1887

Chapter 24 : Foodborne Viral Pathogens

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Foodborne Viral Pathogens, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap24-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap24-2.gif

Abstract:

Human enteric viruses have properties that are unique from those of bacterial foodborne pathogens. Viruses are usually species-specific and tissue-tropic, meaning that the human enteric viruses are believed to infect only humans. From an epidemiologic perspective, human norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are the two most important. From a foodborne disease standpoint, three types of commodities are commonly associated with viral disease outbreaks, namely, (i) molluscan shellfish contaminated by feces-impacted growing waters; (ii) fresh produce items contaminated by human feces during production or packing, usually through workers’ hands or contact with contaminated water; and (iii) ready-to-eat (RTE) and prepared foods contaminated by infected food handlers as a result of poor personal hygiene. The major steps for the detection of viruses in foods can be designated as follows: (i) virus concentration and purification, (ii) nucleic acid extraction, (iii) detection of amplicons, and (iv) confirmation of amplicon identity. Epidemiologic evidence reveals that foods play an important role in the transmission of human enteric viruses. Improved and more widespread reporting and investigation of foodborne viral disease outbreaks, as well as targeted epidemiologic studies to identify the risk factors for acquiring viral gastroenteritis, would improve our understanding of source attribution.

Citation: Jaykus L, D'Souza D, Moe C. 2013. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 619-649. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch24
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 24.1
Figure 24.1

Norwalk virus genome organization (adapted from Kapikian et al. [ ]). VPg, genome-linked virion protein. ORF1 encodes polyprotein posttranslationally cleaved into nonstructural proteins helicase (with a predicted nucleotide triphosphate-binding domain [NTPase]), proteinase (Pro), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Pol). ORF2 encodes capsid protein, which is translated into major and minor structural proteins which consist of shell and protruding domains. N, NH2-terminal arm. ORF3 encodes a basic protein of unknown function. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch24f1

Citation: Jaykus L, D'Souza D, Moe C. 2013. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 619-649. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch24
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 24.2
Figure 24.2

HAV genome organization (adapted from Hollinger and Emerson [ ]). 5´UTR, 624 to 1,199 nt long; VPg, genome-linked virion protein, 22 to 24 amino acids. The single ORF encodes polyprotein posttranslationally cleaved into VP1, VP2, and VP3, which form the capsid; VP4 is the inner surface capsid protein. 2A, unknown function; 2B, RNA synthesis and cell membrane permeability; 2C, RNA replication; 3A and 3B, RNA replication proteins, cofactor for 3D; 3C, viral proteinases; 3D, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Poly(A) tail, about 35 to 100 nt long; 3´UTR, 47 to 125 nt long. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch24f2

Citation: Jaykus L, D'Souza D, Moe C. 2013. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 619-649. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch24
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 24.3
Figure 24.3

Transmission routes of foodborne viruses. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch24f3

Citation: Jaykus L, D'Souza D, Moe C. 2013. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 619-649. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch24
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 24.4
Figure 24.4

Candidate methods for the concentration and detection of viruses in foods. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch24f4

Citation: Jaykus L, D'Souza D, Moe C. 2013. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 619-649. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch24
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818463.chap24
1. Abad, F. X.,, R. M. Pintó,, and A. Bosch. 1997. Disinfection of human enteric viruses on fomites. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 156: 107 111.
2. Agus, S. G.,, R. Dolin,, R. G. Wyatt,, A. J. Tousimis,, and R. S. Northup. 1973. Acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis: intestinal histopathology. Histologic and enzymatic alterations during illness produced by the Norwalk agent in man. Ann. Intern. Med. 79: 18 25.
3. Allwood, P. B.,, Y. S. Malik,, C. W. Hedberg,, and S. M. Goyal. 2003. Survival of F-specific RNA coliphage, feline calicivirus, and Escherichia coli in water: a comparative study. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 5707 5710.
4. Amar, C. F.,, J. Gray,. M. Iturriza-Gomar,, E. A. Maclure,, and J. McLauchlin. 2007. Detection by PCR of eight groups of enteric pathogens in 4,627 faecal samples: re-examination of the English case-control Infectious Intestinal Disease Study (1993-1996). Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 26: 311 323.
5. Amon, J. J.,, R. Devasia,, G. Xia,, O. V. Nainan,, S. Hall,, B. Lawson,, J. S. Wolthuis,, P. D. M. MacDonald,, C. W. Shepard,, I. T. Williams,, G. L. Armstrong,, J. A. Gabel,, P. Erwin,, L. Sheeler,, W. Kuhnert,, P. Patel,, G. Vaughan,, A. Weltman,, A. S. Craig,, B. P. Bell,, and A. Fiore. 2005. Molecular epidemiology of foodborne hepatitis A outbreaks in the United States, 2003. J. Infect. Dis. 192: 1323 1330.
6. Arauz-Ruiz, P.,, L. Sundqvist,, Z. García,, L. Taylor,, K. Visoná,, H. Norder,, and L. O. Magnius. 2001. Presumed common source outbreaks of hepatitis A in an endemic area confirmed by limited sequencing within the VP1 region. J. Med. Virol. 65: 449 456.
7. Asher, L. V.,, L. N. Binn,, T. L. Mensing,, R. H. Marchwicki,, R. A. Vassell,, and G. D. Young. 1995. Pathogenesis of hepatitis A in orally inoculated owl monkeys ( Aotus trivirgatus). J. Med. Virol. 47: 260 268.
8. Atmar, R. L.,, A. R. Opekun,, M. A. Gilger,, M. K. Estes,, S. E. Crawford,, F. H. Neill,, and D. Y. Graham. 2008. Norwalk virus shedding after experimental human infection. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14: 1553 1557.
9. Ayodeji, M.,, M. Kulka,, S. A. Jackson,, I. Patel,, M. Mammel,, T. A. Cebula,, and B. B. Goswami. 2009. A microarray based approach for the identification of common foodborne viruses. Open Virol. J. 3: 7 20.
10. Bae, J.,, and K. J. Schwab. 2008. Evaluation of murine norovirus, feline calicivirus, poliovirus, and MS2 as surrogates for human norovirus in a model of viral persistence in surface water and groundwater. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74: 477 484.
11. Baert, L.,, C. E. Wobus,, E. V. Coillie,, L. B. Thackray,, J. Debevere,, and M. Uyttendaele. 2008. Detection of murine norovirus 1 by using plaque assay, transfection assay, and real-time reverse transcription-PCR before and after heat exposure. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74: 543 546.
12. Ball, J. M.,, D. Y. Graham,, A. R. Opekun,, M. A. Gilger,, R. A. Guerrero,, and M. K. Estes. 1999. Recombinant Norwalk virus-like particles given orally to volunteers: phase I study. Gastroenterology 117: 40 48.
13. Bank-Wolf, B. R.,, M. König,, and H. J. Thiel. 2010. Zoonotic aspects of infections with noroviruses and sapoviruses. Vet. Microbiol. 140: 204 212.
14. Becker, K. M.,, C. L. Moe,, K. L. Southwick,, and J. N. MacCormack. 2000. Transmission of Norwalk virus during a football game. N. Engl. J. Med. 343: 1223 1227.
15. Belliot, G.,, A. Lavaux,, D. Souihel,, D. Agnello,, and P. Pothier. 2008. Use of murine norovirus as a surrogate to evaluate resistance of human norovirus to disinfectants. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74: 3315 3318.
16. Berg, D.E.,, M. A. Kohn,, T. A. Farley,, and L. M. McFarland. 2000. Multi-state outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis traced to fecal-contaminated oysters harvested in Louisiana. J. Infect. Dis. 181( Suppl. 2): S381 S386.
17. Beuret, C.,, A. Baumgartner,, and J. Schluep. 2003. Virus-contaminated oysters: a three-month monitoring of oysters imported to Switzerland. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 2292 2297.
18. Bidawid, S.,, N. Malik,, O. Adegbunrin,, S. A. Sattar,, and J. M. Farber. 2004. Norovirus cross-contamination during food handling and interruption of virus transfer by hand antisepsis: experiments with feline calicivirus as a surrogate. J. Food Prot. 67: 103 109.
19. Bidawid, S.,, J. M. Farber,, and S. A. Sattar. 2000. Contamination of foods by food handlers: experiments on hepatitis A virus transfer to food and its interruption. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 2759 2763.
20. Bok, K.,, G. I. Parra,, T. Mitra,, E. Abente,, C. K. Shaver,, D. Boon,, R. Engle,, C. Yu,, A. Z. Kapikian,, S. V. Sosnovtsev,, R. H. Purcell,, and K. Y. Green. 2011. Chimpanzees as an animal model for human norovirus infection and vaccine development. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108: 325 330.
21. Boone, S. A.,, and C. P. Gerba. 2007. Significance of fomites in the spread of respiratory and enteric viral disease. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 1687 1696.
22. Boxman, I. L.,, L. Verhoef,, R. Dijkman,, G. Hägele,, N. A. te Loeke,, and M. Koopmans. 2011. Year-round prevalence of norovirus in the environment of catering companies without a recently reported outbreak of gastroenteritis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77: 2968 2974.
23. Boxman, I. L.,, R. Dijkman,, N. A. te Loeke,, G. Hägele,, J. J. Tilburg,, H. Vennema,, and M. Koopmans. 2009. Environmental swabs as a tool in norovirus outbreak investigation, including outbreaks on cruise ships. J. Food Prot. 72: 111 119.
24. Boxman, I.,, R. Dijkman,, L. Verhoee,, A. Maat,, G. van Dijk,, H. Vennema,, and M. Koopmans. 2009. Norovirus on swabs taken from hands illustrate route of transmission: a case study. J. Food Prot. 72: 1753 1755.
25. Boxman, I. L.,, J. J. Tilburg,, N. A. te Loeke,, H. Vennema,, E. de Boer,, and M. Koopmans. 2007. An efficient and rapid method of recovery for norovirus from food associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis. J. Food Prot. 70: 504 508.
26. Bresee, J. S.,, M. A. Widdowson,, S. S. Monroe,, and R. I. Glass. 2002. Foodborne viral gastroenteritis: challenges and opportunities. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35: 748 753.
27. Bull, R. A.,, J. S. Eden,, W. D. Rawlinson,, and P. A. White. 2010. Rapid evolution of pandemic noroviruses of the GII.4 lineage. PLoS Pathog. 6: e1000831.
28. Butot, S.,, T. Putallaz,, R. Amoroso,, and G. Sánchez. 2009. Inactivation of enteric viruses in minimally processed berries and herbs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 4155 4161.
29. Butot, S.,, T. Putallaz,, and G. Sánchez. 2007. Procedure for rapid concentration and detection of enteric viruses from berries and vegetables. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 186 192.
30. Calci, K. R.,, G. K. Meade,, R. C. Tezloff,, and D. H. Kingsley. 2005. High-pressure inactivation of hepatitis A virus within oysters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 339 343.
31. Cannon, J. L.,, and J. Vinjé. 2008. Histo-blood group antigen assay for detecting noroviruses in water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74: 6818 6819.
32. Cannon, J. L.,, E. Papafragkou,, G. W. Park,, J. Osborne,, L. Jaykus,, and J. Vinjé. 2006. Surrogates for the study of norovirus stability and inactivation in the environment: a comparison of murine norovirus and feline calicivirus. J. Food Prot. 69: 2761 2765.
33. Carrique-Mas, J.,, Y. Andersson,, B. Petersén,, K.-O. Hedlund,, N. Sjögren,, and J. Giesecke. 2003. A Norwalk-like virus waterborne community outbreak in a Swedish village during peak holiday season. Epidemiol. Infect. 131: 737 744.
34. Centers for Disease Controland Prevention. 2009. Surveillance of foodborne disease outbreaks—United States, 2006. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 58: 609615.
35. Centers for Disease Controland Prevention. 2011. Updated norovirus outbreak management and disease prevention guidelines. MMWR Recomm. Rep. 60( RR-3): 118.
36. Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention. 2005. Hepatitis A vaccination coverage among children aged 24-35 months—United States, 2003. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 54: 141144.
37. Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention. 2003. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with noroviruses on cruise ships—United States, 2002. JAMA 289: 167169.
38. Centers for Disease Controland Prevention. 2003. Hepatitis A outbreak associated with green onions at a restaurant—Monaca, Pennsylvania. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 52: 11551157.
39. Chalmers, J. W. T.,, and J. H. McMillan. 1995. An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis associated with adequately prepared oysters. Epidemiol. Infect. 115: 163 167.
40. Chang, K. O.,, and D. W. George. 2007. Interferons and ribavirin effectively inhibit Norwalk virus replication in replicon-bearing cells. J. Virol. 81: 12111 12118.
41. Cliver, D. O. 1997. Virus transmission via food. Food Technol. 51: 71 78.
42. Cliver, D. O.,, and S. M. Matsui,. 2002. Viruses, p. 161 175. In D. O. Cliver, and H. P. Reimann (ed.), Foodborne Diseases, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Boston, MA.
43. Committee on InfectiousDiseases, American Academy of Pediatrics. 1991. HepatitisA, p. 234237. In Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 22nd ed. American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove, IL.
44. Cotterelle, B.,, C. Drougard,, J. Rolland,, M. Becamel,, M. Boudon,, S. Pinede,, O. Traoré,, K. Balay,, P. Pothier,, and E. Espié. 2005. Outbreak of norovirus infection associated with the consumption of frozen raspberries, France, March 2005. Euro Surveill. 10: E050428.1.
45. Croci, L.M., N. Losio,, E. Suffredini,, E. Pavoni,, S. Di Pasquale,, F. Fallacara,, and G. Ancangeli. 2007. Assessment of human enteric viruses in shellfish from the northern Adriatic sea. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 114: 252 257.
46. Croci, L.,, D. De Medici,, G. Morace,, A. Fiore,, C. Scalfaro,, F. Beneduce,, and L. Toti. 2002. The survival of hepatitis A virus in fresh produce. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 73: 29 34.
47. Croci, L.,, M. Ciccozzi,, D. De Medici,, S. Di Pasquale,, A. Fiore,, A. Mele,, and L. Toti. 1999. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus in heat-treated mussels. J. Appl. Microbiol. 87: 884 888.
48. Cromeans, T.,, O. V. Nainan,, H. A. Fields,, M. O. Favorov,, and H. S. Margolis,. 1994. Hepatitis A and E viruses, p. 1 56. In Y. H. Hui,, J. R. Gorham,, K. D. Murrell,, and D. O. Cliver (ed.), Foodborne Disease Handbook, vol. 2. Diseases Caused by Viruses, Parasites, and Fungi. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
49. Cuthbert, J. A. 2002. Hepatitis A: old and new. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14: 38 58.
50. Dalton, C. B.,, A. Haddix,, R. E. Hoffman,, and E. E. Mast. 1996. The cost of a food-borne outbreak of hepatitis A in Denver, Colo. Arch. Intern. Med. 156: 1013 1016.
51. DePaola, A.,, J. L. Jones,, J. Woods,, W. Burkhardt III,, K. R. Calci,, J. A. Krantz,, J. C. Bowers,, K. Kasturi,, R. H. Byars,, E. Jacobs,, D. Williams-Hill,, and K. Nabe. 2010. Bacterial and viral pathogens in live oysters: 2007 United States market survey. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 2754 2768.
52. Desselberger, U., 2000. Rotaviruses: methods and protocols, p. 1 8. In J. Gray, and U. Desselberger (ed.), Methods in Molecular Medicine, vol. 34. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
53. de Wit, M. A.,, M. A. Widdowson,, H. Vennema,, E. de Bruin,, T. Fernandes,, and M. Koopmans. 2007. Large outbreak of norovirus: the baker who should have known better. J. Infect. 55: 188 193.
54. Divizia, M.,, R. Gabrielli,, A. Macaluso,, B. Bagnato,, L. Palombi,, E. Buonomo,, F. Cenko,, L. Leno,, S. Bino,, A. Basha,, and A. Panà. 2005. Nucleotide correlation between HAV isolates from human patients and environmental samples. J. Med. Virol. 75: 8 12.
55. Dolin, R.,, N. R. Blacklow,, H. DuPont,, R. F. Buscho,, R. G. Wyatt,, J. A. Kasel,, R. Hornick,, and R. M. Chanock. 1972. Biological properties of Norwalk agent of acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 140: 578 583.
56. Donaldson, E. F.,, L. C. Lindesmith,, A. D. LoBue,, and R. S. Baric. 2010. Viral shape-shifting: norovirus evasion of the human immune system. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8: 231 241.
57. Donaldson, E. F.,, L. C. Lindesmith,, A. D. Lobue,, and R. S. Baric. 2008. Norovirus pathogenesis: mechanisms of persistence and immune evasion in human populations. Immunol. Rev. 225: 190 211.
58. Doré, W. J.,, M. Mackie,, and D. N. Lees. 2003. Levels of male-specific RNA bacteriophage and Escherichia coli in molluscan bivalve shellfish from commercial harvesting areas. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 36: 92 96.
59. Doultree, J. C.,, J. D. Druce,, C. J. Birch,, D. S. Bowden,, and J. A. Marshall. 1999. Inactivation of feline calicivirus, a Norwalk virus surrogate. J. Hosp. Infect. 41: 51 57.
60. D’Souza, D. H.,, and L. Jaykus,. 2006. Molecular approaches for the detection of foodborne viral pathogens, p. 91 118. In J. Maurer (ed.), PCR Methods in Foods, Springer, New York, NY.
61. D’Souza, D. H.,, J. Jean,, and L. Jaykus,. 2006. Methods for detection of viral and parasitic pathogens, p. 188-1 188-23. In Y. H. Hui (ed.), Handbook of Food Technology and Engineering, vol. 4. CRC/Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
62. Duizer, E.,, P. Bijkerk,, B. Rockx,, A. de Groot,, F. Twisk,, and M. Koopmans. 2004. Inactivation of caliciviruses. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 4538 4543.
63. El-Kamary, S. S.,, M. F. Pasetti,, P. M. Mendelman,, S. E. Frey,, D. I. Bernstein,, J. J. Treanor,, J. Ferreira,, W. H. Chen,, R. Sublett,, C. Richardson,, R. F. Bargatze,, M. B. Sztein,, and C. O. Tacket. 2010. Adjuvanted intranasal Norwalk virus-like particle vaccine elicits antibodies and antibody-secreting cells that express homing receptors for mucosal and peripheral lymphoid tissues. J. Infect. Dis. 202: 1649 1658.
64. Falkenhorst, G.,, L. Krusell,, M. Lisby,, S. B. Madsen,, B. Böttiger,, and K. Mølbak. 2005. Imported frozen raspberries cause a series of norovirus outbreaks in Denmark, 2005. Euro Surveill. 10: E050922.2.
64a. Fauquet, C. M.,, M. A. Mayo,, J. Maniloff,, U. Desselberger,, and L. A. Ball. 2005. Virus Taxonomy, Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, New York, NY.
65. Feng, K.,, E. Diver,, Y. Ma,, and J. Li. 2011. Inactivation of a human norovirus surrogate, human norovirus virus-like particles, and vesicular stomatitis virus by gamma irradiation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77: 3507 3517.
66. Fino, V. R.,, and K. E. Kniel. 2008. Comparative recovery of foodborne viruses from fresh produce. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 5: 819 825.
67. Fino, V. R.,, and K. E. Kniel. 2008. UV light inactivation of hepatitis A virus, Aichi virus, and feline calicivirus on strawberries, green onions, and lettuce. J. Food Prot. 71: 908 913.
68. Fiore, A. E. 2004. Hepatitis A transmitted by food. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38: 705 715.
69. Fleet, G. H.,, P. Heiskanen,, I. Reid,, and K. A. Buckle. 2000. Foodborne viral illness—status in Australia. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 59: 127 136.
70.Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. 2008. Viruses in Food: Scientific Advice to Support Risk Management Activities, Meeting Report. Microbiological Risk Assessment Series No. 13. Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization, Rome, Italy and Geneva, Switzerland.
71. Formiga-Cruz, M.,, A. K. Allard,, A. C. Conden-Hansson,, K. Henshilwood,, B. E. Hernroth,, J. Jofre,, D. N. Lees,, F. Lucena,, M. Papapetropoulou,, R. E. Rangdale,, A. Tsibouxi,, A. Vantarakis,, and R. Girones. 2003. Evaluation of potential indicators of viral contamination in shellfish and their applicability to diverse geographical areas. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 1556 1563.
72. Formiga-Cruz, M.,, G. Tofiño-Quesada,, S. Bofill-Mas,, D. N. Lees,, K. Henshilwood,, A. K. Allard,, A. C. Conden-Hansson,, B. E. Hernroth,, A. Vantarakis,, A. Tsibouxi,, M. Papapetropoulou,, M. D. Furones,, and R. Girones. 2002. Distribution of human virus contamination in shellfish from different growing areas in Greece, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 5990 5998.
73. Friedman, D. S.,, D. Heisey-Grove,, F. Argyros,, E. Berl,, J. Nsubuga,, T. Stiles,, J. Fontana,, R. S. Beard,, A. Moneow,, M. E. McGrath,, H. Sutherby,, R. C. Dicker,, A. DeMaria,, and B. T. Matyas. 2005. An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with wedding cakes. Epidemiol. Infect. 133: 1057 1063.
74. Gallimore, C. I.,, D. Cubitt,, N. du Plessis,, and J. J. Gray. 2004. Asymptomatic and symptomatic excretion of noroviruses during a hospital outbreak of gastroenteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 2271 2274.
75. Gandhi, K. M.,, R. E. Mandrell,, and P. Tian. 2010. Binding of virus-like particles of Norwalk virus to romaine lettuce veins. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 7997 8003.
76. Gaulin, C.,, M. Frigon,, D. Poirier,, and C. Fournier. 1999. Transmission of calicivirus by a foodhandler in the pre-symptomatic phase of illness. Epidemiol. Infect. 123: 475 478.
77. Gehrke, C.,, J. Steinmann,, and P. Goroncy-Bermes. 2004. Inactivation of feline calicivirus, a surrogate of norovirus (formerly Norwalk-like viruses), by different types of alcohol in vitro and in vivo. J. Hosp. Infect. 56: 49 55.
78. Gerba, C. P.,, D. M. Gramos,, and N. Nwachuku. 2002. Comparative inactivation of enteroviruses and adenovirus 2 by UV light. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 5167 5169.
79. Gersberg, R. M.,, M. A. Rose,, R. Robles-Sikisaka,, and A. K. Dhar. 2006. Quantitative detection of hepatitis A virus and enteroviruses near the United States-Mexico border and correlation with levels of fecal indicator bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72: 7438 7444.
80. Girard, M.,, S. Ngazoa,, K. Mattison,, and J. Jean. 2010. Attachment of noroviruses to stainless steel and their inactivation, using household disinfectants. J. Food Prot. 73: 400 404.
81. Glass, R. I.,, U. D. Parashar,, and M. K. Estes. 2009. Norovirus gastroenteritis: an update. N. Engl. J. Med. 361: 1776 1785.
82. Green, K. Y.,, R. M. Chanock,, and A. Z. Kapikian,. 2001. Humancaliciviruses, p. 841 874. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, and S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
83. Green, K. Y.,, J. F. Lew,, X. Jiang,, A. Z. Kapikian,, and M. K. Estes. 1993. Comparison of the reactivities of baculovirus-expressed recombinant Norwalk virus capsid antigen with those of the native Norwalk virus antigen in serologic assays and some epidemiologic observations. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 2185 2191.
84. Gulati, B. R.,, P. B. Allwood,, C. W. Hedberg,, and S. M. Goyal. 2001. Efficacy of commonly used disinfectants for the inactivation of calicivirus on strawberry, lettuce, and a food-contact surface. J. Food Prot. 64: 1430 1434.
85. Halliday, M. L.,, L. Y. Kang,, T. K. Zhou,, M. D. Hu,, Q. C. Pan,, T. Y. Fu,, Y. S. Huang,, and S. L. Hu. 1991. An epidemic of hepatitis A attributable to the ingestion of raw clams in Shanghai, China. J. Infect. Dis. 164: 852 859.
86. Halperin, T.,, H. Vennema,, M. Koopmans,, G. K. Bar-Gal,, R. Kayouf,, T. Sela,, R. Ambar,, and E. Klement. 2008. No association between histo-blood group antigens and susceptibility to clinical infections with genogroup II norovirus. J. Infect. Dis. 197: 63 65.
87. Harewood, P.,, S. Rippey,, and M. Montesalvo. Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life and bacterial and viral loads in hard-shelled clams ( Mercenaria mercenaria). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60: 2666 2670.
88. Harrington, P. R.,, L. Lindesmith,, B. Yount,, C. L. Moe,, J. LePendu,, and R. S. Baric. 2003. Norovirus attachment, susceptibility and vaccine design. Recent Res. Dev. Virol. 5: 19 44.
89. Harrington, P. R.,, L. Lindesmith,, B. Yount,, C. L. Moe,, and R. S. Baric. 2002. Binding of Norwalk virus-like particles to ABH histo-blood group antigens is blocked by antisera from infected human volunteers or experimentally vaccinated mice. J. Virol. 76: 12335 12343.
90. Harris, J. P.,, W. J. Edmunds,, R. Pebody,, D. W. Brown,, and B. A. Lopman. 2008. Deaths from norovirus among the elderly, England and Wales. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14: 1546 1552.
91. Hata, A.,, H. Katayama,, M. Kitajima,, C. Visvanathan,, C. Nol,, and H. Furumai. 2011. Validation of internal controls for extraction and amplification of nucleic acids from enteric viruses in water samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77: 4336 4343.
92. Herbst-Kralovetz, M.,, H. S. Mason,, and Q. Chen. 2010. Norwalk virus-like particles as vaccines. Expert Rev. Vaccines 9: 299 307.
93. Hennessy, E. P.,, A. D. Green,, M. P. Connor,, R. Darby,, and P. MacDonald. 2003. Norwalk virus infection and disease is associated with ABO histo-blood group type. J. Infect. Dis. 188: 176 177.
94. Hewitt, J.,, M. Rivera-Aban,, and G. E. Greening. 2009. Evaluation of murine norovirus as a surrogate for human norovirus and hepatitis A virus in heat activation studies. J. Appl. Microbiol. 107: 65 71.
95. Hewitt, J.,, and G. E. Greening. 2004. Survival and persistence of norovirus, hepatitis A virus, and feline calicivirus in marinated mussels. J. Food Prot. 67: 1743 1750.
96. Hirneisen, K. A.,, S. M. Markland,, and K. E. Kniel. 2011. Ozone inactivation of norovirus surrogates on fresh produce. J. Food Prot. 74: 836 839.
97. Hjertqvist, M.,, A. Johansson,, N. Svensson,, P. E. Abom,, C. Magnusson,, M. Olsson,, K. O. Hedlund,, and Y. Andersson. 2006. Four outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis after consuming raspberries, Sweden, June-August 2006. Euro Surveill. 11: E060907.1.
98. Hofmann, F.,, G. Wehrle,, H. Berthold,, and D. Koster. 1992. Hepatitis A as an occupational hazard. Vaccine 10: 82 84.
99. Hollinger, F.B.,, and S. U. Emerson,. 2001. Hepatitis Avirus, p. 799 840. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, and S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
100. Hollinger, F. B.,, and J. R. Ticehurst,. 1996. Hepatitis A virus, p. 735 774. In B. N. Fields,, D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, M. Chanock,, J. L. Melnick,, and T. P. Monath (ed.), Fields Virology, 3rd ed. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, PA.
101. Huang, P.,, T. Farkas,, S. Marionneau,, W. Zhong,, N. Ruvoën-Clouet,, A. L. Morrow,, M. Altaye,, L. K. Pickering,, D. S. Newburg,, J. LePendu,, and X. Jiang. 2003. Noroviruses bind to human ABO, Lewis and secretor histo-blood group antigens: identification of 4 distinct strain-specific patterns. J. Infect. Dis. 188: 19 31.
102. Hutin, Y. J.,, V. Pool,, E. H. Cramer,, O. V. Nainan,, J. Weth,, I. T. Williams,, S. T. Goldstein,, K. F. Gensheimer,, B. P. Bell,, C. N. Shapiro,, M. J. Alter,, and H. S. Margolis for the National Hepatitis A Investigation Team. 1999. A multistate, foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A. N. Engl. J. Med. 340: 595 601.
103. Hutson, A. M.,, R. L. Atmar,, D. Y. Graham,, and M. K. Estes. 2002. Norwalk virus infection and disease is associated with ABO histo-blood group type. J. Infect. Dis. 185: 1335 1337.
104. Isakbaeva, E. T.,, M. A. Widdowson,, R. S. Beard,, S. N. Bulens,, J. Mullins,, S. S. Monroe,, J. Bresee,, P. Sassano,, E. H. Cramer,, and R. I. Glass. 2005. Norovirus transmission on cruise ship. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11: 154 158.
105. Jaykus, L.,, and B. Escudero-Abarca,. 2010. Human pathogenic viruses in food, p. 195 232. In V. J. Juneja, and J. N. Sofos (ed.), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods: Challenges and Interventions. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
106. Jaykus, L.,, M. T. Hemard,, and M. D. Sobsey,. 1994. Human enteric pathogenic viruses, p. 92 153. In C. R. Hackney, and M. D. Pierson (ed.), Environmental Indicators and Shellfish Safety. Chapman and Hall, New York, NY.
107. Jean, J.,, J.-F. Vachon,, O. Moroni,, A. Darveau,, I. Kukavica-Ibrulj,, and I. Fliss. 2003. Effectiveness of commercial disinfectants for inactivating hepatitis A virus on agri-food surfaces. J. Food Prot. 66: 115 119.
108. Johnson, P. C.,, J. J. Mathewson,, H. L. DuPont,, and H. B. Greenberg. 1990. Multiple-challenge study of host susceptibility to Norwalk gastroenteritis in US adults. J. Infect. Dis. 161: 18 21.
109. Jothikumar, N.,, T. L. Cromeans,, B. H. Robertson,, X. J. Meng,, and V. R. Hill. 2006. A broadly reactive one-step real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid and sensitive detection of hepatitis E virus. J. Virol. Methods 131: 65 71.
110. Jothikumar, N.,, T. L. Cromeans,, M. D. Sobsey,, and B. H. Robertson. 2005. Development and evaluation of a broadly reactive TaqMan assay for rapid detection of hepatitis A virus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 3359 3363.
111. Jothikumar, N.,, J. A. Lowther,, K. Henshilwood,, D. N. Lees,, V. R. Hill,, and J. Vinjé. 2005. Rapid and sensitive detection of noroviruses by using TaqMan-based one-step reverse transcription-PCR assays and application to naturally contaminated shellfish samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 1870 1875.
112. Kageyama, T.,, S. Kojima,, M. Shinohara,, K. Uchida,, S. Fukushi,, F. B. Hoshino,, N. Takeda,, and K. Katayama. 2003. Broadly reactive and highly sensitive assay for Norwalk-like viruses on real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 1548 1557.
113. Kampf, G.,, D. Grotheer,, and J. Steinmann. 2005. Efficacy of three ethanol-based hand rubs against feline calicivirus, a surrogate virus for norovirus. J. Hosp. Infect. 60: 144 149.
114. Kapikian, A. Z.,, M. K. Estes,, and R. M. Chanock,. 1996. Norwalk group of viruses, p. 783 810. In B. N. Fields,, D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, M. Chanock,, J. L. Melnick,, and T. P. Monath (ed.), Fields Virology, 3rd ed. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, PA.
115. Kingsley, D. H.,, D. R. Holliman,, K. R. Calci,, H. Chen,, and G. J. Flick. 2007. Inactivation of a norovirus by high-pressure processing. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 581 585.
116. Kingsley, D. H.,, and G. P. Richards. 2003. Persistence of hepatitis A virus in oysters. J. Food Prot. 66: 331 334.
117. Kingsley, D. H.,, D. G. Hoover,, E. Papafragkou,, and G. P. Richards. 2002. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus and a calicivirus by high hydrostatic pressure. J. Food Prot. 65: 1605 1609.
118. Kobayashi, S.,, K. Natori,, N. Takeda,, and K. Sakae. 2004. Immunomagnetic capture RT-PCR for detection of norovirus from foods implicated in a foodborne outbreak. Microbiol. Immunol. 48: 201 204.
119. Kohn, M. A.,, T. A. Farley,, T. Ando,, M. Curtis,, S. A. Wilson,, Q. Jin,, S. S. Monroe,, R. C. Baron,, L. M. McFarland,, and R. I. Glass. 1995. An outbreak of Norwalk virus gastroenteritis associated with eating raw oysters. JAMA 273: 466 471.
120. Koopmans, M.,, and E. Duizer. 2004. Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 90: 23 41.
121. Kroneman, A.,, L. Verhoef,, J. Harris,, H. Vennema,, E. Duizer,, Y. van Duynhoven,, J. Gray,, M. Iturriza,, B. Böttiger,, G. Falkenhorst,, C. Johnsen,, C. H. von Bonsdorff,, L. Maunula,, M. Kuusi,, P. Pothier,, A. Gallay,, E. Schreier,, M. Höhne,, J. Koch,, G. Szücs,, G. Reuter,, K. Krisztalovics,, M. Lynch,, P. McKeown,, B. Foley,, S. Coughlan,, F. M. Ruggeri,, I. Di Bartolo,, K. Vainio,, E. Isakbaeva,, M. Poljsak-Prijatelj,, A. H. Grom,, J. Z. Mijovski,, A. Bosch,, J. Buesa,, A. S. Fauquier,, G. Hernandéz-Pezzi,, K. O. Hedlund,, and M. Koopmans. 2008. Analysis of integrated virological and epidemiological reports of norovirus outbreaks collected within the Foodborne Viruses in Europe network from 1 July 2001 to 30 June 2006. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 2959 2965.
122. Lages, S. L.,, M. A. Ramakrishnan,, and S. M. Goyal. 2008. In-vivo efficacy of hand sanitisers against feline calicivirus: a surrogate for norovirus. J. Hosp. Infect. 68: 159 163.
123. Lee, N.,, M. C. Chan,, B. Wong,, K. W. Choi,, W. Sin,, G. Lui,, P. K. Chan,, R. W. Lai,, C. S. Crockram,, J. J. Sung,, and W. K. Leung. 2007. Fecal viral concentration and diarrhea in norovirus gastroenteritis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13: 1399 1401.
124. Le Guyader, F. S.,, S. Parnaudeau,, J. Schaeffer,, A. Bosch,, F. Loisy,, M. Pommepuy,, and R. L. Atmar. 2009. Detection and quantification of noroviruses in shellfish. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 618 624.
125. Le Guyader, F.,, L. Haugarreau,, L. Miossec,, E. Dubois,, and M. Pommepuy. 2000. Three-year study to assess human enteric viruses in shellfish. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 3241 3248.
126. Lemon, S. M. 1997. Type A hepatitis: epidemiology, diagnosis, and prevention. Clin. Chem. 43: 1494 1499.
127. Leon, J. S.,, D. H. Kingsley,, J. S. Montes,, G. P. Richards,, G. M. Lyon,, G. M. Abdulhafid,, S. R. Seitz,, M. L. Fernandez,, P. F. Teunis,, G. J. Flick,, and C. L. Moe. 2011. Randomized, double-blinded clinical trial for human norovirus inactivation in oysters by high hydrostatic pressure processing. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77: 5476 5482.
128. Leon, J. S.,, S. Menira,, Q. Wang,, E. R. Smith,, L. J. Saif,, and C. L. Moe,. 2008. Immunology of norovirus infection, p. 219 262. In M. Vajdy (ed.), Immunity against Mucosal Pathogens. Springer, Boston, MA.
129. León-Félix, J.,, R. A. Martínez-Bustillos,, M. Báez-Sañudo,, F. Peraza-Garay,, and C. Chaidez. 2010. Norovirus contamination of bell pepper from handling during harvesting and packing. Food Environ. Virol. 2: 211 217.
130. Li, D.,, L. Baert,, M. De Jonghe,, E. Van Coillie,, J. Ryckeboer,, F. Devlieghere,, and M. Uyttendaele. 2011. Inactivation of murine norovirus 1, coliphage ϑX174, and Bacteroides [corrected] fragilis phage B40-8 on surfaces and fresh-cut iceberg lettuce by hydrogen peroxide and UV light. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77: 1399 1404.
131. Lim, M. Y.,, J. M. Kim,, J. E. Lee,, and G. P. Ko. 2010. Characterization of ozone disinfection of murine norovirus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 1120 1124.
132. Lindesmith, L.,, E. Donaldson,, J. Leon,, C. L. Moe,, J. A. Frelinger,, R. E. Johnston,, D. J. Weber,, and R. S. Baric. 2010. Heterotypic humoral and cellular immune response following Norwalk virus infection. J. Virol. 84: 1800 1815.
133. Lindesmith, L. C.,, E. F. Donaldson,, A. D. LoBue,, J. L. Cannon,, D. P. Zheng,, J. Vinje,, and R. S. Baric. 2008. Mechanisms of GII.4 norovirus persistence in human populations. PLoS Med. 5: e31.
134. Lindesmith, L.,, C. Moe,, J. LePendu,, J. A. Frelinger,, J. Treanor,, and R. S. Baric. 2005. Cellular and humoral immunity following Snow Mountain virus challenge. J. Virol. 79: 2900 2909.
135. Lindesmith, L.,, C. Moe,, S. Marionneau,, N. Ruvoen,, X. Jiang,, J. Lindblad,, P. Stewart,, J. LePendu,, and R. Baric. 2003. Human susceptibility and resistance to Norwalk virus infection. Nat. Med. 9: 548 553.
136. Liu, B.,, P. Maywood,, L. Gupta,, and B. Campbell. 2003. An outbreak of Norwalk-like virus gastroenteritis in an aged-care residential hostel. N. S. W. Public Health Bull. 14: 105 109.
137. Liu, P.,, Y. Yuen,, H.-M. Hsiao,, L. Jaykus,, and C. Moe. 2010. Effectiveness of liquid soap and hand sanitizer against Norwalk virus on contaminated hands. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 394 399.
138. Liu, P.,, Y.-W. Chien,, E. Papafragkou,, H.-M. Hsiao,, L. Jaykus,, and C. L. Moe. 2009. Persistence of human noroviruses on food preparation surfaces and human hands. Food Environ. Virol. 1: 141 147.
139. Lopman, B.,, M. Reacher,, Y. van Duijnhoven,, F. X. Hanon,, D. Brown,, and M. Koopmans. 2003. Viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Europe, 1995–2000. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9: 90 96.
140. Lukasik, J.,, M. L. Bradley,, T. M. Scott,, M. Dea,, A. Koo,, W.-Y. Hsu,, J. A. Bartz,, and S. R. Farrah. 2003. Reduction of poliovirus 1, bacteriophages, Salmonella montevideo, and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 on strawberries by physical and disinfectant washes. J. Food Prot. 66: 188 193.
141. Macinga, D. R.,, S. A. Sattar,, L. Jaykus,, and J. W. Arbogast. 2008. Improved inactivation of non-enveloped enteric viruses and their surrogates by a novel alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74: 5047 5052.
142. Maier, K.,, P. Gabriel,, E. Koscielniak,, Y.-D. Stierhof,, K. H. Wiedmann,, K. B. Flehmig,, and A. Vallbracht. 1998. Human gamma interferon production by cytotoxic T lymphocytes sensitized during hepatitis A virus infection. J. Virol. 62: 3756 3763.
143. Malek, M.,, E. Barzilay,, A. Kramer,, B. Camp,, L. Jaykus,, B. Escudero-Abarca,, G. Derrick,, P. White,, C. Gerba,, C. Higgins,, J. Vinje,, R. Glass,, M. Lynch,, and M. A. Widdowson. 2009. Outbreak of norovirus infection among river rafters associated with packaged delicatessen meat, Grand Canyon, 2005. Clin. Infect. Dis. 48: 31 37.
144. Mallet, J. C.,, L. E. Beghian,, T. G. Metcalf,, and J. D. Kaylor. 1991. Potential of irradiation technology for improving shellfish sanitation. J. Food Safety 11: 231 245.
145. Marks, P. J.,, I. B. Vipond,, D. Carlisle,, D. Deakin,, R. E. Fey,, and E. O. Caul. 2000. Evidence for airborne transmission of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) in a hotel restaurant. Epidemiol. Infect. 124: 481 487.
146. Maunula, L.,, M. Roivainen,, M. Keränen,, S. Mäkela,, K. Söderberg,, M. Summa,, C. H. von Bonsdorff,, M. Lappalainen,, T. Korhonen,, M. Kuusi,, and T. Niskanen. 2009. Detection of human noroviruses from frozen raspberries in a cluster of gastroenteritis outbreaks. Euro Surveill. 14: pii=19435.
147. Mattison, K.,, J. Harlow,, V. Morton,, A. Cook,, F. Pollari,, S. Bidawid,, and J. M. Farber. 2010. Enteric viruses in ready-to-eat packaged leafy greens. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11: 1815 1817.
148. Mattison, K.,, E. Grudeski,, B. Auk,, H. Charest,, S. J. Drews,, A. Fritzinger,, N. Gregoricus,, S. Hayward,, A. Houde,, B. E. Lee,, X. L. Pang,, J. Wong,, T. F. Booth,, and J. Vinjé. 2009. Multicenter comparison of two norovirus ORF2-based genotyping protocols. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47: 3927 3932.
149. Mbithi, J. N.,, V. S. Springthorpe,, and S. A. Sattar. 1993. Comparative in vivo efficiencies of hand-washing agents against hepatitis A virus (HM-175) and poliovirus type 1 (Sabin). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59: 3463 3469.
150. Mbithi, J. N.,, V. S. Springthorpe,, and S. A. Sattar. 1990. Chemical disinfection of hepatitis A virus on environmental surfaces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56: 3601 3604.
151. McDonnell, S.,, K. B. Kirkland,, W. G. Hlady,, C. Aristeguieta,, R. S. Hopkins,, S. S. Monroe,, and R. I. Glass. 1997. Failure of cooking to prevent shellfish-associated viral gastroenteritis. Arch. Intern. Med. 157: 111 116.
152. Meltzer, M. I.,, C. N. Shapiro,, E. E. Mast,, and C. Arcari. 2001. The economics of vaccinating restaurant workers against hepatitis A. Vaccine 19: 2138 2145.
153. Michaels, B.,, C. Keller,, M. Blevins,, G. Paoli,, T. Ruthman,, E. Todd,, and C. J. Griffith. 2004. Prevention of food worker transmission of foodborne pathogens: risk assessment and evaluation of effective hygiene intervention strategies. Food Service Technol. 4: 31 49.
154. Millard, J.,, H. Appleton,, and J. V. Parry. 1987. Studies on heat inactivation of hepatitis A virus with special reference to shellfish. Epidemiol. Infect. 98: 397 414.
155. Moe, C. L. 2003. Next time you have vomiting patients in your office—consider noroviruses. Atlanta Med. 77: 13 19.
156. Moe, C. L. 2009. Preventing norovirus transmission: how should we handle food handlers? Clin. Infect. Dis. 48: 38 40.
157. Moe, C. L.,, E. Honorat,, J. Leon,, and J. Eisenberg. 2007. Epidemiologic patterns in published norovirus outbreak reports, 1981-2006, abstract P3-18. Third International Calicivirus Conference, Cancun, Mexico, November 2007.
158. Mokhtari, A.,, and L. Jaykus. 2009. Quantitative exposure model for the transmission of norovirus in retail food preparation. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 133: 38 47.
159. Mormann, S.,, M. Dabisch,, and B. Becker. 2010. Effects of technological processes on the tenacity and inactivation of norovirus genogroup II in experimentally contaminated foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 536 545.
160. Morse, D. L.,, J. J. Guzewich,, J. P. Hanrahan,, R. Stricof,, M. Shayegani,, R. Deibel,, J. C. Grabau,, N. A. Nowak,, J. E. Herrmann,, G. Cukor,, and N. R. Blacklow. 1986. Widespread outbreaks of clam- and oyster-associated gastroenteritis. Role of Norwalk virus. N. Engl. J. Med. 314: 678 681.
161. Morton, V.,, J. Jean,, J. Farber,, and K. Mattison. 2009. Detection of noroviruses in ready-to-eat foods by using carbohydrate-coated magnetic beads. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 4641 4643.
162. Muniain-Mujika, I.,, M. Calvo,, F. Lucena,, and R. Girones. 2003. Comparative analysis of viral pathogens and potential indicators in shellfish. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 83: 75 85.
163. Niu, M. T.,, L. B. Polish,, B. H. Robertson,, B. K. Khanna,, B. A. Woodruff,, C. N. Shapiro,, M. A. Miller,, J. D. Smith,, J. K. Gedrose,, M. J. Alterand,, and H. S. Margolis. 1992. Multistate outbreak of hepatitis A associated with frozen strawberries. J. Infect. Dis. 166: 518 524.
164. Nowak, P.,, J. R. Topping,, V. Fotheringham,, C. I. Gallimore,, J. J. Gray,, M. Iturriza-Gomara,, and A. I. Knight. 2011. Measurement of the virolysis of human GII.4 norovirus in response to disinfectants and sanitisers. J. Virol. Methods 174: 7 11.
165. Okabayashi, T.,, S. Yokota,, Y. Ohkoshi,, H. Ohuchi,, Y. Yoshida,, M. Kikuchi,, K. Yano,, and N. Fujii. 2008. Occurrence of norovirus unrelated to norovirus outbreaks in an asymptomatic food handler population. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 1985 1988.
166. Ozawa, K.,, T. Oka,, N. Tekeda,, and G. S. Hansman. 2007. Norovirus infections in symptomatic and asymptomatic food handlers in Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 3996 4005.
167. Pagotto, F.,, N. Corneau,, K. Mattison,, and S. Bidawid. 2008. Development of a DNA microarray for the simultaneous detection and genotyping of noroviruses. J. Food Prot. 71: 1434 1441.
168. Pallansch, M.A.,, and R. P. Roos,. 2001. Enteroviruses:polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses, p. 723 775. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, and S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
169. Papafragkou, E.,, M. Plante,, K. Mattison,, S. Bidawid,, K. Karthikeyan,, J. M. Farber,, and L. Jaykus. 2007. Rapid and sensitive detection of hepatitis A virus in representative food matrices. J. Virol. Methods 147: 177 187.
170. Papafragkou, E.,, D. H. D’Souza,, and L. Jaykus,. 2006. Foodborne viruses: prevention and control, p. 289 330. In S.M. Goyal (ed.), Food Virology. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY.
171. Park, G. W.,, and M. D. Sobsey. 2011. Simultaneous comparison of murine norovirus, feline calicivirus, coliphage MS2, and GII.4 norovirus to evaluate the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite against human norovirus on a fecally soiled stainless steel surface. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 8: 1005 1010.
172. Park, G. W.,, L. Barclay,, D. Macinga,, D. Charbonneau,, C. A. Pettigrew,, and J. Vinjé. 2010. Comparative efficacy of seven hand sanitizers against murine norovirus, feline calicivirus, and GII.4 norovirus. J. Food Prot. 73: 2232 2238.
173. Parker, T. D.,, N. Kitamoto,, T. Tanaka,, A. M. Hutson,, and M. K. Estes. 2005. Identification of genogroup I and genogroup II broadly reactive epitopes on the norovirus capsid. J. Virol. 79: 7402 7409.
174. Parrino, T. A.,, D. S. Schreiber,, J. S. Trier,, A. Z. Kapikian,, and N. R. Blacklow. 1977. Clinical immunity in acute gastroenteritis caused by Norwalk agent. N. Engl. J. Med. 297: 86 89.
175. Parshionikar, S.,, I. Laseke,, and G. S. Fout. 2010. Use of propidium monoazide in reverse transcriptase PCR to distinguish between infectious and noninfectious enteric viruses in water samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 4318 4326.
176. Patel, M. M.,, V. R. López-Collada,, M. M. Bulhões,, L. H. De Oliveira,, A. Bautista Márquez,, B. Flannery,, M. Esparza-Aguilar,, E. I. Montenegro Renoiner,, M. E. Luna-Cruz,, H. K. Sato,, L. del Carmen Hernández-Hernández,, G. Toledo-Cortina,, M. Cerón-Rodríguez,, N. Osnaya-Romero,, M. Martínez-Alcazar,, R. G. Aguinaga-Villasenor,, A. Plascencia-Hernández,, F. Fojaco-González,, G. Hernández-Peredo Rezk,, S. F. Gutierrez-Ramírez,, R. Dorame-Castillo,, R. Tinajero-Pizano,, B. Mercado-Villegas,, M. R. Barbosa,, E. M. Maluf,, L. B. Ferreira,, F. M. de Carvalho,, A. R. dos Santos,, E. D. Cesar,, M. E. de Oliveira,, C. L. Silva,, M. de Los Angeles Cortes,, C. Ruiz Matus,, J. Tate,, P. Gargiullo,, and U. D. Parashar. 2011. Intussusception risk and health benefits of rotavirus vaccination in Mexico and Brazil. N. Engl. J. Med. 364: 2283 2292.
177. Patel, M. M.,, M. A. Widdowson,, R. I. Glass,, K. Akazawa,, J. Vinjé,, and U. D. Parashar. 2008. Systematic literature review of role of norovirus in sporadic gastroenteritis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14: 1224 1231.
178. Patterson, W.,, P. Haswell,, P. T. Fryers,, and J. Green. 1997. Outbreak of small round structured virus gastroenteritis arose after kitchen assistant vomited. Commun. Dis. Rep. CDR Rev. 7: R101 R103.
179. Pavia, A. T.,, L. Nielson,, L. Armington,, D. J. Thurman,, E. Tierney,, and C. R. Nichols. 1990. A community-wide outbreak of hepatitis A in a religious community: impact of mass administration of immune globulin. Am. J. Epidemiol. 131: 1085 1093.
180. Poschetto, L. F.,, A. Ike,, T. Papp,, U. Mohn,, R. Böhm,, and R. E. Marschang. 2007. Comparison of the sensitivities of noroviruses and feline calicivirus to chemical disinfection under field-like conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 5494 5500.
181. Predmore, A.,, and J. Li. 2011. Enhanced removal of a human norovirus surrogate from fresh vegetables and fruits by a combination of surfactants and sanitizers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77: 4829 4838.
182. Purdy, M. A.,, and Y. E. Khudyakov. 2011. The molecular epidemiology of hepatitis E virus infection. Virus Res. 161: 31 39.
183. Richards, G. P. 2001. Enteric virus contamination of foods through industrial practices: a primer on intervention strategies. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 27: 117 125.
184. Rockx, B.,, M. de Wit,, H. Vennema,, J. Vinjé,, E. de Bruin,, Y. van Duynhoven,, and M. Koopmans. 2002. Natural history of human calicivirus infection: a prospective cohort study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35: 246 253.
185. Rodriguez, R. A.,, I. L. Pepper,, and C. P. Gerba. 2009. Application of PCR-based methods to assess the infectivity of enteric viruses in environmental samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 297 307.
186. Rutjes, S. A.,, F. Lodder-Verschoor,, W. H. van der Poel,, Y. T. van Duijnhoven,, and A. M. de Roda Husman. 2006. Detection of noroviruses in foods: a study on virus extraction procedures in foods implicated in outbreaks of human gastroenteritis. J. Food Prot. 69: 1949 1956.
187. Sano, D.,, R. M. Pinto,, T. Omura,, and A. Bosch. 2010. Detection of oxidative damages on viral capsid protein for evaluating structural integrity and infectivity of human norovirus. Environ. Sci. Technol. 44: 808 812.
188. Santi, L.,, L. Batchelor,, Z. Huang,, B. Hjelm,, J. Kilbourne,, C. J. Arntzen,, Q. Chen,, and H. S. Mason. 2008. An efficient plant viral expression system generating orally immunogenic Norwalk virus-like particles. Vaccine 26: 1846 1854.
189. Sattar, S. A. 2004. Microbicides and the environmental control of nosocomial viral infections. J. Hosp. Infect. 56: 564 569.
190. Sattar, S. A.,, M. Ali,, and J. A. Tetro. 2011. In vivo comparison of two human norovirus surrogates for testing ethanol-based handrubs: the mouse chasing the cat! PLoS One 6: e17340.
191. Sattar, S. A.,, V. S. Springthorpe,, J. Tetro,, R. Vashon,, and B. Keswick. 2002. Hygienic hand antiseptics: should they not have activity and label claims against viruses? Am. J. Infect. Control 30: 355 372.
192. Scallan, E.,, R. M. Hoekstra,, F. J. Angulo,, R. V. Tauxe,, M. A. Widdowson,, S. L. Roy,, J. L. Jones,, and P. M. Griffin. 2011. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States—major pathogens. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 17: 7 15.
193. Scallan, E.,, P. M. Griffin,, F. J. Angulo,, R. V. Tauxe,, and R. M. Hoekstra. 2011. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States—unspecified agents. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 17: 16 22.
194. Schultz, A. C.,, E. Vega,, A. Dalsgaard,, L. S. Christensen,, B. Nørrung,, J. Hoorfar,, and J. Vinjé. 2011. Development and evaluation of novel one-step TaqMan realtime RT-PCR assays for the detection and direct genotyping of genogroup I and II noroviruses. J. Clin. Virol. 50: 230 234.
195. Schultz, A. C.,, S. Perelle,, S. Di Pasquale,, K. Kovac,, D. De Medici,, P. Fach,, H. M. Sommer,, and J. Hoorfar. 2011. Collaborative validation of a rapid method for efficient virus concentration in bottled water. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 145( Suppl. 1): S158 S166.
196. Schwab, K. J.,, F. H. Neill,, F. Le Guyader,, M. K. Estes,, and R. L. Atmar. 2001. Development of a reverse transcription-PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay for detection of “Norwalk-like” viruses and hepatitis A virus in stool and shellfish. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 742 749.
197. Schwab, K. J.,, F. H. Neill,, M. K. Estes,, T. G. Metcalf,, and R. L. Atmar. 1998. Distribution of Norwalk virus within shellfish following bioaccumulation and subsequent depuration by detection using RT-PCR. J. Food Prot. 61: 1674 1680.
198. Shirato, H. 2011. Norovirus and histo-blood group antigens. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 64: 95 103.
199. Sinton, L. W.,, C. H. Hall,, P. A. Lynch,, and R. J. Davies-Colley. 2002. Sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria and bacteriophages from waste stabilization pond effluent in fresh and saline waters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 1122 1131.
200. Slomka, M. J.,, and H. Appleton. 1998. Feline calicivirus as a model system for heat inactivation studies of small round structured viruses in shellfish. Epidemiol. Infect. 121: 401 407.
201. Sobsey, M. D.,, and L. Jaykus,. 1991. Human enteric viruses and depuration of bivalve molluscs, p. 71 114. In W. S. Otwell,, G. E. Rodrick,, and R. E. Martin (ed.), Molluscan Shellfish Depuration. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
202. Sow, H.,, M. Desbiens,, R. Morales-Rayas,, S. E. Ngazoa,, and J. Jean. 2011. Heat inactivation of hepatitis A virus and a norovirus surrogate in soft-shell clams ( Mya arenaria). Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 8: 387 393.
203. Stals, A.,, L. Baert,, A. De Keuckelaere,, E. Van Coillie,, and M. Uyttendaele. 2011. Evaluation of norovirus detection methodology for ready-to-eat foods. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 145: 420 425.
204. Stals, A.,, L. Baert,, A. De Keuckelaere,, E. Van Coillie,, and M. Uyttendaele. 2011. Evaluation of norovirus detection methodology for soft red fruits. Food Microbiol. 28: 52 58.
205. Stals, A.,, L. Baert,, V. Jasson,, E. Van Coillie,, and M. Uyttendaele. 2011. Screening of fruit products for norovirus and the difficulty of interpreting positive PCR results. J. Food Prot. 74: 425 431.
206. Stapleton, J. T. 1995. Host immune response to hepatitis A virus. J. Infect. Dis. 171( Suppl. 1): S9 S14.
207. Stine, S. W.,, I. Song,, C. Y. Choi,, and C. P. Gerba. 2005. Application of microbial risk assessment to the development of standards for enteric pathogens in water used to irrigate fresh produce. J. Food Prot. 68: 913 918.
208. Su, X.,, and D. H. D’Souza. 2011. Trisodium phosphate for foodborne virus reduction on produce. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 8: 713 717.
209. Su, X.,, S. Zivanovic,, and D. H. D’Souza. 2010. Inactivation of human enteric virus surrogates by high-intensity ultrasound. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 7: 1055 1061.
210. Suslow, T. V.,, M. P. Oria,, L. R. Beuchat,, E. H. Garrett,, M. E. Parish,, L. J. Harris,, J. N. Farber,, and F. F. Busta. 2003. Production practices as risk factors in microbial food safety of fresh and fresh-cut produce. Comp. Rev. Food Sci. Food Safety 2( Suppl.): 1 40.
211. Svensson, L. 2000. Diagnosis of foodborne viral infections in patients. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 59: 117 126.
212. Tacket, C. O.,, M. B. Sztein,, G. A. Losonsky,, S. S. Wasserman,, and M. K. Estes. 2003. Humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to oral Norwalk virus-like particles in volunteers. Clin. Immunol. 108: 241 247.
213. Takanashi, S.,, S. Hashira,, T. Matsunaga,, A. Yoshida,, T. Shiota,, P. G. Tung,, P. Khamrin,, S. Okitsu,, M. Mizuguchi,, T. Igarashi,, and H. Ushijima. 2009. Detection, genetic characterization, and quantification of norovirus RNA from sera of children with gastroenteritis. J. Clin. Virol. 44: 161 163.
214. Tan, M.,, H. Pengwei,, M. Xia,, P.-A. Fang,, W. Zhong,, M. McNeal,, C. Wei,, W. Jiang,, and X. Jiang. 2011. Norovirus P particle, a novel platform for vaccine development and antibody production. J. Virol. 85: 753 764.
215. Tan, M.,, and X. Jiang. 2010. Norovirus gastroenteritis, carbohydrate receptors, and animal models. PLoS Pathog. 6: e1000983.
216. Tan, M.,, M. Jin,, H. Xie,, Z. Duan,, X. Jiang,, and Z. Fang. 2008. Outbreak studies of a GII-3 and a GII-4 norovirus revealed an association between HBGA phenotype and viral infection. J. Med. Virol. 80: 1296 1301.
217. Tan, M.,, R. S. Hegde,, and X. Jiang. 2004. The P domain of norovirus capsid protein forms dimer and binds to histo-blood group antigen receptors. J. Virol. 78: 6233 6242.
218. Teo, C. G. 2010. Much meat, much malady: changing perceptions of the epidemiology of hepatitis E. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 16: 24 32.
219. Teunis, P. F.,, C. L. Moe,, P. Liu,, S. Miller,, L. Lindesmith,, R. S. Baric,, J. LePendu,, and R. L. Calderon. 2008. Norwalk virus: how infectious is it? J. Med. Virol. 80: 1468 1476.
220. Thurston-Enriquez, J. A.,, C. N. Haas,, J. Jacangelo,, K. Riley,, and C. P. Gerba. 2003. Inactivation of feline calicivirus and adenovirus type 40 by UV radiation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 577 582.
221. Tian, P.,, D. Yang,, and R. Mandrell. 2011. A simple method to recover norovirus from fresh produce with large sample size by using histo-blood group antigen-conjugated to magnetic beads in a recirculating affinity magnetic separation system (RCAMS). Int. J. Food Microbiol. 147: 223 227.
222. Tian, P.,, A. L. Engelbrektson,, X. Jiang,, W. Zhong,, and R. E. Mandrell. 2007. Norovirus recognizes histo-blood group antigens on gastrointestinal cells of clams, mussels, and oysters: a possible mechanism of bioaccumulation. J. Food Prot. 70: 2140 2147.
223. Topping, J. R.,, H. Schnerr,, J. Haines,, M. Scott,, M. J. Carter,, M. M. Willcocks,, K. Bellamy,, D. W. Brown,, J. J. Gray,, C. I. Gallimore,, and A. I. Knight. 2009. Temperature inactivation of Feline calicivirus vaccine strain FCV F-9 in comparison with human noroviruses using an RNA exposure assay and reverse transcribed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction—a novel method for predicting virus infectivity. J. Virol. Methods 156: 89 95.
224. Tseng, F.,, J. S. Leon,, J. N. MacCormack,, J. M. Maillard,, and C. L. Moe. 2007. Molecular epidemiology of gastroenteritis outbreaks in North Carolina, United States, 1995–2000. J. Med. Virol. 79: 84 91.
225. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2005. 2005 Food Code. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD.
226. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2009. 2009 Food Code. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD.
227. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2006. Guide to minimize microbial food safety hazards of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, College Park, MD.
228. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 1998. Guidance to industry: guide to minimize microbial food safety hazards for fruits and vegetables. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, College Park, MD.
229. Vallbracht, A.,, B. Fleischer,, and F. W. Busch. 1993. Hepatitis A: hepatotropism and influence on myelopoiesis. Intervirology 35: 133 139.
230. vanAsten, L.,, J. Siebenga,, C. van den Wijngaard,, R. Verheij,, H. van Vliet,, M. Kretzschmar,, H. Boshuizen,, W. van Pelt,, and M. Koopmans. 2011. Unspecified gastroenteritis illness and deaths in the elderly associated with norovirus epidemics. Epidemiology 22: 336 343.
231. Venuto, M.,, B. Halbrook,, M. Hinners,, A. Lange,, and S. Mickelson. 2010. Analyses of the eFORS (Electronic Foodborne Outbreak Reporting System) surveillance data (2000-2004) in school settings. J. Environ. Health 72: 8 13.
232. Verhoef, L.,, H. Vennema,, W. van Pelt,, D. Lees,, H. Boshuizen,, K. Henshilwood,, and M. Koopmans for the Foodborne Viruses in Europe Network. 2010. Use of norovirus genotype profiles to differentiate origins of foodborne outbreaks. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 16: 617 624.