heat inactivation studies of small round structured viruses in shellfish. Epidemiol. Infect. 121:401407.
201. Sobsey, M. D.,, and L. Jaykus,. 1991. Human enteric viruses and depuration of bivalve molluscs, p. 71114. In W. S. Otwell,, G. E. Rodrick,, and R. E. Martin (ed.), Molluscan Shellfish Depuration. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
202. Sow, H.,, M. Desbiens,, R. Morales-Rayas,, S. E. Ngazoa,, and J. Jean. 2011. Heat inactivation of hepatitis A virus and a norovirus surrogate in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria). Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 8:387393.
203. Stals, A.,, L. Baert,, A. De Keuckelaere,, E. Van Coillie,, and M. Uyttendaele. 2011. Evaluation of norovirus detection methodology for ready-to-eat foods. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 145:420425.
204. Stals, A.,, L. Baert,, A. De Keuckelaere,, E. Van Coillie,, and M. Uyttendaele. 2011. Evaluation of norovirus detection methodology for soft red fruits. Food Microbiol. 28:5258.
205. Stals, A.,, L. Baert,, V. Jasson,, E. Van Coillie,, and M. Uyttendaele. 2011. Screening of fruit products for norovirus and the difficulty of interpreting positive PCR results. J. Food Prot. 74:425431.
206. Stapleton, J. T. 1995. Host immune response to hepatitis A virus. J. Infect. Dis. 171(Suppl. 1):S9S14.
207. Stine, S. W.,, I. Song,, C. Y. Choi,, and C. P. Gerba. 2005. Application of microbial risk assessment to the development of standards for enteric pathogens in water used to irrigate fresh produce. J. Food Prot. 68:913918.
208. Su, X.,, and D. H. D’Souza. 2011. Trisodium phosphate for foodborne virus reduction on produce. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 8:713717.
209. Su, X.,, S. Zivanovic,, and D. H. D’Souza. 2010. Inactivation of human enteric virus surrogates by high-intensity ultrasound. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 7:10551061.
210. Suslow, T. V.,, M. P. Oria,, L. R. Beuchat,, E. H. Garrett,, M. E. Parish,, L. J. Harris,, J. N. Farber,, and F. F. Busta. 2003. Production practices as risk factors in microbial food safety of fresh and fresh-cut produce. Comp. Rev. Food Sci. Food Safety 2(Suppl.):140.
211. Svensson, L. 2000. Diagnosis of foodborne viral infections in patients. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 59:117126.
212. Tacket, C. O.,, M. B. Sztein,, G. A. Losonsky,, S. S. Wasserman,, and M. K. Estes. 2003. Humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to oral Norwalk virus-like particles in volunteers. Clin. Immunol. 108:241247.
213. Takanashi, S.,, S. Hashira,, T. Matsunaga,, A. Yoshida,, T. Shiota,, P. G. Tung,, P. Khamrin,, S. Okitsu,, M.