Chapter 8 : Immunological Memory: Ingenuity and Serendipity

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Immunological Memory: Ingenuity and Serendipity, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818586/9781555818586_CH08-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818586/9781555818586_CH08-2.gif


The continuing expansion of the diagnostic virologist’s armamentarium by electron and fluorescence microscopy resulted in a progressive unmasking of the virological causes of disease and more rapid diagnosis. The distinction between hepatitis A and B was made in the 1940s, yet identification of a cause of serum hepatitis, hepatitis B, awaited a serendipitous finding by serology in the 1960s. The diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in particular, and viruses in general, took a great leap forward with adaptation of a diagnostic technique known as radioimmunoassay (RIA), developed by Solomon Berson and Rosalyn Yalow to measure very small amounts of insulin. Both achievements, the discovery of the Australia antigen and the development of RIA, yielded Nobel prizes. Subsequently, enzyme immunoassays (EIA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and other immunological assays had major impacts on virological diagnosis. Yellowing of skin and conjunctivae must have been among the most observable signs of illness for millennia. A new form of jaundice, homologous serum jaundice, later termed serum hepatitis, was recognized as a complication of yellow fever vaccination in the 1930s. The remarkable excess of stable antigen conferring antigenic specificity, variably called Australia antigen, hepatitis-associated antigen, and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), offered unique diagnostic possibilities. When combined with the remarkable sensitivity of isotope-labeled reagents and the exquisite specificity of immunological recognition, the way was opened to establish sufficiently sensitive assays to screen the blood supply.

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. Immunological Memory: Ingenuity and Serendipity, p 249-292. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch8

Key Concept Ranking

Herpes simplex virus 1
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Jaundice. Yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes can be an indication of disease of the liver. Viral hepatitis, due to any of several agents, has been progressively defined as newer diagnostic techniques have been developed. In this photograph, yellowing of the sclerae (whites of the eyes) is evident. (Courtesy of the CDC, Public Health Images Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555818586.ch8.f1

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. Immunological Memory: Ingenuity and Serendipity, p 249-292. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

F. O. MacCallum. A pioneer in diagnostic virology, MacCallum set up the first general virus reference laboratory in Britain at Colindale in 1946 and coauthored the textbook in 1950. With G. M. Findlay, he made essential observations on homologous serum hepatitis and later devised the nomenclature which divided hepatitis into virus A (infectious) and virus B (homologous serum) hepatitis. (Courtesy of Health Protection Agency, United Kingdom.) doi:10.1128/9781555818586.ch8.f2

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. Immunological Memory: Ingenuity and Serendipity, p 249-292. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Winston Churchill (left) with Franklin Delano Roosevelt (center) and Joseph Stalin at Yalta in 1945. Previously, F. O. MacCallum was asked to offer an opinion as to whether Winston Churchill should receive immunization against yellow fever on a trip through the Middle East to Moscow. MacCallum counseled against the immunization, based on inadequate time for immunity to develop. He may have spared the Prime Minister exposure to hepatitis virus as a contaminant of the vaccine with potential consequences for impairing his capacity to lead the war effort. (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.) doi:10.1128/9781555818586.ch8.f3

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. Immunological Memory: Ingenuity and Serendipity, p 249-292. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Baruch Blumberg. While seeking polymorphisms of proteins in human sera, he and his colleagues encountered a unique antigen which they termed the Australia antigen because of its origin from an Australian aborigine. It was later determined to be the key to unlocking the puzzle of a major type of serum hepatitis. (Image credit: NASA.) doi:10.1128/9781555818586.ch8.f4

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. Immunological Memory: Ingenuity and Serendipity, p 249-292. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Rosalyn Yalow and Solomon Berson. Working as an intensely collaborative team, Yalow and Berson devised the RIA with the capacity to measure remarkably small amounts of antigen. It revolutionized many fields in biomedicine, including the capacity to measure the Australia antigen and the antibody against it. Yalow received the Nobel Prize alone in 1977, Solomon Berson having passed away in 1972. (Courtesy of the Mount Sinai Archives, New York, NY.) doi:10.1128/9781555818586.ch8.f5

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. Immunological Memory: Ingenuity and Serendipity, p 249-292. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

Creators of the ELISA, Eva Engvall and Peter Perlmann, and the EIA, Anton Schuurs and Bauke van Weemen. Standing left to right: Engvall, Schuurs, Perlmann, and van Weemen with Johannes Buttner, President of the German Society of Clinical Chemistry. (Courtesy of .) doi:10.1128/9781555818586.ch8.f6

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. Immunological Memory: Ingenuity and Serendipity, p 249-292. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 7
Figure 7

Creators of the Western blot, Harry Towbin and Julian Gordon. With T. Staehelin, Towbin and Gordon developed immunoblotting, or Western blotting. It combined the resolving power of electrophoretic separation of proteins in gels and the sensitivity of immunochemical reactions. Immensely useful in many scientific fields, the technique was applied to diagnostic virology, such as for diagnosis of HIV. In this photograph of Julian Gordon’s group in 1979, Julian Gordon is center front and Harry Towbin is at the rear on the right. (Courtesy of Julian Gordon.) doi:10.1128/9781555818586.ch8.f7

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. Immunological Memory: Ingenuity and Serendipity, p 249-292. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 8
Figure 8

Immunoglobulin class responses to viral infection. Shown is Fred Brown of the Institute for Animal Health (now the Pirbright Institute). With J. H. Graves, F. Brown determined that different types of antibodies developed in cattle at various times after infection with foot-and-mouth disease. Acute viral infections induce IgM, 19S antibodies, which are replaced later in the infection by IgG, 7S antibodies. (Courtesy of the Pirbright Institute.) doi:10.1128/9781555818586.ch8.f8

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. Immunological Memory: Ingenuity and Serendipity, p 249-292. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9
Figure 9

Georges Kohler (left) and Cesar Milstein (right), creators of monoclonal antibodies. Despite what seemed to be insuperable theoretical barriers, Kohler and Milstein succeeded in fusing an antibody-producing cell with a myeloma cell line. Refinements led to the capacity to produce enormous quantities of highly specific antibodies. The advent of monoclonal antibodies was a great boon to diagnostic virology. (Courtesy of the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation.) doi:10.1128/9781555818586.ch8.f9

Citation: Booss J, August M. 2013. Immunological Memory: Ingenuity and Serendipity, p 249-292. In To Catch a Virus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818586.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Aach R. D., Grisham J. W., Parker C. W. 1971. Detection of Australia antigen by radioimmunoassay. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 68:10561060.
2. Alkan S. S. 2004. Monoclonal antibodies: the story of a discovery that revolutionized science and medicine. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 4:153156. (Response, Karpas A. 2004. Cesar Milstein and the discovery of monoclonal antibodies. Online correspondence. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 4. doi:10.1038/nri1265-c1. Accessed 18 October 2010.)
3. Avrameas S. 1969. Coupling of enzymes to proteins with glutaraldehyde. Use of conjugates for the detection of antigens and antibodies. Immunochemistry 6:4352.
4. Avrameas S. 1983. Enzyme immunoassays and related techniques: development and limitations. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 104:9399.
5. Avrameas S., Guilbert B. 1971. Dosage enzymo-immunologique de proteines a l’aide d’immunoadsorbants et d’antigenes marques aux enzymes. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. D 273:27052707.
6. Balachandran N., Frame B., Chernesky M., Kraiselburd E., Kouri Y., Garcia D., Laverty C., Rawls W. E. 1982. Identification and typing of herpes simplex viruses with monoclonal antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16:205208.
7. Banatvala J. E., Best J. M., Kennedy E. A., Smith E. E., Spence M. E. 1967. A serological method for demonstrating recent infection by rubella virus. BMJ 3:285286.
8. Baublis J. V., Brown G. C. 1968. Specific response of the immunoglobulins to rubella infection. Exp. Biol. Med. 128:206210.
9. Bayer M. E., Blumberg B. S., Werner B. 1968. Particles associated with Australia antigen in the sera of patients with leukemia, Down’s syndrome and hepatitis. Nature 218:10571059.
10. Bedson S. P., Downie A. W., MacCallum F. O., Stuart-Harris C. H. 1961. Virus and Rickettsial Diseases of Man, 3rd ed. Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., London, United Kingdom.
11. Beeson P. B. 1943. Jaundice occurring one to four months after transfusion of blood or plasma. JAMA 121:13321334.
12. Beeson P. B., Chesney G., McFarlan A. M. 1944. Hepatitis following injection of mumps convalescent plasma. Lancet 243:814815.
13. Bellanti J. A., Artenstein M. S., Olson L. C., Buescher E. L., Luhrs C. E., Milstead K. L. 1965. Congenital rubella. Clinicopathologic, virologic, and immunologic studies. Am. J. Dis. Child. 110:464472.
14. Berson S. A., Yalow R. S., Bauman A., Rothschild M. A., Newerly K. 1956. Insulin-I-131 metabolism in human subjects: demonstration of insulin binding globulin in the circulation of insulin treated subjects. J. Clin. Invest. 35:170190.
15. Blumberg B. S. 1964. Polymorphisms of the serum proteins and the development of iso-precipitins in transfused patients. Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 40:377386.
16. Blumberg B. S. 1976. Nobel Lecture: Australia antigen and the biology of hepatitis B. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1976/blumberg-lecture.html?print=1. Accessed 30 August 2010.
17. Blumberg B. S. 2002. Hepatitis B. The Hunt for A Killer Virus. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
18. Blumberg B. S., Alter H. J., Visnich S. 1965. A “new” antigen in leukemic sera. JAMA 191:101106.
19. Blumberg B. S., Gerstley B. G. S., Hungerford D. A., London W. T., Sutnick A. I. 1967. A serum antigen (Australia antigen) in Down’s syndrome, leukemia, and hepatitis. Ann. Intern. Med. 66:924931.
20. British Medical Journal. 1952. Obituary, G. W. M. Findlay. Br. Med. J. 1:658660.
21. Brown F. 1960. A beta-globulin antibody in the sera of guinea pigs and cattle infected with foot-and-mouth disease. J. Immunol. 85:298303.
22. Brown F., Graves J. H. 1959. Changes in specificity and electrophoretic mobility of the precipitating antibodies present in the serum of cattle recovering from foot-and-mouth disease. Nature 183:16881689.
23. Burnette W. N. 1981. “Western blotting”: electrophoretic transfer of proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels to unmodified nitrocellulose and radiographic detection with antibody and radioiodinated protein A. Anal. Biochem. 112:195203.
24. Catt K., Tregear G. W. 1967. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay in antibody-coated tubes. Science 158:15701572.
25. Clarke D. H., Casals J. 1958. Techniques for hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition with arthropod-borne viruses. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 7:561573.
26. Cockayne E. A. 1912. Catarrhal jaundice, sporadic and epidemic, and its relation to acute yellow atrophy of the liver. Q. J. Med. 6:129.
27. Cotton R. G. H., Milstein C. 1973. Fusion of two immunoglobulin-producing myeloma cells. Nature 244:4243.
28. Cowan K. M. 1973. Antibody response to viral antigens. Adv. Immunol. 17:195253.
29. Dane D. S., Cameron C. H., Briggs M. 1970. Virus-like particles in serum of patients with Australia-antigen-associated hepatitis. Lancet 295:695698.
30. Dienstag J. L. 1980. Hepatitis viruses: characterization and diagnostic techniques. Yale J. Biol. Med. 53:6169.
31. Diment J. A., Chantler S. M. 1981. Enzyme immunoassay for detection of rubella specific IgM antibody. Lancet 317:394395.
32. Duermeyer W., Wielaard F., van der Veen J. 1979. A new principle for the detection of specific IgM antibodies applied in an ELISA for hepatitis A. J. Med. Virol. 4:2532.
33. Eichmann K. 2005. Kohler’s Invention. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland.
34. Engvall E. 2005. Perspective on the historical note on EIA/ELISA by Dr. R. M. Lequin. Clin. Chem. 51:2225.
35. Engvall E., Jonsson K., Perlmann P. 1971. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. II. Quantitative assay of protein antigen, immunoglobulin G, by means of enzyme-labeled antigen and antibody-coated tubes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 251:427434.
36. Engvall E., Perlmann P. 1971. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Quantitative assay of immunoglobulin G. Immunochemistry 8:871874.
37. Engvall E., Perlmann P. 1972. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Elisa. III. Quantitation of specific antibodies by enzyme-labeled anti-immunoglobulin in antigen-coated tubes. J. Immunol. 109:129135.
38. Feinstone S. M., Barker L. F., Purcell R. H. 1979. Hepatitis A and B, p. 879925. In E. H. Lennette and N. J. Schmidt (ed.), Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial and Chlamydial Infections, 5th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
39. Feinstone S. M., Kapikian A. Z., Purcell R. H. 1973. Hepatitis A: detection by immune electron microscopy of a viruslike antigen associated with acute illness. Science 182:10261028.
40. Findlay G. M. 1938. B. Inclusion bodies and their relationship to viruses, p. 292368. In R. Doerr and C. Hallauer (ed.), Handbuch der Virusforschung, Erste Hälfte. Julius Springer, Vienna, Austria.
41. Findlay G. M., MacCallum F. O. 1937. Note on acute hepatitis and yellow fever immunization. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 31:297308.
42. Findlay G. M., MacCallum F. O., Murgatroyd F. 1939. Observations bearing on the aetiology of infective hepatitis (so-called epidemic catarrhal jaundice). Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 32:575586.
43. Forghani B., Schmidt N. J., Lennette E. H. 1973. Demonstration of rubella IgM antibody by indirect fluorescent antibody staining, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and mercaptoethanol reduction. Intervirology 1:4859.
44. Forghani B., Schmidt N. J., Lennette E. H. 1974. Solid phase radioimmunoassay for identification of Herpesvirus hominis types 1 and 2 from clinical materials. Appl. Microbiol. 28:661667.
45. Fox J. P., Manso C., Penna H. A., Madureira P. 1942. Observations on the occurrence of icterus in Brazil following vaccination against yellow fever. Am. J. Epidemiol. 36:68116.
46. Friedman A. 2002. Remembrance: the Berson and Yalow saga. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87:19251928.
47. Galfrè G., Milstein C. 1981. Preparation of monoclonal antibodies: strategies and procedures. Methods Enzymol. 73:346.
48. Gocke D. J., Howe C. 1970. Rapid detection of Australia antigen by counterimmunoelectrophoresis. J. Immunol. 104:10311032.
49. Gocke D. J., Kavey N. B. 1969. Hepatitis antigen. Correlation with disease and infectivity of blood-donors. Lancet 293:10551059.
50. Goldstein L. C., Corey L., McDougall J. K., Tolentino E., Nowinski C. 1983. Monoclonal antibodies to herpes simplex viruses: use in antigenic typing and rapid diagnosis. J. Infect. Dis. 147:829837.
51. Grist N. R. 1995. Appreciations. Dr. Frederick Ogden MacCallum. Bull. R. Coll. Pathol. 67:67.
52. Hammarström S. et al. 2006. Peter Perlmann 1919–2005. Scand. J. Immunol. 63:487489.
53. Hollinger F. B., Vorndam V., Dreesman G. B. 1971. Assay of Australia antigen and antibody employing double-antibody and solid-phase radioimmunoassay techniques and comparison with the passive hemagglutination methods. J. Immunol. 107:10991111.
54. Howie J. W. 1965. The Public Health Laboratory Service. Lancet 285:501505.
55. Innis B. L., Nisalak A., Nimmannitya S., Kusalerdchariya A. S., Chongswasdi V., Suntayakorn S., Puttisri P., Hoke C. H. 1989. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to characterize dengue infections where dengue and Japanese encephalitis co-circulate. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 40:418427.
56. JAMA. 1942. Jaundice following yellow fever vaccination. JAMA 119:1110. (Editorial.)
57. Journal of Hygiene. 1982. Rubella antibody testing. J. Hyg. 88:149153. (Editorial.)
58. Kacaki J., Wolters G., Kuijpers L., Stulemeyer S. 1978. Results of a multicentre clinical trial of the solid phase enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis surface antigen. Vox Sang. 35:6567.
59. Kelen A. E., Hathaway A. E., McLeod D. A. 1971. Rapid detection of Australia/SH antigen and antibody by a simple and sensitive technique of immuno-electron microscopy. Can. J. Microbiol. 17:9931000.
60. Kohler G., Howe S. C., Milstein C. 1976. Fusion between immunoglobulin-secreting and non-secreting myeloma cell lines. Eur. J. Immunol. 6:292295.
61. Kohler G., Milstein C. 1975. Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature 256:495497.
62. Kohler G., Milstein C. 1976. Derivation of specific antibody-producing tissue culture and tumor lines by cell fusion. Eur. J. Immunol. 6:511519.
63. Krugman S., Giles J. P., Hammond J. 1967. Infectious hepatitis. Evidence for two distinctive clinical, epidemiological, and immunological types of infections. JAMA 200:365373.
64. Kuno H., Kihara H. K. 1967. Simple microassay of protein with membrane filter. Nature 215:974975.
65. Lancet. 1943. Infective hepatitis and serum jaundice. Lancet 241:683684. (Editorial.)
66. Lancet. 1947. Homologous serum hepatitis. Lancet 250:691692. (Editorial.)
67. Lander J. J., Alter H. J., Purcell R. J. 1971. Frequency of antibody to hepatitis-associated antigen as measured by a new radioimmunoassay technique. J. Immunol. 106:11661171.
68. Landry M. L., Mayo D. R., Hsiung G. D. 1983. The need for rapid and accurate viral diagnosis. Pharmacol. Ther. 18:107132.
69. Laver W. G., Gerhard W., Webster R. G., Frankel M. E., Air G. M. 1979. Antigenic drift in type A influenza virus: peptide mapping and antigenic analysis of A/PR/8/34 (HON1) variants selected with monoclonal antibodies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76:14251429.
70. Lequin R. M. 2005. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Clin. Chem. 51:24152418.
71. Liaw Y.-F., Chu C.-M. 2009. Hepatitis B virus infection. Lancet 373:582592.
72. Ling C. M., Overby L. R. 1972. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus antigen as revealed by direct radioimmune assay with I-125-antibody. J. Immunol. 109:834841.
73. London W. T., Sutnick A. L., Blumberg B. S. 1969. Australia antigen and acute viral hepatitis. Ann. Intern. Med. 70:5559.
74. Lujan-Zilberman J., Rodriguez C. A., Emmanuel P. J. 2006. Pediatric HIV infection: diagnostic laboratory methods. Fetal Pediatr. Pathol. 25:249260.
75. Lurman A. 1885. Eine Icterusepidemic. Berl. Klin. Wochenschr. 22:20.
76. MacArthur W. 1957. Historical notes on some epidemic diseases associated with jaundice. Br. Med. Bull. 13:146149.
77. MacCallum F. O. 1972. 1971 International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis. Historical perspectives. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 106(Spec. Issue):423426.
78. MacQuarrie M. B., Forghani B., Wolochow D. A. 1974. Hepatitis B transmitted by a human bite. JAMA 230:723724.
79. Mayumi M., Okuchi K., Nishioka K. 1971. Detection of Australia antigen by means of immune adherence haemagglutination test. Vox Sang. 20:178181.
80. McQuillin J., Madeley C. R., Kendal A. P. 1985. Monoclonal antibodies for the rapid diagnosis of influenza A and B virus infections by immunofluorescence. Lancet 326:911914.
81. Medical Officers of the Ministry of Health. 1943. Homologous serum jaundice. Lancet 241:8388.
82. Mirsky I. A. 1952. The etiology of diabetes in man. Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 7:437467.
83. Mirsky I. A., Perisutti G., Dixon F. J. 1954. Destruction of I-131 labeled insulin by liver slices. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 86:228230.
84. Mylonakis E., Paliou M., Lally M., Flanagan T. P., Rich J. D. 2000. Laboratory testing for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus: established and novel approaches. Am. J. Med. 109:568576.
85. Nakane P. K., Pierce G. B.Jr. 1967. Enzyme-labeled antibodies: preparation and application for the localization of antigens. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 14:929931.
86. Nakane P. K., Pierce G. B.Jr. 1967. Enzyme-labeled antibodies for the light and electron microscopic localization of tissue antigens. J. Cell Biol. 33:307318.
87. Neuberger M. S., Askonas B. A. 2005. Cesar Milstein CH. 8 October 1927–24 March 2002. Elected FRS 1974. Biogr. Mem. Fellows R. Soc. 51:268289.
88. NIH Record. 2000. Obituaries. Walsh, Director of NIDDK CURE Center, mourned. NIH Rec. 52:12. http://nihrecord.od.nih.gov/newsletters/10_31_2000/obits.htm. Accessed 4 September 2010.
89. Okochi K., Murakami S. 1968. Observations on Australia antigen in Japanese. Vox Sang. 15:374385.
90. Okochi K., Murakami S., Ninomiya K., Kaneko M. 1970. Australia antigen, transfusion, and hepatitis. Vox Sang. 18:289300.
91. Ouchterlony O. 1948. In vitro method for testing the toxin-producing capacity of diphtheria bacteria. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 25:186191.
92. Oxford J. 1982. The use of monoclonal antibodies in virology. J. Hyg. 88:361368.
93. Paul J. R., Havens W. P.Jr., Sabin A. B., Philip C. B. 1945. Transmission experiments in serum jaundice and infectious hepatitis. JAMA 128:911915.
94. Pereira L., Dondero D. V., Gallo D., Devlin V., Woodie J. D. 1982. Serological analysis of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 with monoclonal antibodies. Infect. Immun. 35:363367.
95. Prince A. M. 1968. An antigen detected in the blood during the incubation period of serum hepatitis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 60:814821.
96. Prince A. M. 1968. Relation of Australia and SH antigens. Lancet 292:462463.
97. Prince A. M., Hargrove R. L., Szmuness W., Cherubin C. E., Fontana V. J., Jeffries G. H. 1970. Immunologic distinction between infectious and serum hepatitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 282:987991.
98. Purcell R. H., Holland P. V., Walsh J. H., Wong D. C., Morrow A. G., Chanock R. M. 1969. A complement-fixation test for measuring Australia antigen and antibody. J. Infect. Dis. 120:383386.
99. Rall J. E. 1990. Solomon A. Berson 1918–1972. A Biographical Memoir. National Academy of Sciences. Washington, DC.
100. Rapport R. 2001. Physician. The Life of Paul Beeson. Barricade Books, Inc., Fort Lee, NJ.
101. Renart J., Reiser J., Stark G. R. 1979. Transfer of proteins from gels to diazobenzyloxymethyl-paper and detection with antisera: a method for studying antibody specificity and antigen structure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76:31163120.
102. Robinson W. S., Lutwick L. I. 1976. The virus of hepatitis, type B. N. Engl. J. Med. 295:11681175, 12321236.
103. Schluederberg A. 1965. Immune globulins in human viral infections. Nature 205:12321233.
104. Schmidt N. J. 1983. Rapid viral diagnosis. Med. Clin. North Am. 67:953972.
105. Schmidt N. J., Ota M., Gallo D., Fox V. L. 1982. Monoclonal antibodies for rapid, strain-specific identification of influenza isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16:763765.
106. Schulman N. R., Barker L. P. 1969. Virus-like antigen, antibody, and antigen-antibody complexes in hepatitis measured by complement fixation. Science 165:304306.
107. Schuurs A. H. W. M., van Weemen B. K. 1980. Enzyme-immunoassay: a powerful analytical tool. J. Immunoassay 1:229249.
108. Solomon T., Thao L. T. T., Dung N. M., Kneen R., Hung N. T., Nisalak A., Vaughn D. W., Farrar J., Hien T. T., White N. J., Cardosa M. J. 1998. Rapid diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis by using an immunoglobulin M Dot enzyme immunoassay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:20302034.
109. Southern E. M. 1975. Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. J. Mol. Biol. 98:503517.
110. Straus E. 1998. Rosalyn Yalow. Nobel Laureate. Her Life and Work in Medicine. Perseus Books, Cambridge, MA.
111. Svehag S.-E., Mandel B. 1964. The formation and properties of poliovirus-neutralizing antibody. 1. 19S and 7S antibody formation: differences in kinetics and antigen dose requirement for induction. J. Exp. Med. 119:119.
112. Tedder R. S., Yao J. L., Anderson M. J. 1982. The production of monoclonal antibodies to rubella haemagglutinin and their use in antibody-capture assays for rubella-specific IgM. J. Hyg. 88:335350.
113. Theiler M., Smith H. G. 1937. The use of yellow fever virus modified by in vitro cultivation for human immunization. J. Exp. Med. 65:787800.
114. Towbin H. 1988. This week’s citation classic. Curr. Contents 31(11):19.
115. Towbin H., Gordon J. 1984. Immunoblotting and dot immunobinding—current status and outlook. J. Immunol. Methods 72:313340.
116. Towbin H., Staehelin T., Gordon J. 1979. Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76:43504354.
117. Transfusion. 1970. Statement on laboratory screening tests for identifying carriers of viral hepatitis in blood-banking and transfusion services. Transfusion 10:12. (Editorial.)
118. Vandervelde E. M., Cohen B. J., Cossart Y. E. 1977. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent-assay for hepatitis B surface antigen. J. Clin. Pathol. 30:714716.
119. van Weemen B. K. 2005. The rise of EIA/ELISA. Clin. Chem. 51:2226.
120. van Weemen B. K., Schuurs A. H. W. M. 1971. Immunoassay using antigen-enzyme conjugates. FEBS Lett. 15:232236.
121. Virchow R. 1865. Ueber des Vorkommen und den Nachweis des hepatogenen insbesondere des katarrhalischen Icterus. Virchows Arch. 32:117125.
122. Voller A., Bidwell D. E. 1975. A simple method for detecting antibodies to rubella. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 56:338339.
123. Voller A., Bidwell D. E., Bartlett A. 1976. Enzyme immunoassays in diagnostic medicine. Theory and practice. Bull. W. H. O. 53:5565.
124. Voller A., Bidwell D., Huldt C., Engvall E. 1974. A microplate method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and its application to malaria. Bull. W. H. O. 51:209211.
125. von der Waart M., Snelting A., Cichy J., Wolters G., Schuurs A. 1978. Enzyme-immunoassay in the diagnosis of hepatitis with emphasis on the detection of “e” antigen (HBeAg). J. Med. Virol. 3:349.
126. Vyas G. N., Shulman N. R. 1970. Hemagglutination assay for antigen and antibody associated with viral hepatitis. Science 170:332333.
127. Wade N. 1982. Hybridomas: the making of a revolution. Scientific prize committees sometimes skimp on their homework. The awards for the hybridoma technique may be a case in point. Science 215:10731075.
128. Walsh J. H., Purcell R. H., Morrow A. G., Chanock R. M., Schmidt P. J. 1970. Posttransfusion hepatitis after open-heart operations. JAMA 211:261265.
129. Walsh J. H., Purcell R. H., Morrow A. G., Schmidt P. J. 1968. Icteric and anicteric hepatitis following open heart surgery: a direct comparison of paid and voluntary blood donors. Transfusion 8:318. (Abstract.)
130. Walsh J. H., Yalow R., Berson S. A. 1970. Detection of Australia antigen and antibody by means of radioimmunoassay techniques. J. Infect. Dis. 121:550554.
131. Walsh J. H., Yalow R. S., Berson S. A. 1970. Radioimmunoassay of Australia antigen. Vox Sang. 19:217224.
132. Wide L., Porath J. 1966. Radioimmunoassay of proteins with the use of Sephadex-coupled antibodies. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 130:257260.
133. Wigzell H. 1984. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984. Award ceremony speech. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1984/presentation-speech.html. Accessed 16 October 2010.
134. Wolters G., Kuijpers L., Kacaki J., Schuurs A. 1976. Solid-phase enzyme-immunoassay for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen. J. Clin. Pathol. 29:873879.
135. Yalow R. 1977. Rosalyn Yalow—autobiography. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1977/yalow-autobio.html. Accessed 15 July 2010.
136. Yalow R. S., Berson S. A. 1951. The use of K-42 tagged erythrocytes in blood volume determinations. Science 114:1415.
137. Yalow R. S., Berson S. A. 1959. Assay of plasma insulin in human subjects by immunologic methods. Nature 184:16481649.
138. Yalow R. S., Berson S. A. 1960. Immunoassay of exogenous plasma insulin in man. J. Clin. Invest. 39:11571175.
139. Yalow R. S. 1977. Nobel lecture. Radioimmunoassay: a probe for fine structure of biological systems. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1977/yalow-lecture.html?print=1. Accessed 15 July 2010.
140. Yolken R. H. 1980. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA): a practical tool for rapid diagnosis of viruses and other infectious agents. Yale J. Biol. Med. 53:8295.
141. Yolken R. H. 1983. Use of monoclonal antibodies for viral diagnosis. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 104:177195.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error