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Chapter 2 : The Basics of Cheesemaking

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The Basics of Cheesemaking, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

All cheeses share a set of principles that involve a complex matrix of interdependent chemical, biochemical, and microbiological changes. Collectively, these changes first transform milk into fresh or unaged cheese. Although some varieties are consumed immediately after manufacture as fresh cheese, most undergo a subsequent period of aging or ripening, ranging from weeks to years depending on the variety, during which the sensory characteristics undergo multifaceted and often quite dramatic changes.

Citation: Kindstedt P. 2014. The Basics of Cheesemaking, p 17-38. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-12

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Lactic Acid Fermentation
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Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Diagrammatic representation of the process of acid coagulation. LAB ferment lactose to lactic acid and acidify the milk to around pH 4.6. Coagulation occurs when casein micelles aggregate to form a net-like matrix. During acidification, micellar calcium phosphate (MCP) is extensively converted to soluble form, resulting in a casein matrix that is highly depleted of MCP. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-12.f1

Citation: Kindstedt P. 2014. The Basics of Cheesemaking, p 17-38. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-12
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Diagrammatic representation of the process of rennet coagulation. Rennet coagulation is mediated through the action of rennet enzymes that cleave κ-casein and release caseinomacropeptides (CMP) from the casein micelles. This causes the micelles to aggregate in the form of a net-like matrix. Rennet coagulation occurs at high pH (around pH 6.6 to 6.3, depending on the variety), i.e., before extensive acidification by starter LAB. Therefore, limited conversion of micellar calcium phosphate (MCP) to the soluble form occurs before coagulation, resulting in a casein matrix that is rich in MCP. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-12.f2

Citation: Kindstedt P. 2014. The Basics of Cheesemaking, p 17-38. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-12
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Blue-veined cheeses ripening on racks in a cool (ca. 13°C), humid (ca. 90% relative humidity) environment. Note the needle shafts that have pierced the body of each cheese to permit oxygen diffusion into the interior. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-12.f3

Citation: Kindstedt P. 2014. The Basics of Cheesemaking, p 17-38. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-12
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Alpine (Swiss)-style cheeses ripening on racks in a warm (ca. 22°C) environment. The cheeses occupying the top shelves have remained in the warm room longer than those on the lower shelves. Note the development of concave surfaces with increasing time in the warm room due to eye formation and volume expansion of the cheese. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-12.f4

Citation: Kindstedt P. 2014. The Basics of Cheesemaking, p 17-38. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-12
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Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Spraying of a suspension of mold spores onto the surfaces of Camembert cheeses at the start of ripening. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-12.f5

Citation: Kindstedt P. 2014. The Basics of Cheesemaking, p 17-38. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-12
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Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

Washing of the surface of a washed-rind cheese with dilute salt brine containing an adjunct culture of coryneform bacteria. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-12.f6

Citation: Kindstedt P. 2014. The Basics of Cheesemaking, p 17-38. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-12
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Image of Figure 7
Figure 7

Simplified summary of the making of rennet-coagulated cheese. See text for explanation. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-12.f7

Citation: Kindstedt P. 2014. The Basics of Cheesemaking, p 17-38. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-12
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References

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