1887

Chapter 7 : Milk and Dairy Products

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Milk and Dairy Products, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap07-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap07-2.gif

Abstract:

In this chapter, the discussion of spoilage of milk and dairy products is based on the types of microorganisms associated with various defects. These include gram-negative psychrotrophic microorganisms, gram-positive bacteria including lactic acid bacteria and spore-forming bacteria, yeasts, and molds. The chapter describes the interactions of these microorganisms with dairy foods that lead to commonly encountered product defects. Citrate in milk can be utilized by many microorganisms but is not present in sufficient amount to support significant growth. The major microbial inhibitors in raw milk are lactoferrin and the lactoperoxidase system. As much as milk and dairy products are important components of a healthy diet, the presence of pathogenic microorganisms poses a potential health hazard to the consumers. Proteases of psychrotrophic bacteria cause product defects either at the time they are produced in the product or as a result of the enzymes surviving a heat process. Spoilage of milk and dairy products resulting from growth of acid-producing fermentative bacteria occurs when storage temperatures are sufficiently high for these microorganisms to outgrow psychrotrophic bacteria or when product composition is inhibitory to gram-negative aerobic organisms. Spoilage by spore-forming bacteria can occur in low-acid fluid milk products that are preserved by substerilization heat treatments and packaged with little chance for recontamination with vegetative cells. Yeasts and molds that spoil dairy products can be isolated in the processing plant on packaging equipment, in the air, in salt brines, on manufacturing equipment, and in the general environment.

Citation: Nsofor O, Frank J. 2013. Milk and Dairy Products, p 169-185. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch7
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 7.1
Figure 7.1

Two mechanisms for generation of hypothiocyanite (OSCN–) inhibitor in milk. Adapted from reference . doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch7f1

Citation: Nsofor O, Frank J. 2013. Milk and Dairy Products, p 169-185. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818463.chap7
1. Abad, P.,, A. Villafafila,, J. D. Frias,, and C. Rodriguez-Fernandez. 1993. Extracellular lipolytic activity from Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar I ( Pseudomonas fluorescens NC1). Milchwissenschaft 48: 680 683.
2. Alkanhal, H. A.,, J. F. Frank,, and G. L. Christen. 1985. Microbial protease and phospholipase C stimulate lipolysis of washed cream. J. Dairy Sci. 68: 3162 3170.
3. Andersson, R. E. 1980. Lipase production, lipolysis and formation of volatile compounds by Pseudomonas fluorescens in fat containing media. J. Food Sci. 45: 1694 1701.
4. Andersson, R. E. 1980. Microbial lipolysis at low temperatures. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 39: 36 40.
5. Banwart, G. J. 1981. Basic Food Microbiology. AVI Publishing Co., Westport, CT.
6. Basilico, J. C.,, M. Z. deBasilico,, C. Chiericatti,, and C. G. Vinderola. 2001. Characterization and control of thread mould in cheese. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 32: 419 423.
7. Bassette, R.,, and J. S. Acosta,. 1988. Composition of milk products, p. 39 79. In N. P. Wong (ed.), Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, NY.
8. Batish, V. K.,, H. Chander,, K. C. Zumdegni,, K. L. Bhatia,, and R. S. Singh. 1988. Antibacterial activity of lactoferrin against some common foodborne pathogenic organisms. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 43: 16 18.
9. Bills, D. D.,, M. E. Morgan,, L. M. Reddy,, and E. A. Day. 1965. Identification of compounds responsible for fruit flavor defect of experimental Cheddar cheeses. J. Dairy Sci. 48: 1168 1170.
10. Bramley, A. J.,, and C. H. McKinnon,. 1990. The microbiology of raw milk, p. 163 208. In R. K. Robinson (ed.), Dairy Microbiology, vol. 1. Elsevier Applied Science, New York, NY.
11. Bullerman, L. B.,, and F. J. Olivigni. 1974. Mycotoxin producing potential of molds isolated from Cheddar cheese. J. Food Sci. 39: 1166 1168.
12. Cappa, F.,, and P. F. Cocconcilli. 2001. Identification of fungi from dairy products by means of 18S rRNA analysis. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 69: 157 169.
13. Carić, M. 1994. Concentrated and Dried Dairy Products. VCH Publishers, Inc., New York, NY.
14. Carreira A.,, L. M. Ferreira,, and V. Loureiro. 2001. Production of brown tyrosine pigments by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. J. Appl. Microbiol. 90: 372 379.
15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Outbreak of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infection associated with the consumption of unpasteurized Mexican-style aged cheese—Illinois, March 2006-April 2007. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 57: 432435.
16. Cerning, J. 1990. Exocellular polysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 87: 113 130.
17. Cerning, J.,, C. Bouillanne,, M. Landon,, and M. Desmazeaud. 1992. Isolation and characterization of exopolysaccharides from slime-forming mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. J. Dairy Sci. 75: 692 699.
18. Chapman, H. R.,, and M. E. Sharpe,. 1990. Microbiology of cheese, p. 203 289. In R. K. Robinson (ed.), Dairy Microbiology, vol. 2. Elsevier Applied Science, New York, NY.
19. Chen, L.,, R. M. Daniel,, and T. Coolbear. 2003. Detection and impact of protease and lipase activities in milk and milk powders. Int. Dairy J. 13: 255 275.
20. Choudhery, A. K.,, and E. M. Mikolajcik. 1971. Activity of Bacillus cereus proteinases in milk. J. Dairy Sci. 53: 363 366.
21. Chrisope, G. L.,, and R. T. Marshall. 1976. Combined action of lipase and microbial phospholipase C on a model fat emulsion and raw milk. J. Dairy Sci. 59: 2024 2030.
22. Christen, G. L.,, and R. T. Marshall. 1985. Effect of histidine on thermostability of lipase and protease of Pseudomonas fluorescens 27. J. Dairy Sci. 68: 594 604.
23. Christian, J. H. B. 1980. Reduced water activity, p. 70 91. In International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ed.), Microbial Ecology of Foods, vol. 1. Academic Press, New York, NY.
24. Cousin, M. A. 1982. Presence and activity of psychrotrophic microorganisms in milk and dairy products: a review. J. Food Prot. 45: 172 207.
25. Cousin, M. A., 1989. Physical and biochemical effects of milk components, p. 205 225. In R. C. McKellar (ed.), Enzymes of Psychrotrophs in Raw Food. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
26. Cromie, S. J.,, T. W. Dommett,, and D. Schmidt. 1989. Changes in the microflora of milk with different pasteurization and storage conditions and aseptic packaging. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 44: 74 77.
27. Cromie, S. J.,, J. E. Giles,, and J. R. Dulley. 1987. Effect of elevated ripening temperatures on the microflora of Cheddar cheese. J. Dairy Res. 54: 69 76.
28. D’Amico, D. J.,, E. Groves,, and C.W. Donnelly. 2008. Low incidence of foodborne pathogens of concern in raw milk utilized for farmstead cheese production. J. Food Prot. 71: 1580 1589.
29. Dasgupta, A. R.,, and R. R. Hull. 1989. Late blowing of Swiss cheese: incidence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in manufacturing milk. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 44: 82 87.
30. Deeth, H. C.,, and C. H. Fitz-Gerald,. 1983. Lipolytic enzymes and hydrolytic rancidity in milk and milk products, p. 195 239. In P. F. Fox (ed.), Developments in Dairy Chemistry, Part II. Applied Science, London, United Kingdom.
31. Dionysius, D. A.,, P. A. Grieve,, and A. C. Vos. 1992. Studies on the lactoperoxidase system: reaction kinetics and antibacterial activity using two methods for hydrogen peroxide generation. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 72: 146 153.
32. Doyle, M. P.,, and E. H. Marth. 1975. Thermal inactivation of conidia from Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. I. Effects of moist heat, age of conidia, and sporulation medium. J. Milk Food Technol. 38: 678 682.
33. Dumont, J. P.,, G. Delespaul,, B. Miquot,, and J. Adda. 1977. Influence des bactéries psychrotrophes sur les qualités organoleptiques de fromages à pâte molle. Lait 57: 619 630.
34. Ewings, K. N.,, R. E. O’Conner,, and G. E. Mitchell. 1984. Proteolytic microflora of refrigerated raw milk in South East Queensland. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 39: 65 68.
35. Fairbairn, D. J.,, and B. A. Law. 1987. The effect of nitrogen and carbon sources on proteinase production by Pseudomonas fluorescens. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 62: 105 113.
36. Fernandez, L.,, J. A. Alvarez,, P. Palacios,, and C. San Jose. 1992. Proteolytic and lipolytic activities of Pseudomonas fluorescens grown in raw milk with variable iron content. Milchwissenschaft 47: 160 163.
37. Fernandez, L.,, C. San Jose,, and R. C. McKellar. 1990. Repression of Pseudomonas fluorescens extracellular lipase secretion by arginine. J. Dairy Res. 57: 69 78.
38. Fleet, G. H. 1990. Yeasts in dairy products. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 68: 199 211.
39. Fox, P. F.,, P. Power,, and T. M. Cogan,. 1989. Isolation and molecular characteristics, p. 57 120. In R. C. McKellar (ed.), Enzymes of Psychrotrophs in Raw Food. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
40. Frank, J. F.,, and R. A. Koffi. 1990. Surface-adherent growth of Listeria monocytogenes is associated with increased resistance to surfactant sanitizers and heat. J. Food Prot. 53: 560 564.
41. Frank, J. F.,, and E. H. Marth,. 1988. Fermentations,p. 656 738. In N. P. Wong (ed.), Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry, 3rd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, NY.
42. Frank, J. F.,, E. H. Marth,, and N. F. Olson. 1977. Survival of enteropathogenic and non-pathogenic Escherichia coli during the manufacture of Camembert cheese. J. Food Prot. 40: 835 842.
43. Frank, J. F.,, E. H. Marth,, and N. F. Olson. 1978. Behavior of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli during manufacture and ripening of brick cheese. J. Food Prot. 41: 111 115.
44. Garcia, M. L.,, B. Sanz,, P. Garcia-Collia,, and J. A. Ordonez. 1989. Activity and thermostability of the extracellular lipases and proteinases from pseudomonads isolated from raw milk. Milchwissenschaft 44: 547 560.
45. Griffiths, M. W. 1989. Effect of temperature and milk fat on extracellular enzyme synthesis by psychrotrophic bacteria during growth in milk. Milchwissenschaft 44: 539 543.
46. Griffiths, M. W.,, and J. D. Phillips. 1990. Incidence, source and some properties of psychrotrophic Bacillus spp. found in raw and pasteurized milk. J. Soc. Dairy Technol. 43: 62 70.
47. Hanson, M. L.,, W. L. Wendorff,, and K. B. Houck. 2005. Effect of heat treatment of milk on activation of Bacillus spores. J. Food Prot. 68: 1484 1486.
48. Haryani, S.,, N. Datta,, A. J. Elliot,, and H. C. Deeth. 2003. Production of proteinases by psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk stored at low temperature. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 58: 15 20.
49. Herlin, A. H.,, and A. Christansson. 1993. Cheese-blowing anaerobic spores in bulk milk from loose-housed and tied dairy cows. Milchwissenschaft 48: 686 689.
50. Hocking, A. D.,, and M. Faedo. 1992. Fungi causing thread mould spoilage of vacuum packaged Cheddar cheese during maturation. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 16: 123 130.
51. Hogarty, S. L.,, and J. F. Frank. 1982. Low-temperature activity of lactic streptococci isolated from cultured buttermilk. J. Food Prot. 43: 1208 1211.
52. Horwood, J. F.,, W. Stark,, and R. R. Hull. 1987. A “fermented, yeasty” flavour defect in Cheddar cheese. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 42: 25 26.
53. Hull, R.,, S. Toyne,, I. Haynes,, and F. Lehman. 1992. Thermoduric bacteria: a re-emerging problem in cheesemaking. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 47: 91 94.
54. Hull, R. R.,, A. V. Roberts,, and J. J. Mayes. 1983. The association of Lactobacillus caseii with a soft-body defect in commercial Mozzarella cheese. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 22: 78 80.
55. Jaspe, A.,, P. Palacios,, P. Matias,, L. Fernandez,, and C. Sanjose. 1994. Proteinase activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens grown in cold milk supplemented with nitrogen and carbon sources. J. Dairy Sci. 77: 923 929.
56. Jaspe, A.,, P. Oviedo,, L. Fernandez,, P. Palacios,, and C. Sanjose. 1995. Cooling raw milk: change in the spoilage potential of contaminating Pseudomonas. J. Food Prot. 58: 915 921.
57. Jayarao, B. M.,, S. C. Donaldson,, B. A. Straley,, A. A. Sawant,, N. V. Hegdeand,, and J. L. Brown. 2006. A survey of foodborne pathogens in bulk tank milk and raw milk consumption among farm families in Pennsylvania. J. Dairy Sci. 89: 2451 2458.
58. Jenness, R., 1988. Composition of milk, p. 1 38. In N. P. Wong (ed.), Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, NY.
59. Kalogridou-Vassiliadou, D. 1992. Biochemical activities of Bacillus species isolated from flat sour evaporated milk. J. Dairy Sci. 75: 2681 2686.
60. Karns, J. S.,, J. S. Van Kessel,, B. J. McCluskey,, and M. L. Perdue. 2005. Prevalence of Salmonella enterica in bulk tank milk from US dairies as determined by polymerase chain reaction. J. Dairy Sci. 88: 3475 3479.
61. Karns, J. S.,, J. S. Van Kessel,, B. J. McClusky,, and M. L. Perdue. 2007. Incidence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and E. coli virulence factors in US bulk tank milk as determined by polymerase chain reaction. J. Dairy Sci. 90: 3212 3219.
62. Kosikowski, F. V., 1982. Cheese and Fermented Milk Foods, 2nd ed. F. V. Kosikowski, and Associates, Brooktondale, NY.
63. Kosse, D.,, H. Seiler,, R. Amann,, W. Ludwig,, and S. Scherer. 1997. Identification of yoghurt-spoiling yeasts with 18s rRNA oligonucleotide probes. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 20: 468 480.
64. Kroll, S., 1989. Thermal stability, p. 121 152. In R. C. McKellar (ed.), Enzymes of Psychrotrophs in Raw Food. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
65. Kumura, H.,, K. Mikawa,, and Z. Saito. 1993. Influence of milk proteins on the thermostability of the lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens 33. J. Dairy Sci. 76: 2164 2167.
66. Kure, C. F.,, E. Borch,, I. Karlsson,, J. P. Homleid,, and S. Langsrud. 2008. Use of selective agar medium CREAD for monitoring the level of airborne spoilage moulds in cheese production. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 122: 29 34.
67. Lafarge, V.,, J.-C. Ogier,, V. Girard,, V. Maladen,, J.-Y. Leveau,, A. Gruss,, and A. Delacroix-Buchet. 2004. Raw cow milk bacterial population shifts attributable to refrigeration. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 5644 5650.
68. Lalaye, L. C.,, R. E. Simard,, B.-H. Lee,, R. A. Holley,, and R. N. Giroux. 1987. Involvement of heterofermentative lactobacilli in development of open texture in cheeses. J. Food Prot. 50: 1009 1012.
69. Law, B. A. 1979. Reviews of the progress of dairy science: enzymes of psychrotrophic bacteria and their effects on milk and milk products. J. Dairy Res. 46: 573 588.
70. Law, B. A.,, C. M. Cousins,, M. E. Sharpe,, and F. L. Davies,. 1979. Psychrotrophs and their effects on milk and dairy products, p. 137 152. In A. D. Russell, and R. Fuller (ed.), Cold Tolerant Microbes in Spoilage and the Environment. Academic Press, New York, NY.
71. Law, B. A.,, M. E Sharpe,, and H. R. Chapman. 1976. Effect of lipolytic Gram negative psychrotrophs in stored milk on the development of rancidity in Cheddar cheese. J. Dairy Res. 43: 459 468.
72. Le Bourhis, A.-G.,, K. Saunier,, J. Doré,, J.-P. Carlier,, J.-F. Chamba,, M.-R. Popoff,, and J.-L. Tholozan. 2005. Development and validation of PCR primers to assess the diversity of Clostridium spp. in cheese by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 29 38.
73. LeJeune, J. T.,, and P. J. Rajala-Schultz. 2009. Unpasteurized milk: a continued public health threat. Clin. Infect. Dis. 48: 93 100.
74. Liewen, M. B.,, and E. H. Marth. 1985. Growth and inhibition of microorganisms in the presence of sorbic acid: a review. J. Food Prot. 48: 364 375.
75. Liu, S.,, and M. Tsao. 2009. Inhibition of spoilage yeasts in cheese by killer Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 131: 280 282.
76. Ma, Y.,, D. M. Barbano,, and M. Santos. 2003. Effect of CO 2 addition to raw milk on proteolysis and lipolysis at 4°C. J. Dairy Sci. 86: 1616 1631.
77. Marks, N. E.,, A. S. Grandison,, and M. J. Lewis. 2001. Challenge testing of the lactoperoxidase system in pasteurized milk. J. Appl. Microbiol. 91: 735 741.
78. Marth, E. H.,, C. M. Capp,, L. Hasenzahl,, H. W. Jackson,, and R. V. Hussong. 1966. Degradation of potassium sorbate by Penicillium species. J. Dairy Sci. 49: 1197 1205.
79. Martin, J. H.,, D. P. Stahly,, W. J. Harper,, and I. A. Gould. 1962. Sporeforming microorganisms in selected milk supplies, p. 295 304. Proceedings of the XVIth International Dairy Congress, vol. C. International Dairy Federation, Brussels, Belgium.
80. Massa, S.,, F. Gardini,, M. Sinigaglia,, and M. E. Guerzoni. 1992. Klebsiella pneumoniae as a spoilage organism in Mozzarella cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 75: 1411 1414.
81. Masson, P. L.,, and J. F. Heremans. 1971. Lactoferrin in milk from different species. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 39B: 119 129.
82. McKellar, R. C. 1982. Factors influencing the production of extracellular proteinase by Pseudomonas fluorescens. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 53: 305 316.
83. McKellar, R. C., 1989. Regulation and control of synthesis, p. 153 172. In R. C. McKellar (ed.), Enzymes of Psychrotrophs in Raw Foods. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
84. McKellar, R. C.,, and H. Cholette. 1986. Possible role of calcium in the formation of active extracellular proteinase by Pseudomonas fluorescens. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 60: 37 44.
85. McKellar, R. C.,, K. Shamsuzzaman,, C. San Jose,, and H. Cholette. 1987. Influence of iron (iii) and pyoverdine, a siderophore produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens B52, on its extracellular proteinase and lipase production. Arch. Microbiol. 147: 225 230.
86. Meer, R. R.,, J. Baker,, F. W. Bodyfelt,, and M. W. Griffiths. 1991. Psychrotrophic Bacillus spp. in fluid milk products: a review. J. Food Prot. 54: 969 979.
87. Melilli, C.,, D. M. Barbano,, M. Cacamo,, M. A. Calvo,, G. Schembari,, and G. Licitra. 2004. Influence of brine concentration, brine temperature, and presalting on early gas defect in raw milk pasta filata cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 87: 3648 3657.
88. Mikolojcik, E. M.,, and N. T. Simon. 1978. Heat resistant psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk and their growth at 7°C. J. Food Prot. 41: 93 95.
89. Morgan, M. E. 1976. The chemistry of some microbially induced flavor defects in milk and dairy foods. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 18: 953 965.
90. Morse, P. M.,, H. Jackson,, C. H. McNaughton,, A. G. Leggatt,, G. B. Landerkin,, and C. K. Johns. 1968. Investigation of factors contributing to the bacteria count of bulk tank milk. II. Bacteria in milk from individual cows. J. Dairy Sci. 51: 1188 1191.
91. Mosteller, T. M.,, and J. R. Bishop. 1993. Sanitizer efficacy against attached bacteria in milk biofilm. J. Food Prot. 56: 34 41.
92. Mottar, J. F., 1989. Effect on the quality of dairy products, p. 227 243. In R. C. McKellar (ed.), Enzymes of Psychrotrophs in Raw Food. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
93. Muir, D. D., 1989. The microbiology of heat treated fluid milk products, p. 209 270. In R. K. Robinson (ed.), Dairy Microbiology, vol. 1. Elsevier Applied Science, New York, NY.
94. Myhara, R. M.,, and B. Skura. 1990. Centroid search optimization of cultural conditions affecting the production of extracellular proteinase by Pseudomonas fragi ATCC 4973. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 69: 530 538.
95. Nashif, S. A.,, and F. E. Nelson. 1953. The lipase of Pseudomonas fragi. III. Enzyme action in cream and butter. J. Dairy Sci. 36: 481 488.
96. Oliver, S. P.,, K. J. Boor,, S. C. Murphy,, and S. E. Murinda. 2009. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 6: 793 806.
97. Phillips, J. D.,, and M. W. Griffiths. 1986. Factors contributing to the seasonal variation of Bacillus species in pasteurized products. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 61: 275 285.
98. Pintado, C. M. B. S.,, M. A. S. S. Ferreira,, and I. Sousa. 2010. Control of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms from cheese surface by whey protein films containing malic acid, nisin and natamycin. Food Control 21: 240 246.
99. Reddy, M. C.,, D. D. Bills,, R. C. Lindsay,, and L. M. Libbey. 1968. Ester production by Pseudomonas fragi. I. Identification and quantification of some esters produced in milk cultures. J. Dairy Sci. 51: 656 659.
100. Reimerdes, E. H., 1982. Changes in the proteins of raw milk during storage, p 271. In P. F. Fox (ed.), Developments in Dairy Chemistry, part I. Applied Science, London, United Kingdom.
101. Rengipat, S.,, and E. A. Johnson. 1989. Characterization of a Lactobacillus strain producing white crystals on Cheddar cheese. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56: 2579 2582.
102. Rohm, H.,, F. Eliskases-Lechner,, and M. Bräuer. 1992. Diversity of yeasts in selected dairy products. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 72: 370 376.
103. Rosen, B.,, U. Merin,, and I. Rosenthal. 1989. Evaluation of clostridia in raw milk. Milchwissenschaft 44: 356 357.
104. Rosen, B.,, G. Popel,, and I. Rosenthal. 1990. The affinity of Clostridium tyrobutyricum to casein in raw milk. Milchwissenschaft 45: 152 154.
105. Rowe, M. T. 1990. Growth and extracellular enzyme production by psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk stored at low temperature. Milchwissenschaft 45: 495 499.
106. Russell, H. L. 1885. Gas producing bacteria and the relation of the same to cheese, p. 139 150. In Wisconsin Agricultural Experimental Station 12th Annual Report.
107. Rutzinski, J. L.,, E. H. Marth,, and N. F. Olson. 1979. Behavior of Enterobacter aerogenes and Hania species during the manufacture and ripening of Camembert cheese. J. Food Prot. 42: 790 793.
108. Schröder, M. J. A. 1984. Origins and levels of post pasteurization contamination of milk in the dairy and their effects of keeping quality. J. Dairy Res. 51: 59 67.
109. Shannon, E. L.,, N. F. Olson,, and J. H. von Elbe. 1969. Effect of lactic starter culture on pink discoloration and oxidation-reduction potential in Italian cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 52: 1557 1561.
110. Seifu, E.,, E. M. Buys,, and E. F. Donkin. 2005. Significance of the lactoperoxidase system in the dairy industry and its potential applications: a review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 16: 137 154.
111. Sheldeman, P.,, K. Goossens,, M. Rodriguez-Diaz,, A. Pil,, J. Goris,, L. Herman,, P. de Vos,, N. A. Logan,, and M. Heyndrickx. 2004. Paenibacillus lactis sp. nov. isolated from raw and heat treated milk. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54: 885 891.
112. Sheldeman, P.,, A. Pil,, L. Herman,, P. de Vos,, and M. Hendrickx. 2005. Incidence and diversity of potentially highly heat resistant spores isolated at dairy farms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 1480 1494.
113. Shipe, W. F.,, R. Bassette,, D. D. Deane,, W. L. Dinkley,, E. G. Hammond,, W. J. Harper,, D. H. Klein,, M. E. Morgan,, J. H. Nelson,, and R. A. Scanlan. 1978. Off flavors in milk: nomenclature, standards, and bibliography. J. Dairy Sci. 61: 856 869.
114. Stead, D. 1986. Microbial lipases: their characteristics, role in food spoilage and industrial uses. J. Dairy Res. 53: 481 505.
115. Stepaniak, L.,, E. Zakrzewski,, and T. Sorhaug. 1991. Inactivation of heat-stable proteinase from Pseudomonas fluorescens P1 at pH 4.5 and 56EC. Milchwissenshaft 46: 139 142.
116. Su, Y. C.,, and S. C. Ingham. 2000. Influence of milk centrifugation, brining and ripening conditions in preventing gas formation by Clostridium spp. in Gouda cheese. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 54: 147 154.
117. Suhren, G., 1989. Producer microorganisms, p. 3 34. In R. C. McKellar (ed.), Enzymes of Psychrotrophs in Raw Foods. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
118. te Giffel, M. C. T.,, A. Wagendorp,, A. Herrewegh,, and F. Driehuis. 2002. Bacterial spores in silage and raw milk. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 81: 625 630.
119. Ternstrom, A.,, M. A. Lindberg,, and G. Molin. 1993. Classification of the spoilage flora of raw and pasteurized bovine milk, with special reference to Pseudomonas and Bacillus. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 75: 25 34.
120. Thomas, S. B. 1966. Sources, incidence, and significance of psychrotrophic bacteria in milk. Milchwissenschaft 21: 270 275.
121. Thomas, S. B.,, and B. F. Thomas. 1973. Psychrotrophic bacteria in refrigerated bulk-collected raw milk. Part I. Dairy Ind. 38: 11 15.
122. Thualt, D.,, E. Beliard,, J. Je Guern,, and C.-M. Bourgeois. 1991. Inhibition of Clostridium tyrobutyricum by bacteriocin-like substances produced by lactic acid bacteria. J. Dairy Sci. 74: 1145 1150.
123. Torrey, G. S.,, and E. H. Marth. 1977. Isolation and toxicity of molds from foods stored in homes. J. Food Prot. 40: 187 190.
124. Tsai, W.-Y. J.,, M. B. Liewen,, and L. Bullerman. 1988. Toxicity and sorbate sensitivity of molds isolated from surplus commodity cheese. J. Food Prot. 51: 457 462.
125. Turner, K. W.,, and T. D. Thomas. 1980. Lactose fermentation in Cheddar cheese and the effect of salt. New Zealand J. Dairy Sci. Technol. 15: 265 276.
126. Van Kessel, J. S.,, J. S. Karns,, L. Gorski,, B. J. McCluskey,, and M. L. Perdue. 2004. Prevalence of Salmonellae, Listeria monocytogenes, and fecal coliforms in bulk tank milk on U.S. dairies. J. Dairy Sci. 87: 2822 2830.
127. Vilafafila, A.,, J. D. Frias,, P. Abad,, and C. Rodriguez-Fernandez. 1993. Extracellular proteinase activity from psychrotrophic Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar 1 ( Ps. fluorescens NC1). Milchwissenschaft 48: 435 438.
128. Wang, J. J.,, and J. F. Frank. 1981. Characterization of psychrotrophic bacterial contamination of commercial buttermilk. J. Dairy Sci. 64: 2154 2160.
129. Wendorff, W. L.,, W. E. Riha,, and E. Muehlenkamp. 1993. Growth of molds on cheese treated with heat or liquid smoke. J. Food Prot. 56: 963 966.
130. Westall, S.,, and O. Liltenborg. 1998. Spoilage yeasts of decorated soft cheese packed in modified atmosphere. Food Microbiol. 15: 243 249.
131. Williams, A. G.,, and S. E. Withers. 2007. Tyrosine metabolism in pigment-forming Yarrow lipolytica strains isolated from English and European speciality mould-ripened cheese exhibiting a brown discolouration defect. Int. J. Dairy Technol. 60: 165 174.
132. Wolfson, L. M.,, and S. S. Sumner. 1993. Antibacterial activity of the lactoperoxidase system: a review. J. Food Prot. 56: 887 892.
133. Yan, L.,, B. E. Langlois,, J. O’Leary,, and C. Hicks. 1983. Effect of storage conditions of grade A raw milk on proteolysis and cheese yield. Milchwissenschaft 38: 715 719.
134. Zelent, B.,, K. A. Sharp,, and J. M. Vanderkooi. 2010. Differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence study of lactoperoxidase as a function of guanidinium-HCl, urea, and pH. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1804: 1508 1515.
135. Zimmerman, S.,, I. J. Jeon,, J. E. Shirley,, L. McVay,, E. Ferdinand,, D. Sukup,, and K. A. Schmidt. 2008. Bacterial degradation of milk components is affected by storage temperature and time. Report of Progress 881. Kansas State University Agricultural Experimental Station and Cooperative Extension Service. http://en.engormix.com/MA-dairy-cattle/articles/bacterial-degradation-milk-components-t1098/p0.htm

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 7.1

Some defects of fluid milk that result from microbial growth

Citation: Nsofor O, Frank J. 2013. Milk and Dairy Products, p 169-185. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 7.2

Some defects of cheese that result from microbial growth

Citation: Nsofor O, Frank J. 2013. Milk and Dairy Products, p 169-185. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 7.3

Approximate concentrations of some nutritional components of milk

Citation: Nsofor O, Frank J. 2013. Milk and Dairy Products, p 169-185. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 7.4

Approximate composition, pH, and a of selected dairy products

Citation: Nsofor O, Frank J. 2013. Milk and Dairy Products, p 169-185. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch7

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error