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Chapter 10 : Biodiversity of the Surface Microbial Consortia from Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen Cheeses

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Biodiversity of the Surface Microbial Consortia from Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen Cheeses, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

About 145,000 metric tons of smear-ripened cheeses are made in Europe, mainly in France, Belgium, Austria, and Germany. Although relatively small in quantity compared with total European cheese production of almost 9 million metric tons, this amount is important because of the large number of varieties of smear cheeses made, each with its own distinctive flavor, e.g., Port Salut, Pont-l’Évêque, Munster, Vacherin Mont-d'Or, and Taleggio. Smear cheeses are characterized by the development of microbial consortia on the cheese surface early in ripening, composed of yeast and bacteria, which give some of the cheeses (the so-called red smear cheeses) their characteristic red or orange glistening color. This is a direct result of ripening the cheeses at relatively high temperatures (∼14°C) and high relative humidities (>95%), conditions which promote the growth of microorganisms present on the cheese surface. The red or orange color which develops on the surface of many smear cheeses during ripening is due to the production of pigments by the yeast and bacteria growing on the surface. The biochemical activity of the yeast and bacteria are mainly responsible for flavor development in these cheeses. Like every cheese made, smear cheeses also contain high numbers of starter and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (LAB), but these are found throughout the cheese and are not considered further here.

Citation: Cogan T, Goerges S, Gelsomino R, Larpin S, Hohenegger M, Bora N, Jamet E, Rea M, Mounier J, Vancanneyt M, Guéguen M, Desmasures N, Swings J, Goodfellow M, Ward A, Sebastiani H, Irlinger F, Chamba J, Beduhn R, Scherer S. 2014. Biodiversity of the Surface Microbial Consortia from Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen Cheeses, p 219-250. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0010-2012

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Figures

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Figure 1

Photographs of the cheeses studied. (A) Gubbeen; (B) Limburger; (C) Livarot; (D) Reblochon; (E) Tilsit. Sources: (C) Chambre Régionale d'Agriculture de Normandie (Tesseraud); (D) Wikimedia Commons (user: Myrabella). doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0010-2012.f1

Citation: Cogan T, Goerges S, Gelsomino R, Larpin S, Hohenegger M, Bora N, Jamet E, Rea M, Mounier J, Vancanneyt M, Guéguen M, Desmasures N, Swings J, Goodfellow M, Ward A, Sebastiani H, Irlinger F, Chamba J, Beduhn R, Scherer S. 2014. Biodiversity of the Surface Microbial Consortia from Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen Cheeses, p 219-250. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0010-2012
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Changes in dry matter and salt in Gubbeen (GB), Tilsit (TS), Livarot (LV), Limburger (LM), and Reblochon (RB) cheeses during ripening. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0010-2012.f2

Citation: Cogan T, Goerges S, Gelsomino R, Larpin S, Hohenegger M, Bora N, Jamet E, Rea M, Mounier J, Vancanneyt M, Guéguen M, Desmasures N, Swings J, Goodfellow M, Ward A, Sebastiani H, Irlinger F, Chamba J, Beduhn R, Scherer S. 2014. Biodiversity of the Surface Microbial Consortia from Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen Cheeses, p 219-250. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0010-2012
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Changes in pH, lactate, and salt in Gubbeen (GB), Tilsit (TS), Livarot (LV), Limburger (LM), and Reblochon (RB) cheeses during ripening. DM, dry matter. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0010-2012.f3

Citation: Cogan T, Goerges S, Gelsomino R, Larpin S, Hohenegger M, Bora N, Jamet E, Rea M, Mounier J, Vancanneyt M, Guéguen M, Desmasures N, Swings J, Goodfellow M, Ward A, Sebastiani H, Irlinger F, Chamba J, Beduhn R, Scherer S. 2014. Biodiversity of the Surface Microbial Consortia from Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen Cheeses, p 219-250. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0010-2012
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Relationship between pH and lactate in Gubbeen (GB), Tilsit (TS), Livarot (LV), Limburger (LM), and Reblochon (RB) cheeses during ripening. DM, dry matter. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0010-2012.f4

Citation: Cogan T, Goerges S, Gelsomino R, Larpin S, Hohenegger M, Bora N, Jamet E, Rea M, Mounier J, Vancanneyt M, Guéguen M, Desmasures N, Swings J, Goodfellow M, Ward A, Sebastiani H, Irlinger F, Chamba J, Beduhn R, Scherer S. 2014. Biodiversity of the Surface Microbial Consortia from Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen Cheeses, p 219-250. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0010-2012
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Figure 5

Changes in amino-soluble nitrogen (ASN) and nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) in Gubbeen (GB), Tilsit (TS), Livarot (LV), Limburger (LM), and Reblochon (RB) cheeses during ripening. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0010-2012.f5

Citation: Cogan T, Goerges S, Gelsomino R, Larpin S, Hohenegger M, Bora N, Jamet E, Rea M, Mounier J, Vancanneyt M, Guéguen M, Desmasures N, Swings J, Goodfellow M, Ward A, Sebastiani H, Irlinger F, Chamba J, Beduhn R, Scherer S. 2014. Biodiversity of the Surface Microbial Consortia from Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen Cheeses, p 219-250. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0010-2012
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Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

Growth of bacteria and yeast in Gubbeen (GB), Tilsit (TS), Livarot (LV), Limburger (LM), and Reblochon (RB) cheeses during ripening. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0010-2012.f6

Citation: Cogan T, Goerges S, Gelsomino R, Larpin S, Hohenegger M, Bora N, Jamet E, Rea M, Mounier J, Vancanneyt M, Guéguen M, Desmasures N, Swings J, Goodfellow M, Ward A, Sebastiani H, Irlinger F, Chamba J, Beduhn R, Scherer S. 2014. Biodiversity of the Surface Microbial Consortia from Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen Cheeses, p 219-250. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0010-2012
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Image of Figure 7
Figure 7

DGGE profile of Reblochon cheese. Samples were run in duplicate. RB1, RB2, and RB3 refer to batches 1, 2, and 3, respectively, from the early (1 day), middle (6 days), and late (15 days) stages of ripening. Lanes 1, 14, and 21 correspond to a ϕX174 DGGE marker. Organisms were identified as follows: 1 and 2, sp.; 3, sp.; 4, sp.; 5, uncultured actinobacterium; 6, sp.; 7, sp. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0010-2012.f7

Citation: Cogan T, Goerges S, Gelsomino R, Larpin S, Hohenegger M, Bora N, Jamet E, Rea M, Mounier J, Vancanneyt M, Guéguen M, Desmasures N, Swings J, Goodfellow M, Ward A, Sebastiani H, Irlinger F, Chamba J, Beduhn R, Scherer S. 2014. Biodiversity of the Surface Microbial Consortia from Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen Cheeses, p 219-250. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0010-2012
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Number of isolates of each species of yeast in all batches of cheese

Citation: Cogan T, Goerges S, Gelsomino R, Larpin S, Hohenegger M, Bora N, Jamet E, Rea M, Mounier J, Vancanneyt M, Guéguen M, Desmasures N, Swings J, Goodfellow M, Ward A, Sebastiani H, Irlinger F, Chamba J, Beduhn R, Scherer S. 2014. Biodiversity of the Surface Microbial Consortia from Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen Cheeses, p 219-250. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0010-2012
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Number of isolates of each species of bacteria in all batches of cheese

Citation: Cogan T, Goerges S, Gelsomino R, Larpin S, Hohenegger M, Bora N, Jamet E, Rea M, Mounier J, Vancanneyt M, Guéguen M, Desmasures N, Swings J, Goodfellow M, Ward A, Sebastiani H, Irlinger F, Chamba J, Beduhn R, Scherer S. 2014. Biodiversity of the Surface Microbial Consortia from Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen Cheeses, p 219-250. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0010-2012
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Bacterial taxa identified by DGGE in the different cheeses

Citation: Cogan T, Goerges S, Gelsomino R, Larpin S, Hohenegger M, Bora N, Jamet E, Rea M, Mounier J, Vancanneyt M, Guéguen M, Desmasures N, Swings J, Goodfellow M, Ward A, Sebastiani H, Irlinger F, Chamba J, Beduhn R, Scherer S. 2014. Biodiversity of the Surface Microbial Consortia from Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen Cheeses, p 219-250. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0010-2012

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