Chapter 37 : Wine

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Winemaking is a bioprocess that has its origins in antiquity. Scientific understanding of the process commenced with the studies of Louis Pasteur, who demonstrated that wines were the product of alcoholic fermentation of grape juice by yeasts. Microorganisms are fundamental to the winemaking process. To understand their contribution, it is necessary to know (i) the taxonomic identities of the species and strains associated with the process; (ii) the kinetics of their growth and survival throughout the entire production chain; (iii) the biochemical, physiological, and genomic responses of these species and their effects on the physical and chemical properties of the wine; (iv) the influence of winemaking practices upon the microbial response; and (v) the linkage between microbial action, sensory quality, and consumer acceptability of the wine. This chapter focuses on the occurrence, growth, and significance of microorganisms in winemaking. It covers wines produced only from grapes and includes table wines, sparkling wines, and fortified wines. The chapter describes the details of the process of winemaking, and emphasizes grape wines, although it is recognized that wines from other fruits are regionally popular. The microorganisms involved in the winemaking are yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), acetic acid bacteria (AAB), molds and other bacteria.

Citation: Parish M, Fleet G. 2013. Wine, p 915-947. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch37
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Figure 37.1

Outline of processes for making red and white wines. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch37f1

Citation: Parish M, Fleet G. 2013. Wine, p 915-947. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch37
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Image of Figure 37.2
Figure 37.2

Generalized growth of yeast species during alcoholic fermentation of wine. ○ , ; ●, and species; ■, species. Variations will occur in the initial and maximum populations for each species; for fermentations inoculated with , the initial population is approximately 10 CFU/ml ( ). doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch37f2

Citation: Parish M, Fleet G. 2013. Wine, p 915-947. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch37
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Figure 37.3

Growth of LAB during vinification of red wines, pH 3.0 to 3.5. The solid line shows the growth of , often the only species present. Occasionally, species of and develop toward the end of malolactic fermentation or at later stages during conservation (broken line). For wines of pH 3.5 to 4.0, a similar growth curve is obtained but there may be slight growth and death of LAB during the early stages of alcoholic fermentation. Also, there is a greater chance that species of and will grow and conduct malolactic fermentation. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch37f3

Citation: Parish M, Fleet G. 2013. Wine, p 915-947. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch37
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