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Chapter 35 : Cocoa and Coffee

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the more comprehensive role of fermentation in cocoa curing and to a lesser extent on the role of fermentation in the production of coffee. The two principal objectives of fermentation are to remove mucilage, thus provoking aeration during fermentation of the beans and facilitating drying later on; and to provide heat and acetic acid necessary for inhibiting germination, which ensures proper curing of the beans. Approximately one-half of the world crop is fermented in some type of box, and the remaining half is fermented by using heaps or other primitive methods. The progress of the fermentation is assessed by the odor and the external and internal color changes in the beans. Fermentation begins immediately after beans are removed from the pods, as they become inoculated with a variety of microorganisms from the pod surface, knives, laborers’ hands, containers that are used to transport the beans to the fermentary, dried mucilage on surfaces of the fermentation box (tray, platform, or basket) from the previous fermentation, insects, and banana or plantain leaves. The actual production of chocolate flavor precursors occurs within the cocoa bean and is primarily the result of biochemical changes that take place during fermentation and drying. There are several environmental factors: pH, temperature, and moisture, in the fermenting mass that influence cocoa bean enzyme reactions. Coffee and cocoa are no exceptions, and it is the proper control of the fermentation process that largely determines the color and flavor qualities of the final products.

Citation: Thompson S, Miller K, Lopez A, Camu N. 2013. Cocoa and Coffee, p 881-899. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch35
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Figure 35.1

(A) Course of residual glucose (●), fructose (▲), and sucrose (□) and of mannitol produced (■) in the pulp. (B) Course of residual glucose (●), fructose (▲), and sucrose (□) and of mannitol produced (■) in the beans. (C) Course of lactic acid produced in the pulp (●) and in the beans (▲). (D) Course of residual citric acid (filled symbols, left axis) and of succinic acid produced (open symbols, right axis) in the pulp (● and ○) and in the beans (▲ and △). (E) Course of acetic acid produced in the pulp (●) and in the beans (▲). (F) Course of ethanol produced in the pulp (●) and in the beans (▲). doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch35f1

Citation: Thompson S, Miller K, Lopez A, Camu N. 2013. Cocoa and Coffee, p 881-899. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.2
Figure 35.2

Course of sugar consumption and mannitol production in cocoa pulp during Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations inoculated with 80 (A, D), 222 (B, E), or 80 plus 222 (C, F), in combination with 386B, performed at the farm site (heap 17, A; heap 18, B; heap 19, C) and the factory site (heap 20, D; heap 21, E; heap 22, F). ●, residual glucose; ▲, residual fructose; ■, mannitol produced. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch35f2

Citation: Thompson S, Miller K, Lopez A, Camu N. 2013. Cocoa and Coffee, p 881-899. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch35
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Figure 35.3

Physical (A) and chemical (B) changes in cocoa beans during fermentation and drying in Belize. Fermentation was conducted with 2,000 lb of wet cocoa beans from ripe pods in wooden boxes that were turned daily. Drying was conducted in flat-bed dryers indirectly heated with hot air. Data represent results from an average of 11 fermentation trials using composite samples collected daily. (A) Temperature was measured in the whole bean mass. Moisture (%) and pH analyses are based on shell-free cotyledons. (B) Sucrose, glucose (Glc), fructose (Fruc), total amino acid, acetic acid, and ethanol contents (%) were determined by analysis of water extracts from shell-free cotyledon samples. Data are taken from Lehrian ( ). doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch35f3

Citation: Thompson S, Miller K, Lopez A, Camu N. 2013. Cocoa and Coffee, p 881-899. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch35
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 35.1

Microorganisms isolated from fermenting cocoa beans

Citation: Thompson S, Miller K, Lopez A, Camu N. 2013. Cocoa and Coffee, p 881-899. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch35
Generic image for table
Table 35.2

Characteristics of the principal enzymes active during the curing of the cocoa bean

Citation: Thompson S, Miller K, Lopez A, Camu N. 2013. Cocoa and Coffee, p 881-899. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch35
Generic image for table
Table 35.3

Countries and regions producing arabica and robusta coffee beans

Citation: Thompson S, Miller K, Lopez A, Camu N. 2013. Cocoa and Coffee, p 881-899. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch35

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