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Chapter 42 : Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System: Use in Managing Microbiological Food Safety Risks
The complexity of food production, processing, and preparation requires a systematic approach that simultaneously provides a common framework for managing microbial food safety risks and the flexibility and practicality needed to deal with the diversity of hazards, ingredients, and technologies. This is achieved almost globally with the application of two systems: good hygienic practices (GHPs) and hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP). The HACCP concepts that emerged and were ultimately expanded to include all types of foods and hazards focused on a more qualitative approach to hazard identification, identifying critical control points (CCPs), and establishing critical limits (CLs). Adherence to seven principles is recognized as being needed to achieve consistent control. A number of preliminary steps are necessary in order to acquire the key resources and information needed to initiate of the development of a HACCP program. The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF) advises that the process of conducting a hazard analysis involves two stages: hazard identification and hazard evaluation. Since the inception of HACCP there has been a dramatic shift from hazard based food safety systems to risk-based systems. The focus of HACCP has been predominately associated with the food manufacturing phase of the food chain.