1887

Chapter 6 : A Torrent of Viral Isolates: the Early Years of Diagnostic Virology

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $7.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

A Torrent of Viral Isolates: the Early Years of Diagnostic Virology, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818586/9781555818586_CH06-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818586/9781555818586_CH06-2.gif

Abstract:

Neonatal and infant mice, easily maintained in the laboratory, were found to be susceptible to certain viruses such as arboviruses and coxsackieviruses. Tissue culture systems were utilized to study a torrent of human viral isolates and their relationships to human disease. Public health virology laboratories served to introduce and refine techniques in diagnostic virology that would become essential to hospital laboratories charged with the care of individual patients at the time of their illness. Hsiung contributed to the advancement of diagnostic virology with numerous publications concerning the functions of the diagnostic lab and individual reports on viral isolates. She developed several animal models of human diseases, including transplacental transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the guinea pig as a model of congenital human CMV infection. Despite the number of enteric viral isolates in tissue culture, the isolation of the most significant viral causes of gastroenteritis would await further technological advances such as immunoelectron microscopy. While attention was focused on disease associations of viruses and clinical textbooks were organized by viral diseases of organ systems, the increasing amount of information about the biological and physical characteristics of viral isolates spurred taxonomic formulations. The next era following the explosion of viral isolations in tissue culture would make use of immunological, chemical, and electron microscopic techniques.

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. A Torrent of Viral Isolates: the Early Years of Diagnostic Virology, p 157-196. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch6

Key Concept Ranking

Central Nervous System Diseases
0.5314488
Human respiratory syncytial virus
0.52405876
Human Infectious Diseases
0.43603817
0.5314488
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Werner and Gertrude Henle of CHOP. Werner Henle was the grandson of Jakob Henle, the anatomist. Werner and Gertrude Henle were trained in medicine in Germany and immigrated to the United States in 1936 and 1937, respectively. At CHOP, where Werner established a virology laboratory, they were affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania. They had long and productive careers in which they made contributions to basic and diagnostic virology. (Courtesy of the Fritz Henle estate.) doi:10.1128/9781555818586.ch6.f1

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. A Torrent of Viral Isolates: the Early Years of Diagnostic Virology, p 157-196. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

G.-D. Hsiung in the Section of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine at Yale University, 1959. Seen at the end of the front row on the right, she stands next to Robert Green, her long-time colleague. Next to him is John Paul, the chairman and polio scholar. Dorothy Horstmann, with whom Hsiung established the diagnostic virology laboratory at the Yale-New Haven Hospital a year later, is in the front row, third from the left. (Yale University, Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney/Medical Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555818586.ch6.f2

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. A Torrent of Viral Isolates: the Early Years of Diagnostic Virology, p 157-196. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

G.-D. Hsiung with the 1979 diagnostic virology class. Given annually or biannually for many years, the diagnostic virology class was an intensive 2-week course with lectures and hands-on laboratory sessions. The photograph shows Hsiung (front row, center) and Kenneth McIntosh to her left, with students, faculty, and staff at the VAMC, West Haven, CT. The authors and the writer of the Foreword are pictured: John Booss (second row, right), Marilyn J. August (third row, left), and Marie L. Landry (last row, third from left). (Personal collection, Marilyn J. August.) doi:10.1128/9781555818586.ch6.f3

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. A Torrent of Viral Isolates: the Early Years of Diagnostic Virology, p 157-196. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Chen Pien Li and Morris Schaeffer (seated) of the CDC. They are shown conducting polio research at the CDC location in Montgomery, AL, during a 1953 study. Schaeffer was the first director of CDC’s virology labs from 1949 until 1959, when they were still in Montgomery. In 1959 the labs were moved to Atlanta, GA. (Courtesy of the Public Health Image Library, CDC.) doi:10.1128/9781555818586.ch6.f4

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. A Torrent of Viral Isolates: the Early Years of Diagnostic Virology, p 157-196. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Walter Dowdle of the CDC. A distinguished virologist, Dowdle was with the CDC for 33 years and is a former deputy director. Among Dowdle’s scientific interests are influenza, polio, HIV, and malaria. (Courtesy of the Public Health Image Library, CDC.) doi:10.1128/9781555818586.ch6.f5

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. A Torrent of Viral Isolates: the Early Years of Diagnostic Virology, p 157-196. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

Charles Armstrong of the NIH. Armstrong made numerous contributions to virology, including the understanding of polio, St. Louis encephalitis, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis. He was the first chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases at the NIH. Here he established the philosophy of the LID of fully working out an infectious disease process from agent isolation through prevention. (Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine.) doi:10.1128/9781555818586.ch6.f6

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. A Torrent of Viral Isolates: the Early Years of Diagnostic Virology, p 157-196. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 7
Figure 7

Robert J. Huebner of the NIH. Although without formal scientific research training, Huebner was hired by Charles Armstrong at the NIH. Huebner quickly demonstrated a remarkable capacity to grasp the fundamental concepts of epidemiology and laboratory virology and their application to human viral diseases. He became the leader of the LID. A man of diverse interests, he is shown here on his farm with a prize Angus bull. (Courtesy of the Office of History, NIH.) doi:10.1128/9781555818586.ch6.f7

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. A Torrent of Viral Isolates: the Early Years of Diagnostic Virology, p 157-196. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 8
Figure 8

Robert J. Huebner (left) and Wallace Rowe of the NIH. Rowe made numerous contributions to human virology and to experimental viral oncology. Among these contributions were the isolations of adenovirus and CMV. (Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine.) doi:10.1128/9781555818586.ch6.f8

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. A Torrent of Viral Isolates: the Early Years of Diagnostic Virology, p 157-196. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9
Figure 9

Robert Chanock (left) and Robert J. Huebner of the NIH. Chanock made major contributions to the understanding of human viral respiratory disease, starting with the isolation of RSV. On Huebner’s move to the NCI, Chanock took over as the leader of the LID. (Courtesy of the Office of History, NIH.) doi:10.1128/9781555818586.ch6.f9

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. A Torrent of Viral Isolates: the Early Years of Diagnostic Virology, p 157-196. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 10
Figure 10

Coronavirus, negative-contrast electron micrograph. The virus is named for the corona-like or crown spikes seen electron microscopically. This type of virus was first isolated from the human common cold using nasal and tracheal organ cultures. Magnification, approximately ×60,000. (Courtesy of Public Health Images Library, CDC.) doi:10.1128/9781555818586.ch6.f10

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. A Torrent of Viral Isolates: the Early Years of Diagnostic Virology, p 157-196. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818586.ch06
1. Almeida J. D., Berry D. M., Cunningham C. H., Hamre D., Hofstad M. S., Mallucci L., McIntosh K., Tyrrell D. A. J. 1968. Coronaviruses. Nature 220:650.
2. Almeida J. D., Tyrrell D. A. J. 1967. The morphology of three previously uncharacterized human respiratory viruses that grow in organ culture. J. Gen. Virol. 1:175178.
3. American Association of Immunologists. 2002. In memoriam: Klaus Hummeler. AAI Newsl. August 2002:15.
4. Andrewes C. H. 1954. Nomenclature of viruses. Nature 173:620621.
5. Andrewes C. H., Bang F. B., Burnet F. M. 1955. A short description of the Myxovirus group (influenza and related viruses). Virology 1:176184.
6. Andrewes C. H., Bang F. B., Chanock R. M., Zhdanov V. M. 1959. Parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, and 3: suggested names for recently described myxoviruses. Virology 8:129130.
7. Armstrong C. R., Lillie D. 1934. Experimental lymphocytic choriomeningitis of monkeys and mice produced by a virus encountered in studies of the 1933 St. Louis epidemic. Public Health Rep. 49:10191027.
8. Beem M., Wright F. H., Hamre D., Egerer R., Oehme M. 1960. Association of the chimpanzee coryza agent with acute respiratory disease in children. N. Engl. J. Med. 263:523530.
9. Beeman E. A. 2007. Charles Armstrong, M.D.: a Biography. National Institutes of Health, Washington, DC. http://history.nih.gov/research/downloads/ArmstrongBiography.pdf. Accessed 9 September 2011.
10. Beeman E. A. 2005. Robert J. Huebner, M.D.: a Virologist’s Odyssey. National Institutes of Health, Washington, DC. Online: http://history.nih.gov/research/downloads/HuebnerBiography.pdf. Accessed 9 September 2011.
11. Bell J. A., Huebner R. J., Rosen L., Rowe W. P., Cole R. M., Mastrota F. M., Floyd T. M., Chanock R. M., Shvedoff R. A. 1961. Illness and microbial experiences of nursery children at Junior Village. Am. J. Hyg. 74:267292.
12. Buckley S. M. 1959. Propagation, cytopathogenicity, and hemagglutination-hemadsorption of some arthropod-borne viruses in tissue culture. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 81:172187.
13. Buckley S. M. 1970. Isolation and antigenic characterization of Lassa virus. Nature 227:174.
14. Calisher C. H. 1996. Telford H. Work—a tribute. J. Am. Mosquito Control Assoc. 12:385395.
15. Calisher C. H. 2005. A very brief history of arbovirology, focusing on contributions by workers of the Rockefeller Foundation. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 5:202211.
16. Casals J., Brown L. V. 1954. Hemagglutination with arthropod-borne viruses. J. Exp. Med. 99:429449.
17. Chanock R., Roizman B., Myers R. 1957. Recovery from infants with respiratory illness of a virus related to chimpanzee coryza agent (CCA). I. Isolation, properties and characterization. Am J. Hyg. 66:281290.
18. Chanock R. M., Sabin A. B. 1953. The hemagglutinin of St. Louis encephalitis virus. J. Immunol. 70:271285.
19. Chanock R. M. 1956. Association of a new type of cytopathogenic myxovirus with infantile croup. J. Exp. Med. 104:555576.
20. Chanock R. M., Parrott R. H., Cook K., Andrews B. E., Bell J. A., Reichelderfer T., Kapikian A. Z., Mastrota F. M., Huebner R. J. 1958. Newly recognized myxoviruses from children with respiratory disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 258:207213.
21. Chanock R. M., Vargosko A., Luckey A., Cook M. K., Kapikian A. Z., Reichelderfer T., Parrott R. H. 1959. Association of hemadsorption viruses with respiratory illness in childhood. JAMA 169:548553.
22. Chanock R. M., Kim H. W., Vargosko A. J., Deleva A., Johnson K. M., Cumming C., Parrott R. H. 1961. Respiratory syncytial virus. I. Virus recovery and other observations during 1960 outbreak of bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and minor respiratory diseases in children. JAMA 176:647653.
23. Chanock R. M., Hayflick L., Barile M. F. 1962. Growth on artificial medium of an agent associated with atypical pneumonia and its identification as a PPLO. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 48:4149.
24. Chanock R. M., Dienes L., Eaton M. D., Edward D. G., Freundt E. A., Hayflick L., Hers J. F., Jensen K. E., Liu C., Marmion B. P., Morton H. E., Mufson M. A., Smith P. F., Somerson N. L., Taylor-Robinson D. 1963. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: proposed nomenclature for atypical pneumonia organism (Eaton agent). Science 140:662.
25. Chanock R. M., Parrott R. H. 1965. Acute respiratory disease in infancy and childhood: present understanding and prospects for prevention: E. Mead Johnson Address, October, 1964. Pediatrics 36:2139.
26. Clarke D. H., Casals J. 1958. Techniques for hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition with arthropod-borne viruses. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 7:561573.
27. Committee on the ECHO Viruses. 1955. Cytopathogenic human orphan (ECHO) viruses. Science 122:11871188.
28. Committee on the Enteroviruses, National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis. 1957. The enteroviruses. Am. J. Public Health 47:15561566.
29. Dalldorf G., Sickles G. M. 1948. An unidentified, filterable agent isolated from the feces of children with paralysis. Science 108:6162.
30. Deinhardt F., Henle G. 1957. Studies on the viral spectra of tissue culture lines of human cells. J. Immunol. 79:6067.
31. Dowdle W. R. 1994. Walter R. Dowdle, Ph.D., in honor of 33 years’ service at CDC. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 43:227.
32. Dulbecco R. 1952. Production of plaques in monolayer tissue cultures by single particles of an animal virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 38:747752.
33. Enders J. F., Weller T. H., Robbins F. C. 2009. Classic paper: how monolayer cell culture transformed diagnostic virology: a review of a classic paper and the developments that stemmed from it. Rev. Med. Virol. 19:241249.
34. Estola T. 1970. Coronaviruses. A new group of animal RNA viruses. Avian Dis. 14:330336.
35. Etheridge E. W. 1992. Sentinel for Health: a History of the Centers for Disease Control. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
36. Gale Group. 2010. Albert Sabin. Notable scientists: from 1900 to the present. Online. Gale Group, 2008. (Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Gale, Farmington Hills, MI, 2010.) http://galenet.galegroup.com/serviet/BioRC.
37. Gey G. O., Bang F. B., Gey M. K. 1954. Responses of a variety of normal and malignant cells to continuous cultivation, and some practical applications of these responses to problems in biology and disease. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 58:976999.
38. Gleaves C. A., Smith T. F., Shuster E. A., Pearson G. R. 1984. Rapid detection of cytomegalovirus in MRC-5 cells inoculated with urine specimens by using low-speed centrifugation and monoclonal antibody to an early antigen. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19:917919.
39. Goldwasser R. A., Kissling R. E. 1958. Fluorescent antibody staining of street and fixed rabies virus antigens. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 98:219223.
40. Habel K. 1942. Transmission of rubella to Macacus mulatta monkeys. Public Health Rep. 57:11261139.
41. Habel K. 1945. Cultivation of mumps virus in the developing chick embryo and its application to studies of immunity to mumps in man. Public Health Rep. 60:201212.
42. Habel K. 1957. Rabies prophylaxis in man. Public Health Rep. 72:667673.
43. Habel K. 1968. The biology of viral carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 28:18251831.
43a. Hammon W. M. 1943. Encephalitis. Eastern and Western Equine and St. Louis Types, as observed in 1941 in Washington, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. JAMA 121:560566.
44. Henderson J. R., Taylor R. M. 1959. Arthropod-borne virus plaques in agar overlaid tube cultures. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 101:257259.
45. Henle G., Henle W., Harris S. 1947. The serological differentiation of mumps complement-fixation antigens. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 64:290295.
46. Henle G., Henle W. 1949. The diagnosis of mumps, p. 15–24. In F. L. Horsfall, Jr. (ed.), Diagnosis of Viral and Rickettsial Infection. Columbia University Press, New York, NY.
47. Henle G., Deinhardt F. 1957. The establishment of strains of human cells in tissue culture. J. Immunol. 79:5459.
48. Henle W., Wiener M. 1944. Complement fixation antigens of influenza viruses type A and B. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 57:176179.
49. Hilleman M. R., Werner J. H. 1954. Recovery of new agent from patients with acute respiratory illness. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 85:183188.
50. Hoorn B., Tyrrell D. A. J. 1965. On the growth of certain “newer” respiratory viruses in organ cultures. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 46:109118.
51. Horsfall F. L.Jr. 1949. Introduction, p. 3–4. In F. L. Horsfall, Jr. (ed.), Diagnosis of Viral and Rickettsial Infections. Columbia University Press, New York, NY.
52. Horstmann D. M., Hsiung G. D. 1965. Principles of diagnostic virology, p. 405424. In F. L. Horsfall, Jr., and I. Tamm (ed.), Viral and Rickettsial Infections of Man, 4th ed. J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, PA.
53. Horta-Barbosa L., Fuccillo D. A., Sever J. L., Zeman W. 1969. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: isolation of measles virus from a brain biopsy. Nature 221:974.
54. Howitt B. 1938. Recovery of the virus of equine encephalomyelitis from the brain of a child. Science 88:455456.
55. Hsiung G. D., Melnick J. L. 1955. Plaque formation with poliomyelitis, coxsackie, and orphan (echo) viruses in bottle cultures of monkey epithelial cells. Virology 1:533535.
56. Hsiung G. D., Melnick J. L. 1957. Morphologic characteristics of plaques produced on monkey kidney monolayer cultures by enteric viruses (poliomyelitis, coxasckie, and echo groups). J. Immunol. 78:128136.
57. Hsiung G. D. 1958. Some distinctive biological characteristics of ECHO-10 virus. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 99:387390.
58. Hsiung G. D. 1959. The use of agar overlay cultures for detection of new virus isolates. Virology 9:717719.
59. Hsiung G. D. 1961. Applications of primary cell cultures in the study of animal viruses. III. Biological and genetic studies of enteric viruses of man (enteroviruses). Yale J. Biol. Med. 33:359371.
60. Hsiung G. D., Gaylord W. H.Jr. 1961. The vacuolating virus of monkeys. I. Isolation, growth characteristics, and inclusion body formation. J. Exp. Med. 114:975986.
61. Hsiung G. D., Henderson J. R. 1964. Diagnostic Virology. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
62. Hsiung G. D. 1968. Latent virus infections in primate tissues with special reference to simian viruses. Bacteriol. Rev. 32:185205.
63. Hsiung G. D. 1980. Progress in clinical virology—1960–1980: a recollection of twenty years. Yale J. Biol. Med. 53:14.
64. Hsiung G. D. 1984. Diagnostic virology: from animals to automation. Yale J. Biol. Med. 57:727733.
65. Hsiung G. D., Fong C. K. Y., Landry M. L. 1994. Hsiung’s Diagnostic Virology as Illustrated by Light and Electron Microscopy, 4th ed. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
66. Huebner R. J., Stamps P., Armstrong C. 1946. Rickettsialpox—a newly recognized rickettsial disease. I. Isolation of the etiological agent. Public Health Rep. 61:16051682.
67. Huebner R. J., Jellison W. L., Pomerantz C. 1946. Rickettsialpox—a newly recognized rickettsial disease. IV. Isolation of a rickettsia apparently identical with the causative agent of rickettsialpox from Allodermanyssus sanguineus, a rodent mite. Public Health Rep. 61:16771682.
68. Huebner R. J., Jellison W. L., Armstrong C. 1947. Rickettsialpox—a newly recognized rickettsial disease. V. Recovery of Rickettsia akari from a house mouse (Mus musculus). Public Health Rep. 62:777780.
69. Huebner R. J., Jellison W. L., Beck M. D., Parker R. R., Shepard C. C. 1948. Q fever studies in southern California. I. Recovery of Rickettsia burnetii from raw milk. Public Health Rep. 63:214222.
70. Huebner R. J., Armstrong C., Beeman E. A., Cole R. M. 1950. Studies of coxsackie viruses. JAMA 144:609613.
71. Huebner R. J., Cole R. M., Beeman E. A., Bell J. A., Peers J. H. 1951. Herpangina: etiological studies of a specific infectious disease. JAMA 145:628633.
72. Huebner R. J., Beeman E. A., Cole R. M., Beigelman P. M., Bell J. A. 1952. The importance of coxsackie viruses in human disease, particularly herpangina and epidemic pleurodynia. N. Engl. J. Med. 247:249256.
73. Huebner R. J., Beeman E. A., Cole R. M., Beigelman P. M., Bell J. A. 1952. The importance of coxsackie viruses in human disease, particularly herpangina and epidemic pleurodynia (concluded). N. Engl. J. Med. 247:285289.
74. Huebner R. J., Rowe W. P., Ward T. G., Parrott R. H., Bell J. A. 1954. Adenoidal-pharyngeal-conjunctival agents. N. Engl. J. Med. 251:10771086.
75. Huebner R. J. 1957. The virologist’s dilemma. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 67:430438.
76. Huebner R. J. 1959. 70 newly recognized viruses in man. Public Health Rep. 74:6–12.
77. Huebner R. J., Todaro G. J. 1969. Oncogenes of RNA tumor viruses as determinants of cancer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 64:10871094.
78. Johnson H. N. 1991. Virologist and Naturalist with the Rockefeller Foundation and the California Department of Public Health. Oral history by S. Smith Hughes, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.
79. Kapikian A. Z., Bell J. A., Mastrota F. M., Johnson K. M., Huebner R. J., Chanock R. M. 1961. An outbreak of febrile illness and pneumonia associated with respiratory syncytial virus infection. Am. J. Hyg. 74:234248.
80. Kingston J. R., Chanock R. M., Mufson M. A., Hellman L. P., James W. D., Fox H. H., Manko M. A., Boyers J. 1961. Eaton agent pneumonia. JAMA 176:118123.
81. Landry M. L. 2006. Dr. Edith Hsiung remembered. J. Clin. Virol. 37:235236.
82. Leland D. S., Ginocchio C. C. 2007. Role of cell culture for virus detection in the Age of Technology. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 20:4978.
83. Lennette E. H., Schmidt N. J. (ed.). 1964. Diagnostic Procedures for Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, 3rd ed. American Public Health Association, Inc., New York, NY.
84. Lennette E. H. 1988. Pioneer of Diagnostic Virology with the California Department of Public Health. Oral history conducted in 1982, 1983, and 1986 by S. Hughes. Regional Oral History Office, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.
85. Levy J. A. 2006. Gertrude S. Henle (1912–2006). Virology 358:248250.
86. Ligon B. L. 1998. Robert M. Chanock, MD: a living legend in the war against viruses. Semin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 9:258269.
87. McIntosh K., Dees J. H., Becker W. B., Kapikian A. Z., Chanock R. M. 1967. Recovery in tracheal organ cultures of novel viruses from patients with respiratory disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 57:933940.
88. Morris J. A., Blount R. E.Jr., Savage R. E. 1956. Recovery of cytopathogenic agent from chimpanzees with coryza. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 92:544549.
89. Muckenfuss R. S., Armstrong C., McCordock H. A. 1933. Encephalitis: studies on experimental transmission. Public Health Rep. 48:13411343.
90. Noble H. B. 5 September 1998. Robert Huebner, 84, dies; found virus-cancer connections. New York Times Online. http://www.nytimes.com/1998/09/05.
91. Offit P. A. 2007. Vaccinated. One Man’s Quest To Defeat the World’s Deadliest Diseases. Harper Collins, New York, NY.
92. Payne F. E., Baublis J. V., Itabashi H. H. 1969. Isolation of measles virus from cell cultures of brain from a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 281:585589.
93. Reagan R. L. 1980. One Man’s Research: the Autobiography of Reginald L. Reagan. Dan River Press, Stafford, VA.
94. Robbins F. C., Enders J. F., Weller T. H. 1950. Cytopathogenic effect of poliomyelitis viruses in vitro on human embryonic tissues. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 75:370374.
95. Robbins F. C., Enders J. F., Weller T. H., Glorentiono G. L. 1951. Studies on the cultivation of poliomyelitis viruses in tissue culture. V. The direct isolation and serologic identification of virus strains in tissue culture from patients with nonparalytic and paralytic poliomyelitis. Am J. Hyg. 54:286293.
96. Roueché B. 1947. A reporter at large: the alerting of Mr. Pomerantz. The New Yorker 23(28):2837.
97. Roueché B. 1967. Eleven Blue Men and Other Narratives of Medical Detection. Little Brown, Boston, MA.
98. Rowe W. P., Huebner R. J., Gilmore L. K., Parrott R. H., Ward T. G. 1953. Isolation of a cytopathogenic agent from human adenoids undergoing spontaneous degeneration in tissue culture. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 84:570573.
99. Rowe W. P., Hartley J. W., Waterman S., Turner H. C., Huebner R. J. 1956. Cytopathogenic agent resembling human salivary gland virus recovered from tissue cultures of human adenoids. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 92:418424.
100. Rowe W. P., Huebner R. J., Bell J. A. 1957. Definition and outline of contemporary information on the adenovirus group. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 67:255261.
101. Rowe W. P., Murphy F. A., Bergold G. H., Casals J., Hotchin J., Johnson K. M., Lehmann-Grube F., Mims C. A., Traub E., Webb P. A. 1970. Arenoviruses: proposed name for a newly defined virus group. J. Virol. 5:651652.
102. Rowe W. P. 9 July 1983. Dr. Wallace P. Rowe, 57, dies; a leader in cancer research. Obituary, New York Times.
103. Sabin A. B. 1959. Reoviruses: a new group of respiratory and enteric viruses formerly classified as ECHO type 10 is described. Science 130:13871389.
104. Saxon W. 25 March 1997. Morris Schaeffer, 89, virologist who tightened controls on labs. New York Times Online. http://www.nytimes.com/1997/03/25/nyregion/morris-schaeffer-89-virologist-who-tightened-controls-on-labs.html.
105. Schaeffer M. 1965. Diagnosis of viral and rickettsial diseases, p. 237. In M. Sanders and E. H. Lennette (ed.), The First Annual Symposium on Applied Virology. Olympic Press, Sheboygan, WI.
106. Scherer W. F., Syverton J. T., Gey G. O. 1953. Studies on the propagation in vitro of poliomyelitis viruses. IV. Viral multiplication in a stable strain of human malignant epithelial cells (strain HeLa) derived from an epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix. J. Exp. Med. 97:695709.
107. Schmeck H. M.Jr. 4 March 1993. Albert Sabin, polio researcher, 86, dies. New York Times Online. http://www.nytimes.com/1993/03/04/us.
108. Shelokov A., Vogel J. E., Chi L. 1958. Hemadsorption (adsorption-hemagglutination) test for viral agents in tissue culture with special reference to influenza. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 97:802809.
109. Skloot R. 2010. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. Crown Publishers, New York, NY.
110. Sweet B. H., Hilleman M. R. 1960. The Vacuolating Virus, S.V.40. Exp. Biol. Med. 105:420427.
111. Task Force for Global Health. Accessed 23 January 2010. Walter Dowdle—global polio eradication. Task Force for Global Health, Decatur, GA. http://task-force.citizenstudio.com/our-team/our-staff/walter-dowdle-global-polio-eradication.
112. Tyrrell D. A. J., Bynoe M. L. 1965. Cultivation of a novel type of common-cold virus in organ cultures. Br. Med. J. 1:14671470.
113. Tyrrell D. A. J., Bynoe M. L. 1966. Cultivation of viruses from a high proportion of patients with colds. Lancet 287:7677.
114. Vogel J., Shelokov A. 1957. Adsorption-hemagglutination test for influenza virus in monkey kidney tissue culture. Science 126:358359.
115. Younger J. S. 1954. Monolayer tissue cultures I. Preparation and standardization of suspensions of trypsin-dispersed monkey kidney cells. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 85:202205.
116. zur Hausen H. 1980. Werner Henle 70 years. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 168:235237.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error