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Chapter 3 : Spores and Their Significance

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Abstract:

This chapter describes the fundamental basis of sporulation and the problems that spores present to the food industry. Throughout sporulation, gene expression is ordered not only temporally but also spatially, as some genes are expressed only in the mother cell or the forespore. This chapter highlights the state of knowledge of molecular mechanisms of sporulation, spore dormancy, germination, and outgrowth. The sporulating bacteria discussed in this chapter form heat-resistant endospores that contain dipicolinic acid (DPA) and are refractile or phase bright under phase-contrast microscopy. Spores are metabolically dormant, catalyzing no metabolism of endogenous or exogenous compounds. The major cause of this dormancy is undoubtedly the low water content of the spore core, which precludes protein mobility and enzyme action. Three species of sporeformers, , , and , are well known to produce toxins that can cause illness in humans and animals, and many species of sporeformers cause spoilage of food. Certain other species of such as , , and have also been reported to sporadically cause foodborne diseases through production of toxins, and rare strains of and produce type E and F botulinal toxins, respectively. With the global increase in population and food consumption, technologies to prevent spoilage would help to alleviate food shortages and spoilage and contribute to food security.

Citation: Setlow P, Johnson E. 2013. Spores and Their Significance, p 45-79. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch3
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Image of Figure 3.1
Figure 3.1

Structure of DPA. Note that at physiological pH both carboxyl groups will be ionized. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch3f1

Citation: Setlow P, Johnson E. 2013. Spores and Their Significance, p 45-79. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch3
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Image of Figure 3.2
Figure 3.2

Morphological, biochemical, and physiological changes during sporulation of a rod-shaped cell. In stage 0, a cell with two nucleoids (N) is shown; in stage IIi, the mother cell and forespore are designated MC and FS, respectively. Note that the forespore nucleoid is more condensed than that in the mother cell. Stage IIii is not shown in this scheme, and the forespore nucleoid is not shown after stage III for clarity. The time of some biochemical and physiological events, such as forespore dehydration and acquisition of types of resistance to different chemicals (all lumped together as “chemical resistance”), stretches over a number of stages. The data for this figure are taken from reference . doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch3f2

Citation: Setlow P, Johnson E. 2013. Spores and Their Significance, p 45-79. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch3
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Image of Figure 3.3
Figure 3.3

Some gene products and reactions that affect levels of Spo0A∼P. Spo0E is a phosphatase that acts on Spo0A∼P; RapA and RapB are phosphatases that act on Spo0F∼P ( ). doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch3f3

Citation: Setlow P, Johnson E. 2013. Spores and Their Significance, p 45-79. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch3
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Figure 3.4

Regulation of gene expression during sporulation. The effect of Spo0A∼P on repressors is negative; other effects of regulatory molecules on reactions are generally positive, although the effect of signals may be positive or negative. The enclosure of the pro-σ factors and σ factors denotes that at this time these factors are inactive. This figure is adapted from that in reference . doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch3f4

Citation: Setlow P, Johnson E. 2013. Spores and Their Significance, p 45-79. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch3
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Figure 3.5

Structure of a dormant spore. The various structures are not drawn precisely to scale, especially the exosporium, whose size varies tremendously between spores of different species. The relative size of the germ cell wall is also generally smaller than shown. The positions of the inner and outer forespore membranes, between the core and the germ cell wall and between the cortex and coats, respectively, are also noted. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch3f5

Citation: Setlow P, Johnson E. 2013. Spores and Their Significance, p 45-79. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch3
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Figure 3.6

Structures of (A) cyclobutane-type TT dimer and (B) 5-thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothymine adduct (spore photoproduct). The positions of the hydrogens noted by the asterisks are the locations of the glycosylic bond in DNA. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch3f6

Citation: Setlow P, Johnson E. 2013. Spores and Their Significance, p 45-79. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch3
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Figure 3.7

Correlation of spore heat resistance and protoplast (core) water content of lysozyme-sensitive spore types from seven species that vary in thermal adaptation and mineralization. The figure is from the work of Gerhardt and Marquis ( ) with permission. The numbers refer to spores of various species: 1, ; 2, “”; 3, ; 4, ; 5, ; 6, ; and 7, . The letters denote the sporulation temperature or the mineralization of the spores of various species as described in the original publication. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch3f7

Citation: Setlow P, Johnson E. 2013. Spores and Their Significance, p 45-79. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch3
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Figure 3.8

Spore activation, germination, and outgrowth. The events in activation are not known, hence the question mark. The loss of the spore cortex and the hydration and swelling of the core are shown in the germinated spore. The figure is adapted from Fig. 3 in reference . doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch3f8

Citation: Setlow P, Johnson E. 2013. Spores and Their Significance, p 45-79. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch3
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Figure 3.9

Transmission electron micrograph (×50,000) of a longitudinal section through a spore and sporangium of type A, showing the characteristic club-shaped morphology. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch3f9

Citation: Setlow P, Johnson E. 2013. Spores and Their Significance, p 45-79. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch3
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Figure 3.10

Electron micrographs of type B (A) and E (B) showing characteristic exosporium in types B and E and appendages in type E. Micrographs courtesy of Philipp Gerhardt from spores produced in E.A.J.'s laboratory. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch3f10

Citation: Setlow P, Johnson E. 2013. Spores and Their Significance, p 45-79. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch3
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 3.1

Small molecules in cells and spores of species

Citation: Setlow P, Johnson E. 2013. Spores and Their Significance, p 45-79. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 3.2

Killing and mutagenesis of spores and cells of by various treatments

Citation: Setlow P, Johnson E. 2013. Spores and Their Significance, p 45-79. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 3.3

Heat resistance of spores prepared at different temperatures with different ions and with or without α/β-type SASP

Citation: Setlow P, Johnson E. 2013. Spores and Their Significance, p 45-79. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 3.4

Heat resistance of sporeformers of importance in foods

Citation: Setlow P, Johnson E. 2013. Spores and Their Significance, p 45-79. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 3.5

Growth requirements of sporeformers of public health significance

Citation: Setlow P, Johnson E. 2013. Spores and Their Significance, p 45-79. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 3.6

Spoilage of canned foods by sporeformers

Citation: Setlow P, Johnson E. 2013. Spores and Their Significance, p 45-79. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch3

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