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Chapter 36 : Beer

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Beer, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter overviews the scientific principles of the brewing industry. The malting process occurs in three stages: steeping, germination, and kilning. Wort is the sugary solution prepared from malt, either alone or with sugar (e.g., glucose, sucrose, or maltose crystals or syrups) or unmalted cereal adjunct if appropriate, after the grist is extracted with warm water. The traditional decoction mashing process for Bavarian and Czech beers has origins predating the invention of the thermometer. Certainly it is now recognized that hops have an important antimicrobial, particularly antibacterial, effect, and it is presumed that the medieval brewers realized that hopped beers maintained their quality for longer periods of time than did beers with other flavorings. Formerly, the actively fermenting yeasts of the fermentation industries, both culture yeasts and common contaminant “wild yeasts,” were classified as different species of . The chapter deals with postfermentation treatments such as conditioning, filtration, pasteurization and packaging. The basic principle of high-gravity brewing is that it is theoretically possible to double the production of a brewery, without the expense of additional brewhouse or fermentation capacity, by fermenting double-strength wort. Recently, however, there has been renewed interest in continuous fermentation, now using immobilized-cell technology.

Citation: Campbell I. 2013. Beer, p 901-913. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch36
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Figure 36.1

The brewing process. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch36

Citation: Campbell I. 2013. Beer, p 901-913. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch36
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Image of Figure 36.2
Figure 36.2

Saladin malting system. The row of helical turners moves from one end of the grain bed to the other at intervals during germination to turn the malt and prevent matting of the rootlets. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch36f2

Citation: Campbell I. 2013. Beer, p 901-913. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch36
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Image of Figure 36.3
Figure 36.3

Theoretical progress of a typical brewery fermentation, showing changes in the population of and concentrations of fermentable sugar, amino nitrogen, and ethanol. The graph shows yeasts in suspension and the start of settling of cells from the beer at the end of fermentation. The time axis is not calibrated, since fermentation rates differ widely among breweries. Other variables are shown as percentages of the initial or final value, expressed as 100%. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch36f3

Citation: Campbell I. 2013. Beer, p 901-913. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch36
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Figure 36.4

Formation of higher alcohols (fusel alcohols) as by-products of amino acid biosynthesis. Note the similarity of the reactions pyruvate → acetaldehyde → ethanol and α-keto acid → aldehyde → higher alcohols; both are important for redox balance under anaerobic conditions. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch36f4

Citation: Campbell I. 2013. Beer, p 901-913. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch36
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Image of Figure 36.5
Figure 36.5

CCFV. Vigorous circulation of fermenting wort is created by a central upward flow of CO bubbles and a downward flow in contact with the cooling jackets. Cooling of the cone section is optional, depending on whether the brewery stores settled yeast before the next fermentation. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch36f5

Citation: Campbell I. 2013. Beer, p 901-913. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch36
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Figure 36.6

Identification of bacterial contaminants of the brewing industry. , , and may be present but are unlikely to grow in beer, and and grow only under strictly anaerobic conditions. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch36f6

Citation: Campbell I. 2013. Beer, p 901-913. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch36
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Figure 36.7

Identification of common yeast contaminants of the brewing industry. All genera listed are teleomorphic, i.e., form spores. Anamorphic (non–spore–forming) forms of and are and , respectively. The anamorph of all other genera listed is . ferments glucose, sucrose, maltose, and raffinose but not lactose. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch36f7

Citation: Campbell I. 2013. Beer, p 901-913. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch36
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References

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