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Chapter 7 : Milk and Dairy Products

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Abstract:

In this chapter, the discussion of spoilage of milk and dairy products is based on the types of microorganisms associated with various defects. These include gram-negative psychrotrophic microorganisms, gram-positive bacteria including lactic acid bacteria and spore-forming bacteria, yeasts, and molds. The chapter describes the interactions of these microorganisms with dairy foods that lead to commonly encountered product defects. Citrate in milk can be utilized by many microorganisms but is not present in sufficient amount to support significant growth. The major microbial inhibitors in raw milk are lactoferrin and the lactoperoxidase system. As much as milk and dairy products are important components of a healthy diet, the presence of pathogenic microorganisms poses a potential health hazard to the consumers. Proteases of psychrotrophic bacteria cause product defects either at the time they are produced in the product or as a result of the enzymes surviving a heat process. Spoilage of milk and dairy products resulting from growth of acid-producing fermentative bacteria occurs when storage temperatures are sufficiently high for these microorganisms to outgrow psychrotrophic bacteria or when product composition is inhibitory to gram-negative aerobic organisms. Spoilage by spore-forming bacteria can occur in low-acid fluid milk products that are preserved by substerilization heat treatments and packaged with little chance for recontamination with vegetative cells. Yeasts and molds that spoil dairy products can be isolated in the processing plant on packaging equipment, in the air, in salt brines, on manufacturing equipment, and in the general environment.

Citation: Nsofor O, Frank J. 2013. Milk and Dairy Products, p 169-185. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch7
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Figure 7.1

Two mechanisms for generation of hypothiocyanite (OSCN–) inhibitor in milk. Adapted from reference . doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch7f1

Citation: Nsofor O, Frank J. 2013. Milk and Dairy Products, p 169-185. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch7
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Tables

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Table 7.1

Some defects of fluid milk that result from microbial growth

Citation: Nsofor O, Frank J. 2013. Milk and Dairy Products, p 169-185. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 7.2

Some defects of cheese that result from microbial growth

Citation: Nsofor O, Frank J. 2013. Milk and Dairy Products, p 169-185. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 7.3

Approximate concentrations of some nutritional components of milk

Citation: Nsofor O, Frank J. 2013. Milk and Dairy Products, p 169-185. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 7.4

Approximate composition, pH, and a of selected dairy products

Citation: Nsofor O, Frank J. 2013. Milk and Dairy Products, p 169-185. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch7

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