1887

Chapter 6 : Meat, Poultry, and Seafood

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap06-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap06-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter provides an overall presentation of microbiological issues associated with all muscle foods, which is then followed by individual sections addressing, in sequence, specific spoilage and safety issues and their control for meat, poultry, and seafood. A spoiled food is not necessarily unsafe, if pathogens are absent; therefore, spoilage is considered an economic loss and can lead to loss of consumer confidence. It is important to continuously develop reliable methods for measuring freshness and quality, predicting the shelf life of their products, and for inspection purposes. The most important muscle food safety issues of current worldwide concern are the need to control traditional as well as new, emerging, or evolving pathogens, including those of increased virulence at low infectious doses or resistant to antibiotics or to food processing-associated stresses caused by physical factors (e.g., heat, cold, drying, and radiation) and chemical agents (e.g., acids, salts, and sanitizers). For microbial food safety, the practical issue is whether antibiotic-resistant pathogen strains are of similar or higher resistance to common food-processing treatments compared to sensitive counterparts, as higher resistance of antibiotic-resistant strains is of concern. Decontamination processes are applied to animals and carcasses through a variety of physical and chemical interventions. Additional interventions to help enhance food safety are applied during processing and include heating, chilling, freezing, drying, fermentation, use of chemicals as acidulants or antimicrobials, packaging, proper storage and distribution, and appropriate handling and preparation for consumption.

Citation: Sofos J, Flick G, Nychas G, O'Bryan C, Ricke S, Crandall P. 2013. Meat, Poultry, and Seafood, p 111-167. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch6
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818463.chap6
1. Adam, K. H.,, S. H. Flint,, and G. Brightwell. 2010. Psychrophilic and psychrotrophic clostridia: sporulation and germination processes and their role in the spoilage of chilled, vacuum-packaged beef, lamb and venison. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 45:15391544.
2. Allen, V. M.,, J. E. L. Corry,, C. H. Burton,, R. T. Whyte,, and G. C. Mead. 2000. Hygienic aspects of modern poultry chilling. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 58:3948.
3. Allen, V. M.,, H. Weaver,, A. M. Ridley,, J. A. Harris,, M. Sharma,, J. Emery,, N. Sparks,, M. Lewis,, and S. Edge. 2008. Sources and spread of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. during partial depopulation of broiler chicken flocks. J. Food Prot. 71:264270.
4.American Meat Institute. 2003. Sanitary Design Checklist and Fact Sheet. Equipment Design Task Force, American Meat Institute, Washington, DC.
5. Ammor, M. S.,, A. Argyri,, and G.-J. E. Nychas. 2009. Rapid monitoring of the spoilage of minced beef stored under conventionally and active packaging conditions using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in tandem with chemometrics. Meat Sci. 81:507514.
6. Anang, D. M.,, G. Rusul,, F. H. Ling,, and R. Bhat. 2010. Inhibitory effects of lactic acid and lauricidin on spoilage organisms of chicken breast during storage at chilled temperature. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 144:152159.
7. Argyri, A. A.,, E. Z. Panagou,, P. A. Tarantilis,, M. Polysiou,, and G.-J. E. Nychas. 2010. Rapid qualitative and quantitative detection of beef fillets spoilage based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data and artificial neural networks. Sensors Actuators B 145:146154.
8. Arnold, J. W.,, and S. Silvers. 2000. Comparison of poultry processing equipment surfaces for susceptibility to bacterial attachment and biofilm formation. Poult. Sci. 79:12151221.
9. Arthur, T. M.,, D. M. Brichta-Harhay,, J. M. Bosilevac,, N. Kalchayanand,, S. D. Shackelford,, T. L. Wheeler,, and M. Koohmaraie. 2010. Super shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by cattle and the impact on beef carcass contamination. Meat Sci. 86:3237.
10. Avens, J. S.,, S. N. Albright,, A. S. Morton,, B. E. Prewitt,, P. A. Kendall,, and J. N. Sofos. 2002. Destruction of microorganisms on chicken carcasses by steam and boiling water immersion. Food Control 13:445450.
11. Aymerich, T.,, P. A. Picouet,, and J. M. Monfort. 2008. Decontamination technologies for meat products. Meat Sci. 78:114129.
12. Bacon, R. T.,, and J. N. Sofos,. 2003. Food hazards: biological food; characteristics of biological hazards in foods, p. 157195. In R. H. Schmidt, and G. Rodrick (ed.), Food Safety Handbook. Wiley Interscience, New York, NY.
13. Bailey, J.-D.,, and P. Guerre,. 2009. Mycotoxins in meat and processed meat products, p. 83124. In F. Toldra (ed.), Safety of Meat and Processed Meat. Springer, New York, NY.
14. Bailey, J. S.,, J. E. Thomson,, and N. E. Cox,. 1987. Contamination of poultry during processing, p. 193211. In F. E. Cunningham, and N. A. Cox (ed.), The Microbiology of Poultry Meat Products. Academic Press, Orlando, FL.
15. Balamatsia, C. C.,, E. K. Paleologos,, M. G. Kontominas,, and I. N. Savvaidis. 2006. Correlation between microbial flora, sensory changes and biogenic amines formation in fresh chicken meat stored aerobically or under modified atmosphere packaging at 4 degrees C: possible role of biogenic amines as spoilage indicators. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Int. J. G 89:917.
16. Barbut, S. 2002. Poultry Products Processing, an Industry Guide. CRC Press, New York, NY.
17. Barbut, S.,, L. F. Moza,, F. Nattress,, B. Dilts,, and C. O. Gill. 2009. The microbiological conditions of air or water chilled carcasses at the same poultry packing plant. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 18:501507.
18. Barker, G. C.,, N. Gomez,, and J. Smid. 2009. An introduction to biotracing in food chain systems. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 20:220226.
19. Baron, W. L.,, L. E. Dawson,, and R. V. Lechowich. 1973. Influence of chlorine dioxide water treatment on numbers of bacteria associated with processed turkey. Poult. Sci. 52:10531058.
20. Bauermeister, L. J.,, J. W. J. Bowers,, J. C. Townsend,, and S. R. Mckee. 2008. Validating the efficacy of peracetic acid mixture as an antimicrobial in poultry chillers. J. Food Prot. 71:11191122.
21. Bazemore, R.,, S. G. Fu,, Y. Yoon,, and D. Marshall,. 2003. Major causes of shrimp spoilage and methods for assessment, p. 223234. In A. M. Rimando, and K. K. Schrader (ed.), Off-Flavors in Aquaculture. ACS Symposium Series no. 848, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.
22.Beef Industry Food Safety Council. 2006. Best practices: pathogen control during tenderizing/enhancing of whole muscle cuts. Available at: http://www.bifsco.org/CMDocs/BIFSCO/Best%20Practices/03_29_06non- intactbestpractices.pdf. Accessed 28 February 2011.
23. Berrang, M. E.,, J. K. Northcutt,, D. L. Fletcher,, and N. A. Cox. 2003. Role of dump cage fecal contamination in the transfer of Campylobacter to carcasses of previously negative broilers. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 12:190195.
24. Bjorkroth, J. 2005. Microbiological ecology of marinated meat products. Meat Sci. 70:477480.
25. Bolder, R. D. 1997. Decontamination of meat and poultry carcasses. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 8:221227.
26. Brewer, M. S. 2009. Irradiation effects on meat flavor: a review. Meat Sci. 81:114.
27. Broda, D. M.,, D. J. Saul,, R. G. Bell,, and D. R. Musgrave. 2000. Clostridium algidixylanolyticum sp. nov., a psychrotolerant, xylan-degrading, spore-forming bacterium. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50:623631.
28. Buhr, R. J.,, D. V. Bourassa,, J. K. Northcutt,, A. Hinton,, K. D. Ingram,, and J. A. Cason. 2005. Bacteria recovery from genetically feathered and featherless broiler carcasses after immersion chilling. Poult. Sci. 84:14991504.
29. Bunkova, L.,, F. Bunka,, P. Klcovska,, V. Mrkvicka,, M. Dolezalova,, and S. Kracmar. 2010. Formation of biogenic amines by Gram-negative bacteria isolated from poultry skin. Food Chem. 121:203206.
30. Burgess, C. M.,, L. Rivas,, M. J. McDonnell,, and G. Duffy,. 2008. Biocontrol of pathogens in the meat chain, p. 253288. In F. Toldra (ed.), Meat Biotechnology. Springer, New York, NY.
31. Byelashov, O. A.,, and J. N. Sofos,. 2009. Strategies for on-line decontamination of carcasses, p. 149182. In F. Toldrá (ed.), Safety of Meat and Processed Meat. Springer, New York, NY.
32. Cannarsi, M.,, A. Baiano,, R. Sinigaglia,, and M. A. Del Nobile. 2005. Use of biodegradable films for fresh cut beef steaks packaging. Meat Sci. 70:259265.
33. Carlson, B. A.,, K. K. Nightingale,, G. L. Mason,, J. R. Ruby,, W. T. Choat,, G. H. Loneragan,, G. C. Smith,, J. N. Sofos,, and K. E. Belk. 2009. Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains that persist in feedlot cattle are genetically related and demonstrate an enhanced ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75:59275937.
34. Carroll, C. D.,, and C. Z. Alvarado. 2008. Comparison of air and immersion chilling on meat quality and shelf life of marinated broiler breast fillets. Poult. Sci. 87:368372.
35. Cason, J. A.,, N. A. Cox,, and J. S. Bailey. 1994. Transmission of Salmonella typhimurium during hatching of broiler chicks. Avian Dis. 38:583588.
36. Cason, J. A.,, A. D. Whittemore,, and A. D. Shackelford. 1999. Aerobic bacteria and solids in a three-tank, two pass counterflow scalder. Poult. Sci. 78:144147.
37.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks—United States, 1993-1997. MMWR Surveill. Summ. 49:151.
38. Cerveny, J.,, J. D. Meyer,, and P. D. Hall,. 2010. Microbiological spoilage of meat and products, p. 6986. In W. H. Sperber, and M. P. Doyle (ed.), Compendium of the Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Beverages. Springer, New York, NY.
39. Charles, N.,, S. K. Williams,, and G. E. Rodrick. 2006. Effects of packaging systems on the natural microflora and acceptability of chicken breast meat. Poult. Sci. 85:17981801.
40. Chiesa, F.,, and L. Vercellotti. 1992. Controllo igienico-sanitario e ambientale in un macello per la selvaggina allevata. Ingegneria Aliment. 4:24.
41. Cocolin, L.,, P. Dolci,, and K. Rantsiou,. 2008. Molecular methods for identification of microorganisms in traditional meat products, p. 91127. In F. Toldrá (ed.), Meat Biotechnology. Springer, New York, NY.
42. Coma, V. 2008. Bioactive packaging technologies for extended shelf life of meat-based products. Meat Sci. 78:90103.
43. Cook, D. W.,, P. O’Leary,, J. C. Hunsucker,, E. M. Sloan,, J. C. Boweers,, R. J. Blodgett,, and A. DePaola. 2002. Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in U.S. retail shell oysters: a national survey from June 1998 to July 1999. J. Food Prot. 65:7987.
44. Cornforth, D. P.,, and M. C. Hunt. 2008. Low-oxygen packaging of fresh meat with carbon monoxide: meat quality, microbiology, and safety. American Meat Science Association White Paper Series, January. American Meat Science Association, Savoy, IL.
45. Cotton, L. N.,, and D. L. Marshall,. 1998. Rapid impediometric method to determine crustacean food freshness, p. 147160. In M. H. Tunick,, S. A. Palumbo,, and P. M. Fratamico (ed.), New Techniques in the Analysis of Foods. Plenum Publishing Corp., New York, NY.
46. Cox, N. A.,, J. S. Bailey,, J. M. Mauldin,, and L. C. Blankenship. 1990. Presence and impact of Salmonella contamination in commercial broiler hatcheries. Poult. Sci. 69:16061609.
47. Cox, N. A.,, L. J. Richardson,, J. S. Bailey,, D. E. Cosby,, J. A. Cason,, and M. T. Musgrove,. 2005. Bacterial contamination of poultry as a risk to human health, p. 2143. In J. Mead (ed.), Food Safety Control in the Poultry Industry. CRC Woodhead Publishing Limited, New York, NY.
48. Cox, N. E.,, M. E. Berrang,, and J. A. Cason. 2000. Salmonella penetration of egg shells and proliferation in broiler hatching eggs—a review. Poult. Sci. 79:15711574.
49. Crowley, K. M.,, D. M. Prendergast,, J. J. Sheridan,, and D. A. McDowell. 2010. Survival of Pseudomonas fluorescens on beef carcass surfaces in a commercial abattoir. Meat Sci. 85:550554.
50. Dainty, R. H. 1996. Chemical/biochemical detection of spoilage. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 33:1934.
51. Dainty, R. H.,, R. A. Edwards,, and C. M. Hibbard. 1985. Time course of volatile compound formation during refrigerated storage of naturally contaminated beef in air. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 59:303309.
52. Dainty, R. H.,, R. A. Edwards,, and C. M. Hibbard. 1989. Spoilage of vacuum-packed beef by a Clostridium sp. J. Sci. Food Agric. 49:473486.
53. Dalgaard, P., 2000. Fresh and lightly preserved seafood, p. 110139. In C. M. D. Man, and A. A. Jones (ed.), Shelf-life Evaluation of Foods. Aspen Publishers, London, United Kingdom.
54. Dalsgaard, A.,, H. H. Huss,, A. H-Kittikum,, and J. L. Larsen. 1995. Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella in a major shrimp production area in Thailand. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 28:101113.
55. Dalvit, C.,, M. De Marchi,, and M. Cassandro. 2007. Genetic traceability of livestock products: a review. Meat Sci. 77:437449.
56. Davies, A. R., 1995. Advances in modified-atmosphere packaging, p. 304320. In G. W. Gould (ed.), New Methods of Food Preservation. Blackie Academic and Professional, London, United Kingdom.
57. De Boer, E.,, A. Zwartkruis-Nahuis,, A. E. Heuvelink,, C. Harmanus,, and E. J. Kuijper. 2011. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in retailed meat in The Netherlands. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 144:561564.
58. De Boer, E.,, J. T. M. Zwartkruis-Nahuis,, B. Wit,, X. W. Huijsdens,, A. J. de Neeling,, T. Bosch,, R. A. A. van Oosterom,, A. Vila,, and A. E. Heuvelink. 2009. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in meat. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 134:5256.
59. Del Rio, E.,, R. Capita,, M. Prieto,, and C. Alonso-Calleja. 2006. Comparison of pathogenic and spoilage bacterial levels on refrigerated poultry parts following treatment with trisodium phosphate. Food Microbiol. 23:195198.
60. Del Rio, E.,, M. Panizo-Moran,, M. Prieto,, C. Alonso-Calleja,, and R. Capita. 2007. Effect of various chemical decontamination treatments on natural microflora and sensory characteristics of poultry. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 115:268280.
61. Del Rio, E.,, R. Muriente,, M. Prieto,, C. Alonso-Calleja,, and R. Capita. 2007. Effectiveness of trisodium phosphate, acidified sodium chlorite, citric acid, and peroxyacids against pathogenic bacteria on poultry during refrigerated storage. J. Food Prot. 70:20632071.
62. De Vuyst, L.,, G. Falony,, and F. Leroy. 2008. Probiotics in fermented sausages. Meat Sci. 80:7578.
63. Diez-Valcarce, M.,, and K. Kovac. 2010. High hydrostatic pressure as emergent technology for the elimination of foodborne viruses: use of HHP in food industry. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 21:558568.
64. Dolezalova, M.,, Z. Molatova,, F. Bunka,, P. Brezina,, and M. Marounek. 2010. Effect of organic acids on growth of chilled chicken skin microflora. J. Food Saf. 30:353365.
65. Dominguez, S. A.,, and D. W. Schaffner. 2007. Development and validation of a mathematical model to describe the growth of Pseudomonas spp. in raw poultry stored under aerobic conditions. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 120:287295.
66. Doulgeraki, A. I.,, S. Paramithiotis,, D. M. Kagkli,, and G.-J. E. Nychas. 2010. Lactic acid bacteria population dynamics during minced beef storage under aerobic or modified atmosphere packaging conditions. Food Microbiol. 27:10281034.
67. Doyle, M. P.,, and M. C. Erickson. 2006. Emerging microbiological food safety issues related to meat. Meat Sci. 74:98112.
68. Drosinos, E. H.,, and G.-J. E. Nychas. 1997. Production of acetic acid in relation to the content of glucose during modified atmosphere storage of gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata) at 0 ± 1°C. Food Res. Int. 30:711717.
69. Drosinos, E. H.,, and R. G. Board. 1994. Metabolic activities of pseudomonads in batch cultures in extract of minced lamb. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 77:613620.
70. Drosinos, E. H.,, and R. G. Board. 1995. Attributes of microbial associations of meat growing as xenic batch cultures in a meat juice at 4°C. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 26:279293.
71. Eblen, D. R. 2007. Public health importance of non-O157 Shiga toxin- producing Escherichia coli (non-O157 STEC) in the US food supply. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. Available from http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/STEC_101207.pdf. Accessed 24 February 2011.
72. Edwards, R. A.,, R. H. Dainty,, and C. M. Hibbard. 1987. Volatile compounds produced by meat pseudomonads and related reference strains during growth in air at chill temperatures. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 62:403412.
73. Ellebroek, L.,, J. A. Lienau,, T. Alter,, and D. Schlichting. 2007. Effectiveness of different chemical decontamination methods on the Campylobacter load of poultry carcasses. Fleischwirtschaft 87:224227.
74. Ellerbroek, L. I.,, J. A. Lienau,, and G. Klein. 2010. Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks at the farm level and the potential for cross-contamination during slaughter. Zoonoses Public Health 57:E81E88.
75. Eltholth, M. M.,, V. R. Marsh,, S. Van Winden, and F. J. Guitian. 2009. Contamination of food products with Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis: a systematic review. J. Appl. Microbiol. 107:10611071.
76. Emborg, J.,, B. G. Laursen,, and P. Dalgaard. 2005. Significant histamine formation in tuna (Thunnus albacares) at 2°C effect of vacuum- and modified atmosphere-packaging on psychrotolerant bacteria. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 101:263279.
77. Emirogğlu, Z. K.,, G. P. Yemis,, B. K. Coşkun,, and K. Candogğan. 2010. Antimicrobial activity of soy edible films incorporated with thyme and oregano essential oils on fresh ground beef patties. Meat Sci. 86:283288.
78. Ercolini, D.,, F. Russo,, E. Torrieri,, P. Masi,, and F. Villani. 2006. Changes in the spoilage-related microbiota of beef during refrigerated storage under different packaging conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:46634671.
79. Ercolini, D.,, F. Russo,, A. Nasi,, P. Ferranti,, and F. Villani. 2009. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria from meat and their spoilage potential in vitro and in beef. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75:19902001.
80. Ercolini, D.,, I. Ferrocino,, A. La Storia,, G. Mauriello,, S. Gigli,, P. Masi,, and F. Villani. 2010. Development of spoilage microbiota in beef stored in nisin activated packaging. Food Microbiol. 27:137143.
81. Erickson, M. C.,, and M. P. Doyle. 2007. Food as a vehicle for transmission of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. J. Food Prot. 70:24262449.
81.a.The European Commission. Food Hygiene - Community Directives. http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/biosafety/hygienelegislation/directives_en.print.htm. Accessed 11 September 2012.
82.European Food Safety Authority. 2010. Analysis of the baseline survey of the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler batches and of Campylobacter and Salmonella on broiler carcasses in the EU, 2008. Part A: Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence estimates. EFSA J. 8(3):1503.
83.European Food Safety Authority. 2010. Decontamina tion of carcasses. Available at: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/ahawtopics/topic/decontamination.htm. Accessed November 2010.
84. Evans, S.,, and A. R. Sayers. 2000. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks in Great Britain. Prevent. Vet. Med. 46:209223.
85. Fabrizio, K. A.,, R. R. Sharma,, A. Demirci,, and C. N. Cutter. 2002. Comparison of electrolyzed oxidizing water with various antimicrobial interventions to reduce Salmonella species on poultry. Poult. Sci. 81:15981605.
86. Farkas, J.,, and C. Mohacsi-Farkas. 2011. History and future of food irradiation. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 22:121126.
87. Feller, M. K.,, K. Huwiler,, R. Stephan,, E. Altpeter,, A. Shang,, H. Furrer,, E. Pfyffer,, T. Jemmi,, A. Baumgartner,, and M. Egger. 2007. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Crohn’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect. Dis. 7:617613.
88. Fletcher, D. L. 2002. Poultry meat quality. Worlds Poult. Sci. 58:131145.
89. Flick, G. J., Jr. 2007. Pathogenic vibrios in shellfish. Global Aquaculture Advocate 10(6):46, 48.
90. Flick, G. J., Jr. 2008. Microbiological safety of farmed fish. Global Aquaculture Advocate 11(2):3334.
91. Flick, G. J., Jr. 2008. Solutions to microbiological challenges in crawfish production. Global Aquaculture Advocate 11(4):30, 3233.
92. Flick, G. J., Jr. 2010. Post-harvest quality of freshwater prawns. Part I. Shelf-life. Global Aquaculture Advocate 13(6):5152.
93. Flick, G. J., Jr. 2011. Post-harvest quality of freshwater prawns. Part II. Microbial composition, food safety. Global Aquaculture Advocate 14(1):6162.
94. Flick, G. J., Jr. 2011. Post-harvest quality of freshwater prawns. Part III. Microflora, composition, frozen storage. Global Aquaculture Advocate 14(2):4446.
95.Food and Agriculture Organization. 2010. Database Faostat. Available at: http://faostat.fao.org/. Accessed December 2010.
96. Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1996. Pathogen reduction; hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems: final rule, 9CFR Part 304, et al. Fed. Regist. 61:3880538989.
97.Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1999. Irradiation of meat and meat products. Fed. Regist. 4:90899105.
98.Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1999. FSIS policy on non-intact raw beef products contaminated with E. coli O157:H7. Available at: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OA/background/O157policy.htm. Accessed 31 March 2010.
99.Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2002. Comparative risk assessment for intact (non-tenderized) and non-intact (tenderized) beef: technical report. Available at: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/Beef_Risk_Assess_Report_Mar2002.pdf. Accessed 31 March 2010.
100.Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2002. Comparative risk assessment for intact (non-tenderized) and non-intact (tenderized) beef: executive summary. Available at: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/Beef_Risk_Assess_ExecSumm_Mar2002.pdf. Accessed 31 March 2010.
101.Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2003. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat and poultry products; final rule. Fed. Regist. 68:3420834254.
102.Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2005. HACCP plan reassessment for mechanically tenderized beef products. Fed. Regist. 70:3033130334.
103.Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2006. Compliance guidelines to control Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat meat and poultry products. Available at: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/oppde/rdad/FRPubs/97-013F/LM_Rule_Compliance_Guidelines_May_2006.pdf. Accessed 31 March 2010.
104. Fratamico, P. M.,, A. A. Bhagwat,, L. Injaian,, and P. J. Fedorka-Cray. 2008. Characterization of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from swine feces. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 5:827838.
105. Gale, P.,, T. Drew,, L. P. Phipps,, G. David,, and M. Wooldridge. 2009. The effect of climate change on the occurrence and prevalence of livestock diseases in Great Britain: a review. J. Appl. Microbiol. 106:14091423.
106. Gariga, M.,, and T. Aymerich,. 2009. Advanced decontamination technologies: high hydrostatic pressure on meat products, p. 183208. In F. Toldra (ed.), Safety of Meat and Processed Meat. Springer, New York, NY.
107. Geesey, G. G. 2001. Bacterial behavior at surfaces. Curr. Microbiol. 4:296300.
108. Geornaras, I.,, and J. N. Sofos,. 2005. Combining physical and chemical decontamination interventions for meat, p. 433460. In J. N. Sofos (ed.), Improving the Safety of Fresh Meat. CRC/Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
109. Geornaras, I.,, G. A. Dykes, and A. von Holy. 1995. Biogenic amine formation by poultry-associated spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 21:164166.
110. Ghaly, A. E.,, D. Dave,, S. Budge,, and M. S. Brooks. 2010. Fish spoilage mechanisms and preservation techniques: review. Am. J. Appl. Sci. 7:859877.
111. Gil, L.,, J. M. Barat,, D. Baigts,, R. Martínez-Máñez,, J. Soto,, E. Garcia-Breijo,, M. C. Aristoy,, F. Toldrá,, and E. Llobet. 2011. Monitoring of physical-chemical and microbiological changes in fresh pork meat under cold storage by means of a potentiometric electronic tongue. Food Chem. 126:12611268.
112. Gill, A.,, and C. Gill,. 2010. Packaging and the shelf life of fresh red and poultry meats, p. 259280. In L. Robertson (ed.), Food Packaging and Shelf Life: A Practical Guide. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
113. Gill, A.,, and C. Gill. 2010. Non-O157 verotoxigenic Escherichia coli and beef: a Canadian perspective. Can. J. Vet. Res. 74:161169.
114. Gill, C. O., 1982. Microbial interaction with meats, p. 225264. In M. H. Brown (ed.), Meat Microbiology. Applied Science Publishers, Inc., New York, NY.
115. Gill, C. O. 1983. Meat spoilage and evaluation of the potential storage life of fresh meat. J. Food Prot. 46:444452.
116. Gill, C. O., 1986. The control of microbial spoilage in fresh meats, p. 4988. In A. M. Pearson, and T. R. Dutson (ed.), Advances in Meat Research, vol. 2. Meat and Poultry Microbiology. AVI Publishing Co., Westport, CT.
117. Gill, C. O., 2005. Sources of microbial contamination at slaughtering plants, p. 231243. In J. N. Sofos (ed.), Improving the Safety of Fresh Meat. CRC/Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
118. Gill, C. O.,, and K. G. Newton. 1979. Spoilage of vacuum-packaged dark, firm, dry meat at chill temperatures. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37:362364.
119. Gill, C. O.,, and K. G. Newton. 1978. The ecology of bacterial spoilage of fresh meat at chill temperatures. Meat Sci. 2:207217.
120. Gill, C. O.,, J. C. L. Harrison,, and N. Penny. 1990. The storage life of chicken carcasses stored under carbon dioxide. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 11:151158.
121. Gloria, M. B. A.,, M. A. Daeschel,, C. Craven,, and K. S. Hilderbrand, Jr. 1999. Histamine and other biogenic amines in Albacore tuna. J. Aquatic Food Product Technol. 8:5569.
122. Gonzalez-Fandos, E.,, B. Herrera,, and N. Maya,, N. 2009. Efficacy of citric acid against Listeria monocytogenes attached to poultry skin during refrigerated storage. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 44:262268.
123. Gould, G.,, P. Franken,, P. Hammer,, B. Mackey,, and F. Shanahan. 2005. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and the food chain. Food Prot. Trends 25:268297.
124. Goulter, R. M.,, I. R. Gentle,, and G. A. Dykes. 2009. Issues in determining factors influencing bacterial attachment: a review using the attachment of Escherichia coli to abiotic surfaces as an example. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 49:17.
125. Gram, L.,, and H. H. Huss,. 2000. Fresh and processed fish and shellfish, p. 472506. In B. M. Lund,, A. C. Baird-Parker,, and G. W. Gould (ed.), The Microbiological Safety and Quality of Foods. Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, MD.
126. Gram, L.,, and P. Dalgaard. 2002. Fish spoilage bacteria—problems and solutions. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 13:262266.
127. Grant, M. A.,, C. Hedberg,, R. Johnson,, J. Harris,, C. M. Logue,, J. Meng,, J. N. Sofos,, and J. S. Dickson. 2011. Executive summary: the significance of non-O157 shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in food. Food Prot. Trends 31:3345.
128. Greaser, M. L., 1986. Conversion of muscle to meat, p. 37102. In P. J. Bechtel (ed.), Muscle as Food. Academic Press, New York, NY.
129. Gunderson, M. F.,, H. W. McFadden,, and T. S. Kyle. 1954. Bacteriology of Commercial Poultry Processing, p. 5963. Burgess Publishing, Minneapolis, MN.
130. Handley, J. A.,, I. Hanning,, S. C. Ricke,, M. G. Johnson,, F. T. Jones,, and R. O. Apple. 2010. Temperature and bacterial profile of post chill poultry carcasses stored in processing combo held at room temperature. J. Food Sci. 75:M515M520.
131. Hanninen, M. L.,, P. Perko-Makela,, A. Pitkala,, and H. Rautelin. 2000. A three-year study of Campylobacter jejuni genotypes in humans with domestically acquired infections and in chicken samples from the Helsinki area. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:19982000.
132. Head, M.,, J. R. Saunders,, and R. W. Pickup. 1998. Microbial evolution, diversity and ecology: a decade of ribosomal RNA analysis of uncultivated microorganisms. Microb. Ecol. 35:121.
133. Herrero, A. M. 2008. Raman spectroscopy, a promising technique for quality assessment of meat and fish: a review. Food Chem. 107:16421651.
134. Hinton, A.,, J. A. Cason,, and K. D. Ingram. 2004. Tracking spoilage bacteria in commercial poultry processing and refrigerated storage of poultry carcasses. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 91:155165.
135. Hinton, A.,, J. K. Northcutt,, D. P. Smith,, M. T. Musgrove,, and K. D. Ingram. 2007. Spoilage microflora of broiler carcasses washed with electrolyzed oxidizing or chlorinated water using an inside-outside bird washer. Poult. Sci. 86:123127.
136. Holzapfel, W. H., 1998. The Gram-positive bacteria associated with meat and meat products, p. 3584. In R. G. Board, and A. R. Davies (ed.), The Microbiology of Meat and Poultry. Blackie Academic and Professional, London, United Kingdom.
137. Hoorfar, J.,, M. Wagner,, K. Jordan,, S. L. Boquin,, and J. Skiby. 2011. Towards biotracing in food chains. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 145:S1S4.
138. Huezo, R.,, D. P. Smith,, J. K. Northcutt,, and D. L. Fletcher. 2007. Effect of immersion or dry air chilling on broiler carcass moisture retention and breast fillet functionality. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 16:438447.
139. Huffman, N. M. 2002. Current and future technologies for the decontamination of carcasses and fresh meat. Meat Sci. 62:285294.
140. Hugas, M.,, and E. Tsagarida. 2008. Pros and cons of carcass decontamination: the role of the European Food Safety Authority. Meat Sci. 78:4352.
141. Hugenholtz, P.,, and N. R. Pace. 1996. Identifying microbial diversity in the natural environment: a molecular phylogenetic approach. Trends Biotechnol. 14:9097.
142. Hunt, M. C.,, R. A. Mancini,, K. A. Haachmeister,, D. H. Kropf,, M. Merriman,, G. Delduca,, and G. Milliken. 2004. Carbon monoxide in modified atmosphere packaging affects color, shelf life, and microorganisms of beef steaks and ground beef. J. Food Sci. 69:FCT45FCT52.
143. Huss, H. H. 1995. Assurance of Seafood Quality, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 334. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.
144. Hussein, H. S. 2007. Prevalence and pathogenicity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef cattle and their products. J. Anim. Sci. 85(E. Suppl.):E63E72.
145. Ingram, M.,, and B. Simonsen,. 1980. Meats and meat products, p. 333409. In J. H. Silliker,, R. P. Elliot,, A. C. Baird-Parker,, F. L. Bryan,, J. H. B. Christian,, D. S. Clark,, J. C. Olsen, Jr.,, and T. A. Roberts (ed.), Microbial Ecology of Foods, vol. 2. Food Commodities. Academic Press, New York, NY.
146.Institute of Food Technologists. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance—Implications for the Food System. Institute of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL.
147.International Commission for Microbiological Specifications in Foods. 1996. Microorganisms in Foods 5: Characteristics of Microbial Pathogens. Blackie Academic & Professional, London, United Kingdom.
148.International Commission for Microbiological Specifications in Foods. 2005. Microorganisms in Foods 6. Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities. Blackie Academic and Professional, London, United Kingdom.
149.Investnow.lk. 2010. Available at: http://investnow.lk/2010/06/21/global-poultry-trends-asia-leads-the-world-in-chicken-demand/1732/. Accessed December 2010.
150. Ismail, S. A. S.,, T. Deak,, H. A. Abd El-Rahman,, M. A. M. Yassien,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2001. Effectiveness of immersion treatments with acids, trisodium phosphate, and herb decoctions in reducing populations of Yarrowia lipolytica and naturally occurring aerobic microorganisms on raw chicken. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 64:1319.
151. James, C.,, E. O. Göksoy,, J. E. L. Corry, and S. J. James. 2000. Surface pasteurisation of poultry meat using steam at atmospheric pressure, J. Food Eng. 45:111117.
152. James, C.,, S. J. James,, N. Hannay,, G. Purnell,, C. Barbedo-Pinto,, H. Yaman,, M. Araujo,, M. L. Gonzalez,, J. Calvo,, M. Howell,, and J. E. L. Corry. 2007. Decontamination of poultry carcasses using steam or hot water in combination with rapid cooling, chilling or freezing of carcass surfaces, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 114:195203.
153. Jeong, J. Y.,, and J. R. Claus. 2010. Color stability and reversion in carbon monoxide packaged ground beef. Meat Sci. 85:525530.
154. Jeong, J. Y.,, and J. R. Claus. 2011. Color stability of ground beef packaged in a low carbon monoxide atmosphere or vacuum. Meat Sci. 87:16.
155. Jhung, M. A.,, A. D. Thompson,, G. E. Killgore,, W. E. Zukowski,, G. Songer,, M. Warny,, S. Johnson,, D. N. Gerding,, L. C. McDonald,, and B. M. Limbago. 2008. Toxinotype V Clostridium difficile in humans and food animals. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:10391045.
156. Jin, T.,, L. Liu,, H. Zhang,, and K. Hicks. 2009. Antimicrobial activity of nisin incorporated in pectin and polylactic acid composite films against Listeria monocytogenes. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 44:322329.
157. Jöbstl, M.,, S. Heuberger,, A. Indra,, R. Nepf,, J. Köfer,, and M. Wagner. 2010. Clostridium difficile in raw products of animal origin. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 138:172175.
158. Jones, J. M.,, G. C. Mead,, N. M. Griffiths,, and B. W. Adams. 1982. Influence of packaging on microbiological, chemical and sensory changes in chill-stored poultry portions. Br. Poult. Sci. 23:2540.
159. Juneja, V. K.,, and J. N. Sofos. 2002. Control of Foodborne Microorganisms. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
160. Juneja, V. K.,, and J. N. Sofos. 2009. Pathogens and Toxins in Foods: Challenges and Interventions. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
161. Kakouri, A.,, E. Drosinos,, and G.-J. E. Nychas,. 1997. Storage of Mediterranean fresh fish (Boops boops, and Sparus aurata) under modified atmospheres or vacuum at 3 and 10°C, p. 171178. In J. B. Luten,, T. Borresen,, and J. Oehlenschlager (ed.), Development in Food Science, vol. 38. Seafood From Producer to Consumer, Integrated Approach to Quality. Elsevier, Amsterdam. The Netherlands.
162. Kalac, P. 2006. Biologically active polyamines in beef, pork and meat products: a review. Meat Sci. 73:111.
163. Kalchayanand, N.,, B. Ray,, and R. A. Field. 1993. Characteristics of psychrotrophic Clostridium laramie causing spoilage of vacuum-packaged refrigerated fresh and roasted beef. J. Food Prot. 56:1317.
164. Kargiotou, C.,, E. Katsanidis,, J. Rhoades,, M. Kontominas,, and K. Koutsoumanis. 2011. Efficacies of soy sauce and wine base marinades for controlling spoilage of raw beef. Food Microbiol. 28:158163.
165. Karmali, M. A.,, V. Gannon,, and J. M. Sargeant. 2010. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC). Vet. Microbiol. 140:360370.
166. Kemp, G. K.,, M. L. Aldrich,, and A. L. Waldroup. 2000. Acidified sodium chlorite antimicrobial treatment of broiler carcasses. J. Food Prot. 63:10871092.
167. Kerry, J. P.,, M. N. O’Grady,, and S. A. Hogan. 2006. Past, current and potential utilisation of active and intelligent packaging systems for meat and muscle-based products: a review. Meat Sci. 74:113130.
168. Kouakou, P.,, H. Ghalfi,, C. Dortu,, P. Evrard,, and P. Thonart. 2010. Combined use of bacteriocin-producing strains to control Listeria monocytogenes regrowth in raw pork meat. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 45:937943.
169. Koutsoumanis, K. P.,, and J. N. Sofos,. 2004. Microbial contamination of carcasses and cuts, p. 727737. In W. K. Jensens (ed.), Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences. Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
170. Koutsoumanis, K. P.,, K. Lambropoulou,, and G.-J. E. Nychas. 1999. Biogenic and sensory changes associated with the microbial flora of Mediterranean gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata) stored aerobically at 0, 8, and 15°C. J. Food Prot. 62:392402.
171. Koutsoumanis, K. P.,, I. Geornaras,, and J. N. Sofos,. 2006. Microbiology of land muscle food, vol. 1, p. 52.152.43. In Y. H. Hui (ed.), Handbook of Food Science. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL.
172. Kovac, K.,, M. Diez-Valcarce,, M. Hernandez,, P. Raspor,, and D. Rodriguez-Lazaro. 2010. High hydrostatic pressure as emergent technology for the elimination of foodborne viruses. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 21:558568.
173. Lalitha, K. V.,, and P. K. Surendran. 2006. Microbiological changes in farmed reared freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) in ice. Food Control 17:802807.
174. Lee, E. J.,, and D. U. Ahn,. 2009. Advanced decontamination technologies: irradiation, p. 209228. In F. Toldra (ed.), Safety of Meat and Processed Meat. Springer, New York, NY.
175. Leistner, L.,, and G. Gould. 2002. Hurdle Technologies. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY.
176. Leroi, F. 2010. Occurrence and role of lactic acid bacteria in seafood products. Food Microbiol. 27:698709.
177. Leuschner, R. G.,, M. Heidel,, and W. P. Hammes. 1998. Histamine and tyramine degradation by food fermenting microorganisms. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 39:110.
178. Lillard, H. S. 1980. Effect on broiler carcasses and water of treating chiller water with chlorine or chlorine dioxide. Poult. Sci. 59:17611766.
179. Lillard, H. S. 1989. Incidence and recovery of salmonellae and other bacteria from commercially processed poultry carcasses at selected pre-evisceration and post-evisceration steps. J. Food Prot. 52:8891.
180. Lillard, H. S. 1990. The impact of commercial processing procedures on the bacterial-contamination and cross-contamination of broiler carcasses. J. Food Prot. 53:202204.
181. Linam, W. M.,, and M. A. Gerber. 2007.Changing epidemiology and prevention of Salmonella infections. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 26:747748.
182. Loretz, M.,, R. Stephan,, and C. Zweifel. 2010. Antimicrobial activity of decontamination treatments for poultry carcasses: a literature survey. Food Control 21:791804.
183. Loretz, M.,, R. Stephan,, and C. Zweifel. 2011. Antibacterial activity of decontamination treatments for cattle hides and beef carcasses. Food Control 22:347359.
184. Lucker, E., 2009. Methodologies for the detection of BSE risk material in meat and meat products, chapt. 19, p. 499514. In F. Toldra (ed.), Safety of Meat and Processed Meat. Springer, New York, NY.
185. Mastromatteo, M.,, M. Mastromatteo,, A. Contea,, and M. A. Del Nobile. 2010. Advances in controlled release devices for food packaging applications. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 21:591598.
186. McArdle, R. A.,, B. Marcos,, J. P. Kerry,, and A. M. Mullen. 2011. Influence of HPP conditions on selected beef quality attributes and their stability during chilled storage. Meat Sci. 87:274281.
187. McArdle, R.,, B. Marcos,, J. P. Kerry,, and A. Mullen. 2010. Monitoring the effects of high pressure processing and temperature on selected beef quality attributes. Meat Sci. 86:629634.
188. McMeekin, T. A., 1982. Microbial spoilage of meats, p. 140. In R. Davies (ed.), Developments in Food Microbiology—1. Applied Science Publishers, London, United Kingdom.
189. McMillin, K. W. 2008. Where is MAP going? A review and future potential of modified atmosphere packaging for meat. Meat Sci. 80:4365.
190. Mead, G. C., 1989. Hygiene problems and control of process contamination, p. 183220. In G. C. Mead (ed), Processing of Poultry. Elsevier Applied Science, London, United Kingdom.
191. Mead, G. C. 2004. Microbiological quality of poultry meat: a review. Braz. J. Poult. Sci. 6:135142.
192. Milillo, S. R.,, and S. C. Ricke. 2010. Synergistic reduction of Salmonella in a model raw chicken media using a combined thermal and acidified organic acid salt intervention treatment. J. Food Sci. 75:M121M125.
193. Monaghan, T.,, T. Boswell,, and Y. R. Mahida. 2008. Recent advances in Clostridium difficile-associated disease.http://gut.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/gut. 2007.128157v1.
194. Morgan, A. I.,, N. Goldberg,, E. R. Radewonuk,, and O. J. Scullen. 1996. Surface pasteurisation of raw poultry meat by steam. Lebensm. Wissensch. Technol. 29:447451.
195. Mor-Mur, M.,, and J. Yuste. 2010. Emerging bacterial pathogens in meat and poultry: an overview. Food Bioprocess Technol. 3:2435.
196. Morris, M.,, A. L. Brody,, and L. Wicker. 2007. Non-thermal food processing/preservation technologies: a review with packaging implications. Packag. Technol. Sci. 20:275286.
197. Moschonas, G.,, D. J. Bolton,, J. J. Sheridan,, and D. A. McDowell. 2009. Effect of storage temperature and inoculum level on the time of onset of “blown pack” spoilage. J. Appl. Microbiol. 108:532539.
198. Moschonas, G.,, D. J. Bolton,, J. J. Sheridan,, and D. A. McDowell. 2009. Isolation and sources of “blown pack” spoilage clostridia in beef abattoirs. J. Appl. Microbiol. 107:616624.
199. Moschonas, G.,, D. J. Bolton,, J. J. Sheridan,, D. A. McDowell. 2011. The effect of heat shrink treatment and storage temperature on the time of onset of “blown pack” spoilage. Meat Sci. 87:115118.
200. Mutharia, L. M.,, M. D. Klassen,, J. Fairles,, S. Barbut,, and C. O. Gill. 2010. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in muscle, lymphatic and organ tissues from cows with advanced Johne’s disease. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 136:340344.
201. Nam, K. C.,, K. Y. Ko,, B. R. Min,, H. Ismail,, E. J. Lee,, J. Cordray,, and D. U. Ahn. 2006. Influence of rosemary-tocopherol/packaging combination on meat quality and the survival of pathogens in restructured irradiated pork loins. Meat Sci. 74:380387.
202.National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods. 2002. Final report: E. coli O157:H7 in blade tenderized beef. Available at http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPHS/NACMCF/2002/rep_blade1.htm
203.National Meat Association. 1999. Guidelines for Developing Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and Environmental Sampling/Testing Recommendations (ESTRs) in Ready to Eat (RTE) Products. National Meat Association, Oakland, CA.
204. Newell, D. G.,, and C. Fearnley. 2003. Sources of Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:43434351.
205. Newton, K. G.,, and C. O. Gill. 1980. The microbiology of DFD fresh meats: a review. Meat Sci. 5:223232.
206. Nieminen, T. T.,, E. Vihavainen,, A. Paloranta,, J. Lehto,, L. Paulin,, P. Auvinen,, M. Solismaa,, and K. J. Björkroth. 2011. Characterization of psychrotrophic bacterial communities in modified atmosphere-packed meat with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 144:360366.
207. Nordstrom, J. L.,, C. A. Kaysner,, G. M. Blackstone,, M. C. L. Vickery,, J. C. Bowers,, and A. De Paola. 2004. Effect of intertidal exposure on Vibrio parahaemolyticus levels in Pacific oysters. J. Food Prot. 67:21782182.
208. Nørrung, B.,, J. K. Andersen,, and S. Buncic,. 2009. Main concerns of pathogenic microorganisms in meat, p. 329. In F. Toldra (ed.), Safety of Meat and Processed Meat. Springer, New York, NY.
209. Northcutt, J.,, D. Smith,, K. D. Ingram,, A. Hinton,, and M. Musgrove. 2007. Recovery of bacteria from broiler carcasses after spray washing with acidified electrolyzed water or sodium hypochlorite solutions. Poult. Sci. 86:22392244.
210. Northcutt, J. K.,, D. P. Smith,, M. T. Musgrove,, K. D. Ingram,, and A. Hinton. 2005. Microbiological impact of spray washing broiler carcasses using different chlorine concentrations and water temperatures. Poult. Sci. 84:16481652.
211. Norton, T.,, and D. W. Sun. 2008. Recent advances in the use of high pressure as an effective processing technique in the food industry. Food Bioprocess Technol. 1:234.
212. Nottingham, P. M., 1982. Microbiology of carcass meats, p. 1365. In M. H. Brown (ed.), Meat Microbiology. Applied Science Publishers Ltd., New York, NY.
213. Nottingham, P. M.,, C. O. Gill,, and K. G. Newton,. 1981. Spoilage at fat surfaces of meat, p. 183190. In T. A. Roberts,, G. Hobbs,, J. H. B. Christian,, and N. Skovgaard (ed.), Psychrotrophic Microorganisms in Spoilage and Pathogenicity. Academic Press, New York, NY.
214. Ntzimani, A. G.,, E. K. Paleologos,, I. N. Savvaidis,, and M. G. Kontominas. 2008. Formation of biogenic amines and relation to microbial flora and sensory changes in smoked turkey breast fillets stored under various packaging conditions at 4 degrees C. Food Microbiol. 25:509517.
215. Nychas, G.-J. E., 1994. Modified atmosphere packaging of meats, p. 417436. In R. P. Singh, and F. A. R. Oliveira (ed.), Minimal Processing of Foods and Process Optimization, An Interface. CRC Press, London, United Kingdom.
216. Nychas, G.-J. E.,, D. L. Marshall,, and J. N. Sofos,. 2007. Meat, poultry, and seafood, p. 105140. In M. P. Doyle, and L. R. Beuchat (ed.), Food Microbiology, Fundamentals and Frontiers, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
217. Nychas, G.-J. E.,, E. H. Drosinos,, and R. G. Board,. 1998. Chemical changes in stored meat, p. 288326. In R. G. Board, and A. R. Davies (ed.), The Microbiology of Meat and Poultry. Blackie Academic and Professional, London, United Kingdom.
218. Nychas, G.-J. E.,, and P. Skandamis,. 2005. Fresh meat spoilage and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), p. 461502. In J. N. Sofos (ed.), Improving the Safety of Fresh Meat. CRC/Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
219. Ogilvy, W. S.,, and J. C. Ayres. 1951. Post-mortem changes in stored meats. II. The effect of atmospheres containing carbon dioxide in prolonging the storage life of cut-up chicken. Food Technol. 5:97102.
220. O’Grady, M. N.,, and J. P. Kerry,. 2008. Smart packaging technologies and their application in conventional meat packaging systems, p. 425451. In F. Toldra (ed.), Meat Biotechnology. Springer, New York, NY.
221. Olaoye, O. A.,, and O. A. Idowu. 2009. Features and functional properties of lactic acid bacteria used as biological preservatives of meat processing. J. Agric. Technol. 6:449460.
222. Olsen, K. N.,, M. Lund,, J. Skov,, L. S. Christensen,, and J. Hoorfar. 2009. Towards real-time monitoring of broiler flocks: detection of Campylobacter in air samples for continuous monitoring of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75:20742078.
223. Omer, M. K.,, O. Alvseike,, A. Holck,, L. Axelsson,, M. Prieto,, E. Skjerve,, and E. Heir. 2010. Application of high pressure processing to reduce verotoxigenic E. coli in two types of dry-fermented sausage. Meat Sci. 86:10051009.
224. Osés, S. M.,, K. Rantsiou,, L. Cocolin,, I. Jaime,, and J. Rovira. 2010. Prevalence and quantification of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli along the lamb food chain by quantitative PCR. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 141:S163S169.
225. Over, K. F.,, N. Hettiarachchy,, M. G. Johnson,, and B. Davis. 2009. Effect of organic acids and plant extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium in broth culture model and chicken meat systems. J. Food Sci. 74:M515M521.
226. Ozdemir, H.,, A. Gucukoglu,, and A. Koluman. 2006. Acidified sodium chlorite, trisodium phosphate and populations of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken breast skin. J. Food Proc. Preserv. 30:608615.
227. Panagou, E. Z.,, F. R. Mohareb,, A. A. Argyri,, C. M. Bessant,, and G.-J. E. Nychas. 2010. A comparison of artificial neural networks and partial least squares modelling for the rapid detection of the microbial spoilage of beef fillets based on Fourier transform infrared spectral fingerprints. Food Microbiol. 27:19.
228. Paramithiotis, S.,, E. H. Drosinos,, J. N. Sofos,, and G.-J. E. Nychas,. 2010. Fermentation: microbiology and biochemistry, p. 185198. In F. Toldrá (ed.), Handbook of Meat Processing. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, IA.
229. Paramithiotis, S.,, P. N. Skandamis,, and G.-J. E. Nychas,. 2009. Insights into fresh meat spoilage, p. 5582. In F. Toldrá (ed.), Safety of Meat and Processed Meat. Springer, New York, NY.
230. Park, S. Y.,, C. L. Woodward,, L. F. Kubena,, D. J. Nisbet,, S. G. Birkhold,, and S. C. Ricke. 2008. Environmental dissemination of foodborne Salmonella in preharvest poultry production: reservoirs, critical factors, and research strategies. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38:73111.
231. Pennacchia, C.,, D. Ercolini,, and F. Villani. 2011. Spoilage-related microbiota associated with chilled beef stored in air or vacuum pack. Food Microbiol. 28:8493.
232. Petrak, T.,, Z. Kalod-era,, P. Novkovic’,, and L. Gumhalter Karolyi. 1999. Bacteriological comparison of parallel and counter flow water chilling of poultry meat. Meat Sci. 53:269271.
233. Prendergast, D. M.,, K. M. Crowley,, D. A. McDowell,, and J. J. Sheridan. 2009. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-pathogenic E. coli on irradiated and non-irradiated beef surfaces. Meat Sci. 83:468473.
234. Prinz, S.,, G. Vanoijen,, W. Bessei,, F. Ehinger,, and A. M. L. Cienen. 2010. Effects of water bath stunning on the electroencephalograms and physical reflexes of broilers using a pulsed direct current. Poult. Sci. 89:12751284.
235. Purnell, G.,, K. Mattick,, and T. Humphrey. 2004. The use of ‘hot wash’ treatments to reduce the number of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria on raw retail poultry. J. Food Eng. 62:2936.
236. Raines, C. R.,, and M. C. Hunt. 2010. Headspace volume and percentage of carbon monoxide affects carboxymyoglobin layer development of modified atmosphere packaged beef steaks. J. Food Sci. 75:C62C65.
237. Ramamoorthi, L.,, S. Toshkov,, and M. S. Brewer. 2009. Effects of carbon monoxide-modified atmosphere packaging and irradiation on E. coli K12 survival and raw beef quality. Meat Sci. 83:358365.
238. Rantsiou, K.,, and L. Cocolin. 2006. New developments in the study of the microbiota of naturally fermented sausages as determined by molecular methods: a review. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 108:255267.
239. Rantsiou, K.,, and L. Cocolin,. 2008. Fermented meat products, p. 91118. In L. Cocolin, and D. Ercolini (ed.), Molecular Techniques in the Microbial Ecology of Fermented Foods. Springer, New York, NY.
240. Rasschaert, G.,, K. Houf,, C. Godard,, C. Wildemauwe,, M. Pastuszczak-Frak,, and L. De Zutter. 2008. Contamination of carcasses with Salmonella during poultry slaughter. J. Food Prot. 71:146152.
241. Rendueles, E.,, M. K. Omer,, O. Alvseike,, C. Alonso-Calleja,, R. Capita,, and M. Prieto. 2010. Microbiological food safety assessment of high hydrostatic pressure processing: a review. LWT Food Sci. Technol. J. 43:110.
242. Rhoades, J. R.,, G. Duffy,, and K. Koutsoumanis. 2009. Prevalence and concentration of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in the beef production chain: a review. Food Microbiol. 26:357376.
243. Riedel, C. T.,, L. Brondsted,, H. Rosenquist,, S. N. Haxgart,, and B. B. Christensen. 2009. Chemical decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat. J. Food Prot. 72:11731180.
244. Rivas-Cañedo, A.,, C. Juez-Ojeda,, M. Nuñez,, and E. Fernández-García. 2011. Volatile compounds in ground beef subjected to high pressure processing: a comparison of dynamic headspace and solid-phase microextraction. Food Chem. 124:12011207.
245. Rivas-Cañedo, A.,, E. Fernández-García,, and M. Nuñez. 2009. Volatile compounds in fresh meats subjected to high pressure processing: effect of the packaging material. Meat Sci. 81:321328.
246. Rodriguez, A.,, P. Pangloli,, H. A. Richards,, J. R. Mount,, and F. A. Draughon. 2006. Prevalence of Salmonella in diverse environmental farm samples. J. Food Prot. 69:25762580.
247. Rulis, A. M. 21 February 2002. Agency response letter, re: GRAS notice no. GRN 000083. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~rdb/opa-g083.html. Accessed 7 December 2007.
248. Rupnick, M. 2007. Is Clostridium difficile-associated infection a potentially zoonotic and foodborne disease? Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 13:457459.
249. Russell, S. M.,, and S. P. Axtell. 2005. Monochloramine versus sodium hypochlorite as antimicrobial agents for reducing populations of bacteria on broiler chicken carcasses. J. Food Prot. 68:758763.
250. Sakhare, P. Z.,, N. M. Sachindra,, K. P. Yashoda,, and D. N. Rao. 1999. Efficacy of intermittent decontamination treatments during processing in reducing the microbial load on broiler chicken carcass. Food Control 10:189194.
251. Samelis J.,, and J. N. Sofos,. 2003. Strategies to control stress-adapted pathogens, p. 303351. In A. E. Yousef, and V. K. Juneja (ed.), Microbial Stress Adaptation and Food Safety. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
252. Sams, A. R., 2010. First processing: slaughter through chilling, p. 1934. In C. M. Owens,, C. Z. Alvarado,, and A. R. Sams (ed.), Poultry meat processing. CRC Press, New York, NY.
253. Sanchez, M. X.,, W. M. Fluckey,, M. M. Brashears,, and S. R. McKee. 2002. Microbial profile and antibiotic susceptibility of Campylobacter spp and Salmonella spp. in broilers processed in air-chilled and immersion-chilled environments. J. Food Prot.