1887

Chapter 25 : Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap25-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap25-2.gif

Abstract:

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), widely known as "mad cow disease" is a subacute degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS) of cattle. This chapter talks about characteristics of the BSE agent, including typical and atypical BSE, stability of the infectious agent, and bodily distribution of infectivity. Much research has gone into defining the pathogenesis of BSE, the most important of which is studies in which cattle were infected orally and their tissues were examined at various times thereafter, up to and including the fully developed stage of illness. It is necessary to use caution in the interpretation of bioassay results from all nonbovine species, particularly if the results are based on ultrasensitive prion amplification techniques or bioassays in transgenic mice overexpressing the PrP gene. The chapter explains the characteristics of BSE in cattle (affected animals develop a progressive degeneration of the nervous system) and of variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans (the young age at onset of illness with many adolescents afflicted). It is important that regulatory policies – protection of animal health and human health – be modified in accord with advances in experimental and epidemiologic knowledge to minimize adverse consequences to both animal and human health. In particular, the development of preclinical diagnostic tests may vastly improve the precision of proactive measures to minimize risks to animal and human health.

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2013. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, p 651-671. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch25
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 25.1
Figure 25.1

Chronology of the TSEs. Bars represent known or presumed (striped) time periods of disease occurrence. Disease names are placed at time of first recognition (except for scrapie, first described in the 18th century). Dates within or under bars correspond to year of first experimental transmission in the laboratory; vertical arrows are placed at times of known or possible interspecies transmissions in nature. Horizontal arrows indicate probable extension of occurrence along time lines. CWD, chronic wasting disease; TME, transmissible mink encephalopathy; CJD, sporadic and familial forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; GSS, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease; FFI, fatal familial insomnia. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch25f1

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2013. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, p 651-671. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch25
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 25.2
Figure 25.2

Western blot patterns of PrP in sporadic (S) and variant (V) CJD brain tissue homogenates treated with proteinase K. MM, methionine homozygote; VV, valine homozygote. The vCJD pattern is distinct from both codon 129 genotypes of sCJD. Courtesy of Mark Head, CJD Surveillance Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch25f2

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2013. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, p 651-671. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch25
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 25.3
Figure 25.3

Western blot patterns of PrP in typical classic (C) and in H and L types of atypical BSE brain tissue homogenates treated with proteinase K. In this blot the slight differences in the migration of the lowest band are more easily appreciated after treatment with -glycosidase (PNGase). Courtesy of Gianluigi Zanusso, Department of Neurosciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch25f3

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2013. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, p 651-671. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch25
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 25.4
Figure 25.4

The chronology of BSE in the United Kingdom (black) and EU (gray). Numbers of United Kingdom cases are 10× greater than scale. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch25f4

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2013. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, p 651-671. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch25
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 25.5
Figure 25.5

The chronology of BSE (black) and vCJD (gray) in the United Kingdom. Numbers of BSE cases are 1,000× greater than scale. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch25f5

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2013. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, p 651-671. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch25
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 25.6
Figure 25.6

The chronology of vCJD in the United Kingdom (black) and EU (gray). doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch25f6

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2013. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, p 651-671. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch25
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 25.7
Figure 25.7

Age at onset of cases of variant (black) and sporadic (gray) CJD in the United Kingdom, 1994 to 2005. Courtesy of Robert Will, CJD Surveillance Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch25f7

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2013. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, p 651-671. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch25
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 25.8
Figure 25.8

Duration of illness of cases of variant (black) and sporadic (gray) CJD in the United Kingdom, 1994 to 2005. Courtesy of Robert Will, CJD Surveillance Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch25f8

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2013. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, p 651-671. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch25
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 25.9
Figure 25.9

The pathognomonic vCJD “daisy plaque” consisting of a core of amyloid protein surrounded by vacuolar “petals.” Courtesy of James Ironside, CJD Surveillance Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch25f9

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2013. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, p 651-671. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch25
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 25.10
Figure 25.10

Red “RM” identification labels are used to differentiate between slaughterhouse tools used to handle SRMs and those used for edible products. Courtesy of Ana Carolina Alonso Simplicio de Oliveira, Frigoalta, Brazil. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch25f10

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2013. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, p 651-671. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch25
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818463.chap25
1. Alper, T.,, W. A. Cramp,, D. A. Haig,, and M. C. Clarke. 1967. Does the agent of scrapie replicate without nucleic acid? Nature 214: 764 766.
2. Andréoletti, O.,, L. Orge,, S. L. Benestad,, V. Beringue,, C. Litaise,, S. Simon,, A. Le Dur,, H. Laude,, H. Simmons,, S. Lugan,, F. Corbière,, P. Costes,, N. Morei,, F. Scheicher,, and C. Lacroux. 2011. Atypical/Nor98 scrapie infectivity in sheep peripheral tissues. PLoS Pathog. 7: e1001285.
3. Andréoletti, O.,, S. Simon,, C. Lacroux,, N. Morel,, G. Tabouret,, A. Chabert,, S. Lugan,, F. Corbière,, P. Ferré,, G. Foucras,, H. Laude,, F. Eychenne,, J. Grassi,, and F. Schelcher. 2004. PrP Sc accumulation in myocytes from sheep incubating natural scrapie. Nat. Med. 10: 591 593.
4. Angers, R. C.,, S. R. Browning,, T. S. Seward,, C. J. Sigurdson,, M. W. Miller,, E. A. Hoover,, and G. C. Telling. 2006. Prions in skeletal muscles of deer with chronic wasting disease. Science 311: 1117.
5. Atarashi, R.,, J. M. Wilham,, L. Christensen,, A. G. Hughson,, R. A. Moore,, L. M. Johnson,, H. A. Onwubiko,, S. A. Priola,, and B. Caughey. 2008. Simplified ultrasensitive prion detection by recombinant PrP conversion with shaking. Nat. Methods 5: 211 212.
6. Balkema-Buschmann, A.,, M. Eiden,, C. Hoffman,, M. Kaatz,, U. Ziegler,, M. Keller,, and M. H. Groschup. 2011. BSE infectivity in the absence of detectable PrP Sc accumulation in the tongue and nasal mucosa of terminally diseased cattle. J. Gen. Virol. 92: 467 476.
7. Balkema-Buschmann, A.,, C. Fast,, M. Kaatz,, M. Eiden,, U. Ziegler,, L. McIntyre,, M. Keller,, B. Hills,, and M. H. Groschup. 2011. Pathogenesis of classic and atypical BSE in cattle. Prev. Vet. Med. 102: 112 117.
8. Bellworthy, S. J.,, G. Dexter,, M. Stack,, M. Chaplin,, S. A. C. Hawkins,, M. M. Simmons,, M. Jeffrey,, S. Martin,, L. Gonzalez,, and P. Hill. 2005. Natural transmission of BSE between sheep within an experimental flock. Vet. Rec. 157: 206.
9. Béringue, V.,, L. Herzog,, F. Reine,, A. Le Dur,, C. Casalone,, J.-L. Vilotte,, and H. Laude. 2008. Transmission of atypical bovine prions to mice transgenic for human prion protein. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14: 1898 1901. http://www.cdc.gov/EID/content/14/12/1898.htm
10. Biacabe, A.-G.,, J.-L. Laplanche,, S. Ryder,, and T. Baron. 2004. Distinct molecular phenotypes in bovine prion diseases. EMBO Rep. 5: 110 114.
11. Bishop, M. T.,, P. Hart,, L. Aitchison,, H. N. Baybutt,, C. Plinston,, V. Thomson,, N. L. Tuzi,, M. W. Head,, J. W. Ironside,, R. G. Will,, and J. C. Manson. 2006. Predicting susceptibility and incubation time of human-to-human transmission of vCJD. Lancet Neurol. 5: 393 398.
12. Bolton, D. C.,, M. P. McKinley,, and S. P. Prusiner. 1982. Identification of a protein that purifies with the scrapie prion. Science 218: 1309 1311.
13. Brown, P. 2005. Blood infectivity, processing and screening tests in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Vox Sanguinis 89: 63 70.
14. Brown, P.,, and D. C. Gajdusek. 1991. Survival of scrapie virus after 3 years’ internment. Lancet 337: 269 270.
15. Brown, P.,, E. H. Rau,, P. Lemieux,, B. K. Johnson,, A. Bacote,, and D. C. Gajdusek. 2004. Infectivity studies of both ash and air emissions from simulated incineration of scrapie-contaminated tissues. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38: 6155 6160.
16. Brown, P.,, R. G. Rohwer,, and D. C. Gajdusek. 1986. Newer data on the inactivation of scrapie virus or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease virus in brain tissue. J. Infect. Dis. 153: 1145 1148.
17. Brown, P.,, R. G. Rohwer,, E. M. Green,, and D. C. Gajdusek. 1982. Effect of chemicals, heat, and histopathologic processing on high infectivity hamster-adapted scrapie virus. J. Infect. Dis. 145: 683 687.
18. Brown, P.,, R. Meyer,, F. Cardone,, and M. Pocchiari. 2003. Ultra-high-pressure inactivation of prion infectivity in processed meat: a practical method to prevent human infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100: 6093 6097.
19. Brown, P.,, R. G. Will,, R. Bradley,, D. M. Asher,, and L. Detwiler. 2001. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: background, evolution, and current concerns. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7: 6 16.
20. Bruce, M. E.,, R. G. Will,, J. W. Ironside,, I. McConnell,, D. Dummond,, A. Suttie,, L. McCardle,, A. Chree,, J. Hope,, C. Birkett,, S. Cousens,, H. Fraser,, and C. J. Bostock. 1997. Transmissions to mice indicate that “new variant” CJD is caused by the BSE agent. Nature 389: 498 501.
21. Buschmann, A.,, A. Gretzshel,, A.-G. Biacabe,, K. Schiebel,, C. Corona,, C. Hoffmann,, M. Eiden,, T. Baron,, C. Casalone,, and M. Groschup. 2006. Atypical BSE in Germany—proof of transmissibility and biochemical characterization. Vet. Microbiol. 117: 103 116.
22. Buschmann, A.,, and M. Groschup. 2005. Highly bovine spongiform encephalopathy-sensitive transgenic mice confirm the essential restriction of infectivity to the nervous system in clinically diseased cattle. J. Infect. Dis. 192: 934 942.
23. Canadian Food InspectionAgency. 2007. Enhanced animal health protection fromBSE. http://www.inspection.gc.ca/animals/terrestrial-animals/diseases/enhanced-feed-ban/eng/1299870250278/1334278201780. Modified March 11, 2011.
24. Cardone, F.,, P. Brown,, R. Meyer,, and M. Pocchiari. 2006. Inactivation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agents by ultra high pressure-temperature treatment. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1764: 558 562.
25. Cardone, F.,, A. Thomzig,, W. Schulz-Schaeffer,, A. Valanzano,, M. Sbriccoli,, H. Abdel-Haq,, S. Graziano,, M. Puopolo,, P. Brown,, M. Beekes,, and M. Pocchiari. 2009. PrP TSE in muscle-associated lymphatic tissue during the preclinical stage of mice orally-infected with BSE. J. Gen. Virol. 90: 2563 2568.
26. Casalone, C.,, G. Zanusso,, P. Acutis,, S. Ferrari,, L. Capucci,, F. Tagliavini,, S. Monaco,, and M. Caramelli. 2004. Identification of a second bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy: molecular similarities with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 3065 3070.
27. Colchester, A. C. F.,, and N. T. H. Colchester. 2005. The origin of bovine spongiform encephalopathy: the human prion disease hypothesis. Lancet 366: 856 861.
28. Comoy, E. E.,, C. Casalone,, N. Lescoutra-Etchegaray,, G. Zanusso,, S. Freire,, D. Marcé,, F. Auvré,, M.-M. Ruchoux,, S. Ferrari,, S. Monaco,, N. Salès,, M. Caramelli,, P. Leboulch,, P. Brown,, C. Lasmézas,, and J.-P. Deslys. 2008. Atypical BSE (BASE) transmitted from asymptomatic aging cattle to a primate. PLoS ONE 3: e3017.
29. Copobianco, R.,, C. Casalone,, S. Suardi,, M. Mangieri,, C. Miccolo,, L. Limido,, M. Catania,, G. Rossi,, G. Di Fede,, G. Giaccone,, M. G. Bruzzone,, L. Minati,, C. Corona,, P. Acutis,, D. Gelmetti,, G. Lombardi,, M. H. Groschup,, A. Buschmann,, G. Zanusso,, S. Monaco,, M. Caramelli,, and F. Tagliavini. 2007. Conversion of the BASE prion strain into the BSE strain: the origin of BSE? PLoS Pathog. 3: e31.
30. Cuillé, J.,, and P. I. Chelle. 1936. La maladie dite «tremblante« de mouton; est-elle inoculable? Compte Rendu Acad. Sci. 203: 1552.
31. Cutlip, R. C.,, J. M. Miller,, A. N. Hamir,, J. Peters,, M. M. Robinson,, A. L. Jenny,, H. D. Lehmkuhl,, W. D. Taylor,, and F. D. Bisplinghoff. 2001. Resistance of cattle to scrapie by the oral route. Can. J. Vet. Res. 65: 131 132.
32. Cutlip, R. C.,, J. M. Miller,, R. E. Race,, A. L. Jenny,, J. B. Katz,, H. D. Lehmkuhl,, B. M. DeBey,, and M. M. Robinson. 1994. Intracerebral transmission of scrapie to cattle. J. Infect. Dis. 169: 814 820.
33. Dagleish, M. P.,, S. Martin,, P. Steele,, J. Finlayson,, S. Sisó,, S. Hamilton,, F. Chianini,, H. W. Reid,, L. González,, and M. Jeffrey. 2008. Experimental transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to European red deer ( Cervus elaphus elaphus). BMC Vet. Res. 4: 17.
34. Doherr, M. G.,, A. R. Hett,, J. Rufenacht,, A. Zurbriggen,, and D. Heim. 2002. Geographical clustering of cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) born in Switzerland after the feed ban. Vet. Rec. 151: 467 472.
35. Donnelly, C. A. 1998. Maternal transmission of BSE: interpretation of the data on the offspring of BSE-affected pedigree suckler cows. Vet. Rec. 142: 579 580.
36. Donnelly, C. A.,, N. M. Ferguson,, A. C. Ghani,, and R. M. Anderson. 2002. Implications of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) screening data for the scale of the British BSE epidemic and current European infection levels. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 269: 2179 2190.
37. Dudas, S.,, J. Yang,, C. Graham,, M. Czub,, T. A. McAllister,, M. B. Coulthart,, and S. Czub. 2010. Molecular, biochemical and genetic characteristics of BSE in Canada. PLoS ONE 5: e10638.
38. Eloit, M.,, K. Adjou,, M. Coulpier,, J. J. Fontaine,, R. Hamel,, T. Lilin,, S. Messiaen,, O. Andréoletti,, T. Baron,, A. Bencsik,, A.-G. Biacabe,, V. Beringue,, H. Laude,, A. Le Dur,, J.-L. Vilotte,, E. Comoy,, J.-P. Deslys,, J. Grassi,, S. Simon,, F. Lantier,, and P. Sarradin. 2005. BSE agent signatures in a goat. Vet. Rec. 156: 523 524.
39. Espinosa, J. C.,, M. Morales,, J. Castilla,, M. Rogers,, and J. M. Torres. 2007. Progression of prion infectivity in asymptomatic cattle after oral bovine spongiform encephalopathy challenge. J. Gen. Virol. 88: 1379 1383.
40. Flan, B.,, and J.-T. Aubin. 2005. Evaluation de l’efficacité des procédés de purification des protéines plasmatiques à éliminer les agents transmissibles non conventionnels. Virologie 9: S45 S56.
41. Foster, J. D.,, M. Bruce,, I. McConnell,, A. Chree,, and H. Fraser. 1996. Detection of BSE infectivity in brain and spleen of experimentally infected sheep. Vet. Rec. 138: 546 548.
42. Foster, J. D.,, D. W. Parnham,, N. Hunter,, and M. Bruce. 2001. Distribution of the prion protein in sheep terminally affected with BSE following experimental oral transmission. J. Gen. Virol. 82: 2319 2326.
43. Gavier-Widén, D.,, M. Nöremark,, J. P. M. Langeveld,, M. Stack,, A.-G. Biacabe,, J. Vulin,, M. Chaplin,, J. A. Richt,, J. Jacobs,, C. Acín,, E. Monleón,, L. Renström,, B. Klingeborn,, and T. G. M. Baron. 2008. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Sweden: an H-type variant. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 20: 2 10.
44. Herzog, C.,, N. Salès,, N. Etchegaray,, A. Charbonnier,, S. Freire,, D. Dormont,, J.-P. Deslys,, and C. I. Lasmézas. 2004. Tissue distribution of bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent in primates after intravenous or oral infection. Lancet 363: 422 428.
45. Hill, A. F.,, M. Desbruslais,, S. Joiner,, K. C. L. Sidle,, I. Gowland,, J. Collinge,, L. J. Doey,, and P. Lantos. 1997. The same prion strain causes vCJD and BSE. Nature 389: 448 450.
46. Hilton, D. A.,, A. C. Ghani,, L. Conyers,, P. Edwards,, L. McCardle,, D. Ritchie,, M. Penney,, D. Hegazy,, and J. W. Ironside. 2004. Prevalence of lymphoreticular prion protein accumulation in UK tissue samples. J. Pathol. 203: 733 739.
47. Hinckley, G. T.,, C. J. Johnson,, K. H. Jacobson,, C. Bartholomay,, K. D. McMahon,, D. McKenzie,, J. M. Aiken,, and J. A. Pedersen. 2008. Persistence of pathogenic prion protein during simulated wastewater treatment processes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42: 5254 5259.
48. Hoffmann, C.,, U. Ziegler,, A. Buschmann,, A. Weber,, L. Kupfer,, A. Oelschlegel,, B. Hammerschmidt,, and M. H. Groschup. 2007. Prions spread via the autonomic nervous system from the gut to the central nervous system in cattle incubating bovine spongiform encephalopathy. J. Gen. Virol. 88: 1048 1055.
49. Hoinville, L. J. 1994. Decline in the incidence of BSE in cattle born after the introduction of the “feed ban.” Vet. Rec. 134: 274 275.
50. Hoinville, L. J.,, J. W. Wilesmith,, and M. S. Richards. 1995. An investigation of risk factors for cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy born after the introduction of the “feed ban.” Vet. Rec. 136: 312 318.
51. Horn, G.,, M. Bobrow,, M. E. Bruce,, M. Goedert,, A. McLean,, and J. Webster. 2001. Review of the Origin of BSE. Stationery Office, London, United Kingdom.
52. Ironside, J. W.,, M. T. Bishop,, K. Connelly,, D. Hegazy,, S. Lowrie,, M. LeGrice,, D. L. Ritchie,, L. M. McCardle,, and D. A. Hilton. 2006. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: prion protein genotype analysis of positive appendix tissue samples from a retrospective prevalence study. BMJ 332: 1186 1188.
53. Iwata, N.,, Y. Sato,, Y. Higuchi,, K. Nohtomi,, N. Nagata,, H. Hasegawa,, M. Tobiume,, Y. Nakamura,, K. Hagiwara,, H. Furuoka,, M. Horiuchi,, Y. Yamakawa,, and T. Sata. 2006. Distribution of PrP Sc in cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy slaughtered at abattoirs in Japan. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 59: 100 107.
54. Jacobs, J.G.,, J. P. M. Langeveld,, A.-G. Biacabe,, P.-L. Acutis,, M. P. Polak,, D. Gavier-Widén,, A. Buschmann,, M. Caramelli,, C. Casalone,, M. Mazza,, M. Groschup,, J. H. F. Erkens,, A. Davidse,, F. G. van Zijderveld,, and T. Baron. 2007. Molecular discrimination of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy strains from a geographical region spanning a wide area in Europe. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 1821 1829.
55. Kong, Q.,, M. Zheng,, C. Canalone,, L. Qing,, S. Huang,, B. Chakrabort,, P. Wang,, F. Chen,, I. Cali,, C. Corona,, F. Martucci,, B. Iulini,, P. Acutis,, L. Wang,, J. Liang,, M. Wang,, X. Li,, S. Monaco,, G. Zanusso,, W. Q. Zou,, M. Caramelli,, and P. Gambetti. 2008. Evaluation of the human transmission risk of an atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion strain. J. Virol. 82: 3697 3701.
56. Konold, T.,, S. J. Moore,, S. J. Bellworthy,, and H. A. Simmons. 2008. Evidence of scrapie transmission via milk. BMC Vet. Res. 4: 14.
57. Lacroux, C.,, S. Simon,, S. L. Benestad,, S. Maillet,, J. Mathey,, S. Lugan,, F. Corbière,, H. Cassar,, P. Costes,, D. Bergonier,, J.-L. Weisbecker,, T. Moldal,, H. Simmons,, F. Lantier,, C. Feraudet-Tarisse,, N. Morel,, F. Schelcher,, J. Grassi,, and O. Andréoletti. 2008. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie. PLoS Pathog. 4: e1000238.
58. Llewelyn, C. A.,, P. E. Hewitt,, R. S. G. Knight,, K. Amar,, S. Cousens,, J. Mackenzie,, and R. G. Will. 2004. Possible transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by blood transfusion. Lancet 363: 417 421.
59. Maddison, B. C.,, C. A. Baker,, H. C. Rees,, L. A. Terry,, L. Thorne,, S. J. Bellworthy,, G. C. Whitelam,, and K. C. Gough. 2009. Prions are secreted in milk from clinically normal scrapie-exposed sheep. J. Virol. 83: 8293 8296.
60. Masujin, K.,, D. Matthews,, G. A. H. Wells,, S. Mohri,, and T. Yokoyama. 2007. Prions in the peripheral nerves of bovine spongiform encephalopathy-affected cattle. J. Gen. Virol. 88: 1850 1858.
61. Middleton, D. J.,, and R. M. Barlow. 1993. Failure to transmit bovine spongiform encephalopathy to mice by feeding them with extraneural tissues of affected cattle. Vet. Rec. 132: 545 547.
62. Miller, W. M.,, E. S. Williams,, T. Hobbs,, and L. L. Wolfe. 2004. Environmental sources of prion transmission in mule deer. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10: 1003 1006.
63. Moore, J.,, S. A. Hawkins,, A. R. Austin,, T. Konold,, R. B. Green,, I. W. Blamire,, I. Dexter,, M. J. Stack,, M. J. Chaplin,, J. P. Langeveld,, M. M. Simmons,, Y. I. Spencer,, P. R. Webb,, M. Dawson,, and G. A. Wells. 2011. Studies of the transmissibility of the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to the domestic chicken. BMC Res. Notes 4: 501.
64. National Creutzfeldt-JakobDisease Research & Surveillance Unit (NCJDRSU). 2012. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease current data (July 2012). http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/vcjdworld.htm
65. Oesch, B.,, D. Westaway,, M. Walchli,, M. P. McKinley,, S. B. H. Kent,, R. Aebersold,, R. A. Barry,, P. Tempst,, D. B. Teplow,, L. E. Hood,, S. B. Prusiner,, and C. Weismann. 1985. A cellular gene encodes scrapie PrP 27-30 protein. Cell 40: 735 746.
66. OIE (World Organisation for AnimalHealth). 2011. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, chapter 11.5. In Terrestrial Animal Health Code, 20th ed. OIE, Paris, France. http://www.oie.int/index.php?id=169&L=0&htmfile=chapitre_1.11.5.htm?
67. OIE (World Organisation forAnimal Health). 2011. Geographical distribution of countriesthat reported BSE confirmed cases since 1989. http://www.oie.int/animal-health-in-the-world/bse-specific-data
68. Ono, F.,, Y. Yamakawa,, M. Tobiume,, Y. Sato,, H. Katano,, K. Hagiwara,, I. Itagaki,, A. Hiyaoka,, K. Komatuzaki,, Y. Emoto,, H. Shibata,, Y. Murayama,, K. Terao,, Y. Yasutomi,, and T. Sata. 2010. Transmission of classic and atypical (L-type) bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions to cynomolgus macaques, poster Ppo2-26. Prion 2010, Salzburg, Austria, 8 to 11 September 2010.
69. Orrú, C. D.,, and B. Caughey. 2011. Prion seeded conversion and amplification assays. Top. Curr. Chem. 305: 121 133.
70. Peden, A.,, M. W. Head,, D. L. Ritchie,, J. E. Bell,, and J. W. Ironside. Preclinical vCJD after blood transfusionin a PRNP codon 129 heterozygous patient. Lancet 364: 527 529.
71. Peden, A.,, L. McCardle,, M. W. Head,, S. Love,, H. J. Ward,, S. N. Cousens,, D. M. Keeling,, C. M. Millar,, F. G. Hill,, and J. W. Ironside. 2010. Variant CJD infection in the spleen of a neurologically asymptomatic UK adult patient with haemophilia. Haemophilia 16: 296 304.
72.Phillips,, Lord, of WorthMatravers, J. Bridgeman,,and M. Ferguson-Smith. 2000. The BSE Inquiry. HM Stationery Office, London, United Kingdom. http://collections.europarchive.org/tna/20090505194948/http://bseinquiry.gov.uk/report/index.htm
73. Piccardo, P.,, J. C. Manson,, D. King,, B. Ghetti,, and R. M. Barron. 2007. Accumulation of prion protein in the brain that is not associated with transmissible disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104: 4712 4717.
74. Richt, J. A.,, and S. M. Hall. 2008. BSE case associated with prion protein gene mutation. PLoS Pathog. 4: e1000156.
75. Richt, J. A.,, R. A. Kunkle,, D. Alt,, E. M. Nicholson,, A. N. Hamir,, S. Czub,, J. P. Kluge,, A. J. Davis,, and S. M. Hall. 2007. Identification and characterisation of two bovine spongiform encephalopathy cases diagnosed in the United States. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 19: 142 154.
76. Riverol, M.,, J-A. Palma,, M. Alañá,, C. Guerrero-Márquez,, M. R. Luquin,, and A. Rábano. 2012. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease occurring in mother and son. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 83: 235 236.
77. Salta, E.,, C. Panagiotidis,, K. Teliousis,, S. Petrakis,, E. Eleftheriadis,, F. Arapoglou,, N. Grigoriadis,, A. Nicolaou,, E. Kaldrymidou,, G. Krey,, and T. Sklaviadis. 2009. Evaluation of the possible transmission of BSE and scrapie to gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata). PLoS ONE 4: e6715.
78. Schreuder, B. E. C.,, R. E. Geertsma,, L. J. M. van Keulen,, J. A. A. M. van Asten,, P. Enthoven,, R. C. Oberthür,, A. A. de Koeijer,, and A. D. M. E. Osterhaus. 1998. Studies on the efficacy of hyperbaric rendering procedures in inactivating bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie agents. Vet. Rec. 142: 474 480.
79. Seidel, B.,, A. Thomzig,, A. Buschmann,, M. H. Groschup,, R. Peters,, M. Beekes,, and K. Terytze. 2007. Scrapie agent (strain 263K) can transmit disease via the oral route after persistence in soil over years. PLoS ONE 2: e435.
80. Spiropoulos, J.,, R. Lockey,, R. E. Sallis,, L. A. Terry,, L. Thorne,, T. M. Holder,, K. E. Beck,, and M. M. Simmons. 2011. Isolation of prion with BSE properties from farmed goat. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 17: 2253 2261.
81. Stevenson, M.A.,, J. W. Wilesmith,, J. B. M. Ryan,, R. S. Morris,, A. B. Lawson,, D. U. Pfeiffer,, and D. Lin. 2000. Descriptive spatial analysis of the epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Great Britain to June 1997. Vet. Rec. 147: 379 384.
82. Suardi, S.,, C. Vimercati,, C. Casalone,, D. Gelmetti,, C. Corona,, B. Iulini,, M. Mazza,, G. Lombardi,, F. Moda,, M. Ruggerone,, I. Campagnani,, E. Piccoli,, M. Catania,, M.H. Groschup,, A. Balkema-Buschmann,, M. Caramelli,, S. Monaco,, G. Zanusso,, and F. Tagliavini. 2012. Infectivity in skeletal muscle of cattle with atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy. PLoS ONE 7: e31449.
83. Taguchi, F.,, Y. Tamai,, K. Uchida,, R. Kitajima,, H. Kojima,, T. Kawaguchi,, Y. Ohtani,, and S. Miura. 1991. Proposal for a procedure for complete inactivation of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent. Arch. Virol. 119: 297 301.
84. Taylor, D. M. 2000. Inactivation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agents: a review. Vet. J. 159: 10 17.
85. Taylor, D. M. 2004. Resistance of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agents to decontamination. Contrib. Microbiol. 11: 136 145.
86. Taylor, D. M.,, C. E. Ferguson,, C. J. Bostock,, and M. Dawson. 1995. Absence of disease in mice receiving milk from cows with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Vet. Rec. 136: 592.
87. Taylor, D. M.,, H. Fraser,, I. McConnell,, D. A. Brown,, K. L. Brown,, K. A. Lamza,, and G. R. A. Smith. 1999. Decontamination studies with the agents of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie. Arch. Virol. 139: 313 326.
88. Taylor, D. M.,, S. L. Woodgate,, and M. J. Atkinson. 1995. Inactivation of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent by rendering procedures. Vet. Rec. 137: 605 610.
89. Taylor, D. M.,, S. L. Woodgate,, A. J. Fleetwood,, and R. J. G. Cawthorne. 1997. Effect of rendering procedures on the scrapie agent. Vet. Rec. 141: 643 649.
90. Tester, S.,, V. Juillerat,, M. G. Doherr,, B. Haase,, M. Polak,, F. Ehrensperger,, T. Leeb,, A. Zurbriggen,, and T. Seuberlich. 2009. Biochemical typing of pathological prion protein in aging cattle with BSE. Virol. J. 6: 64.
91. Thomzig, A.,, F. Cardone,, D. Krugr,, M. Pocchiari,, P. Brown,, and M. Beekes. 2006. Pathological prion protein in muscles of hamsters and mice infected with rodent-adapted BSE or vCJD. J. Gen. Virol. 87: 251 254.
93. UK Health ProtectionAgency. 2012. Summary results of the second national survey ofabnormal prion prevalence in archived appendix specimens. http://www.hpa.org.uk/hpr/archives/2012 /news3212.htm#bnrmlprn
94. U.S. Food and DrugAdministration. 2009. Substances prohibited from use in animalfood or feed; final rule 21 CFR part 589. http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/08-1180.htm
95. Wadsworth, J. D. F.,, S. Joiner,, A. F. Hill,, T. A. Campbell,, M. Desbruslais,, P. J. Luthert,, and J. Collinge. 2001. Tissue distribution of protease resistant prion protein in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease using a highly sensitive immunoblotting assay. Lancet 358: 171 180.
96. Ward, H. J. T.,, D. Everington,, S. Cousens,, B. Smith-Bathgate,, M. Leitch,, S. Cooper,, C. Heath,, R. G. Knight,, P. Smith,, and R. G. Will. 2006. Risk factors for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a case control study. Ann. Neurol. 59: 111 120.
97. Wells, G. A. H.,, A. C. Scott,, C. T. Johnson,, R. F. Gunning,, R. D. Hancock,, M. Jeffrey,, M. Dawson,, and R. Bradley. 1987. A novel progressive spongiform encephalopathy in cattle. Vet. Rec. 121: 419 420.
98. Wells, G. A. H.,, T. Konold,, M. E. Arnold,, A. R. Austin,, S. A. C. Hawkins,, M. Stack,, M. M. Simmons,, Y. H. Lee,, D. Gavier-Widén,, M. Dawson,, and J. W. Wilesmith. 2007. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: the effect of oral exposure dose on attack rate and incubation period in cattle. J. Gen. Virol. 88: 1363 1373.
99. Wells, G. A. H.,, S. A. C. Hawkins,, A. R. Austin,, S. J. Ryder,, S. H. Done,, R. B. Green,, I. Dexter,, M. Dawson,, and R. H. Kimberlin. 2003. Studies of the transmissibility of the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs. J. Gen. Virol. 84: 1021 1031.
100. Wells, G. A. H.,, S. A. Hawkins,, R. B. Green,, A. R. Austin,, I. Dexter,, Y. I. Spencer,, M. J. Chaplin,, M. J. Stack,, and M. Dawson. 1998. Preliminary observations on the pathogenesis of experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE): an update. Vet. Rec. 142: 103 106.
101. Wells, G. A. H.,, J. Spiropoulos,, S. A. C. Hawkins,, and S. J. Ryder. 2005. Pathogenesis of experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy: preclinical infectivity in tonsil and observations on the distribution of lingual tonsil in slaughtered cattle. Vet. Rec. 156: 401 407.
102. Wilesmith, J. W.,, and J. B. Ryan. 1992. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: recent observations on the age-specific incidences. Vet. Rec. 130: 491 492.
103. Wilesmith, J. W.,, and J. B. M. Ryan. 1997. Absence of BSE in the offspring of pedigree suckler cows affected by BSE in Great Britain. Vet. Rec. 141: 250 251.
104. Wilesmith, J. W.,, G. A. H. Wells,, J. B. M. Ryan,, D. Gavier-Widen,, and M. M. Simmons. 1997. A cohort study to examine maternally associated risk factors for bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Vet. Rec. 141: 239 243.
105. Wilesmith, J. W.,, G. A. H. Wells,, M. P. Cranwell,, and J. B. M. Ryan. 1988. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: epidemiological studies. Vet. Rec. 123: 638 644.
106. Wilesmith, J. W.,, J. B. Ryan,, and W. D. Hueston. 1992. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: case-control studies of calf feeding practices and meat and bonemeal inclusion in proprietary concentrates. Res. Vet. Sci. 52: 325 331.
107. Will, R. G.,, J. W. Ironside,, M. Zeidler,, S. N. Cousens,, K. Estibeiro,, A. Alperovitch,, S. Poser,, M. Pocchiari,, A. Hofman,, and P. G. Smith. 1996. A new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK. Lancet 347: 921 925.
108. Will, R. G.,, M. Zeidler,, G. E. Stewart,, J. A. Macleod,, J. W. Ironside,, S. N. Cousens,, J. Mackenzie,, K. Estibeiro,, A. J. E. Green,, and R. S. G. Knight. 2000. Diagnosis of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Ann. Neurol. 47: 575 582.
109. World Health Organization(WHO). 1999. Infection Control Guidelines forTransmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies: Report of a WHO Consultation.WHO/CDS/CSR/APH/2000.3 World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/bse/whocdscsraph2003.pdf
110. World Health Organization(WHO). 2010. WHO Tables on Tissue InfectivityDistribution in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies.WHO/EMP/QSM/2010.1. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. www.who.int/entity/bloodproducts/tablestissueinfectivity.pdf

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 25.1

Effectiveness of various chemical and physical inactivation treatments

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2013. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, p 651-671. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch25
Generic image for table
Table 25.2

Proteinase-resistant protein (PrP) and infectivity reductions under various pressure, temperature, and exposure time conditions

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2013. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, p 651-671. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch25
Generic image for table
Table 25.3

Misfolded-protein (PrP) reductions in various meat products containing 263K scrapie agent-infected hamster brain

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2013. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, p 651-671. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch25
Generic image for table
Table 25.4

Consumable bovine materials used by humans

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2013. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, p 651-671. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch25
Generic image for table
Table 25.5

Principal governmental measures taken to protect human and animal health

Citation: Brown P, Detwiler L. 2013. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, p 651-671. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch25

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error