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Chapter 1 : From Pasteur to Probiotics: A Historical Overview of Cheese and Microbes

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Abstract:

Nowhere in the microbial world are microorganisms on more magnificent display than on the surfaces or in the interiors of the great cheeses of the world. Cheesemaking is inextricably linked to microbiology, which makes the study of cheeses, their history, and the vast science of cheese and microbes particularly fascinating. Over the past two decades, there has been explosive growth in the U.S. artisan cheese industry. The availability of artisan cheeses, made using traditional practices, has ignited renewed consumer interest in cheesemaking and cheese consumption. This affords a tremendous opportunity to educate a new population of students, scientists, cheesemakers, technologists, and cheese connoisseurs about the essential role which microorganisms play in the process of cheesemaking.

Citation: Donnelly C. 2014. From Pasteur to Probiotics: A Historical Overview of Cheese and Microbes, p 1-15. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-12

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Figures

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Figure 1

Robert Hooke's 1665 depiction of a “hairy mold” colony which was subsequently identified as . doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-2012.f1

Citation: Donnelly C. 2014. From Pasteur to Probiotics: A Historical Overview of Cheese and Microbes, p 1-15. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-12
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Antique engraving by Charles-Joseph Panckoucke, 1784, depicting wooden cheesemaking tools for Gruyère production. From ( ) (author's collection). doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-2012.f2

Citation: Donnelly C. 2014. From Pasteur to Probiotics: A Historical Overview of Cheese and Microbes, p 1-15. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-12
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Map depicting U.S. locations of cheese made on farms in 1849. From reference ; downloaded from Maps ETC (http://etc.usf.edu/maps). doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-2012.f3

Citation: Donnelly C. 2014. From Pasteur to Probiotics: A Historical Overview of Cheese and Microbes, p 1-15. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-12
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Figure 4

Antique Brie and Coulommiers label from Fromagerie Lorraine Renard-Gillard, located in Biencourt, near Montiers-sur-Saulx, France. Alfred Renard-Gillard worked from 1906 to 1922 with P. Mazé of the Pasteur Institute on improved techniques of cheese production, including the use of pasteurized milk for cheese manufacturing. (Author's collection.) doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-2012.f4

Citation: Donnelly C. 2014. From Pasteur to Probiotics: A Historical Overview of Cheese and Microbes, p 1-15. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-12
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Figure 5

Microbial biodiversity of soft cheese (a), semihard cheese (b), hard cheese (c), and cheese rinds (d). Reproduced with permission from reference . doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-2012.f5

Citation: Donnelly C. 2014. From Pasteur to Probiotics: A Historical Overview of Cheese and Microbes, p 1-15. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-12
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Years of origin of noted cheese varieties

Citation: Donnelly C. 2014. From Pasteur to Probiotics: A Historical Overview of Cheese and Microbes, p 1-15. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-12

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