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Chapter 4 : Mesophilic and Thermophilic Cultures Used in Traditional Cheesemaking

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Mesophilic and Thermophilic Cultures Used in Traditional Cheesemaking, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The art of cheesemaking is strongly rooted in the cheesemaker’s ability to control the growth and metabolism of microorganisms. Whether these microorganisms are already present in the raw milk as “natural” contaminants, are added to the milk, or are nurtured in ripening or curing rooms, the skilled cheesemaker knows that the quality and safety of cheese are due to controlling the growth and metabolism of microorganisms. Milk quality in terms of both chemical composition and microbiological populations is dependent upon the producer, but the milk accepted for cheesemaking is the choice of the cheesemaker. Most of the defects observed with cheese in terms of undesirable flavors or physical characteristics have their origin in microbial growth. However, there are two important aspects to be considered, growth of undesirable microorganisms and excessive or limited growth of desirable microorganisms. The former is largely addressed through strict hygienic practices on the farm and at the cheese factory or curing facilities. The latter is a critical step controlled by the cheesemaker during cheesemaking and by the affineur, who controls the curing or aging of the cheese. A quote from by Decker ( ) sums it up perfectly: “Nearly all the trouble we have in cheese making is due to the action of definite living vegetative cells that have the power of manufacturing certain decomposition products; on the other hand, we could not produce fine cheese without the presence of certain forms of bacteria that are able to change milk, producing the fine desired flavors.”

Citation: Johnson M. 2014. Mesophilic and Thermophilic Cultures Used in Traditional Cheesemaking, p 73-94. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0004-12

Key Concept Ranking

Lactic Acid Bacteria
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Microbial Ecology
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Lactic Acid Fermentation
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Figures

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Figure 1

Electron micrograph of (rods) and (cocci). Courtesy of William McManus and Donald McMahon, Western Dairy Center, Utah State University. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0004-2012.f1

Citation: Johnson M. 2014. Mesophilic and Thermophilic Cultures Used in Traditional Cheesemaking, p 73-94. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0004-12
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Influence of sugar content on color of baked mozzarella. When cheese dries, the protein burns, causing the blisters to be a darker color. The presence of residual galactose (left side) darkens the blister color. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0004-2012.f2

Citation: Johnson M. 2014. Mesophilic and Thermophilic Cultures Used in Traditional Cheesemaking, p 73-94. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0004-12
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

pH adjustment with external (added) base. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0004-2012.f3

Citation: Johnson M. 2014. Mesophilic and Thermophilic Cultures Used in Traditional Cheesemaking, p 73-94. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0004-12
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Figure 4

Impact of pH control on starter culture numbers. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0004-2012.f4

Citation: Johnson M. 2014. Mesophilic and Thermophilic Cultures Used in Traditional Cheesemaking, p 73-94. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0004-12
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Figure 5

Impact on rate of acidification using a pH-controlled starter. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0004-2012.f5

Citation: Johnson M. 2014. Mesophilic and Thermophilic Cultures Used in Traditional Cheesemaking, p 73-94. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0004-12
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Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

Impact of temperature on acid development in skim milk with subsp. . Courtesy of Randall Thunell, DSM Cheese Specialties. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0004-2012.f6

Citation: Johnson M. 2014. Mesophilic and Thermophilic Cultures Used in Traditional Cheesemaking, p 73-94. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0004-12
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Image of Figure 7
Figure 7

Impact of temperature on acid development in skim milk with subsp. . Courtesy of Randall Thunell, DSM Cheese Specialties. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0004-2012.f7

Citation: Johnson M. 2014. Mesophilic and Thermophilic Cultures Used in Traditional Cheesemaking, p 73-94. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0004-12
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818593.chap4
1. Decker JW . 1895. Cheddar Cheese Making, p 6. Published by the author, Madison, WI.
2. Broadbent JR, . 2001. Genetics of lactic acid bacteria, p 243300. In Marth EH,, Steele JL (ed), Applied Dairy Microbiology, 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, NY.
3. Rajagopal SN,, Sandine WE . 1990. Associative growth and proteolysis of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in skim milk. J Dairy Sci 73 : 894899.
4. Hutkins RW, . 2001. Metabolism of starter cultures, p 207241. In Marth EH,, Steele JL (ed), Applied Dairy Microbiology, 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, NY.
5. Broadbent JR,, Strickland M,, Weimer BC,, Johnson ME,, Steele JL . 1998. Small peptide accumulation and bitterness in Cheddar cheese made from single strain Lactococcus lactis starters with distinct proteinase specifications. J Dairy Sci 81 : 327337.
6. Klaenhammer TR,, Fitzgerald GF, . 1994. Bacteriophages and bacteriophage resistance, p 106168. In Gasson MJ,, de Vos W (ed), Genetics and Biotechnology of Lactic Acid Bacteria. Blackie Academic and Professional, Glasgow, Scotland.
7. Donnelly CW (ed). 2014. Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
8. Cogan TM,, Accolas J-P (ed). 1996. Dairy Starter Cultures. Wiley-VCH, New York, NY.
9. Salminen S,, von Wright A (ed). 1993. Lactic Acid Bacteria. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, NY.
10. Hassan AN,, Frank JF, . 2001. Starter cultures and their use, p 151206. In Marth EH,, Steele JL (ed), Applied Dairy Microbiology, 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, NY.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Combined classification basis for lactic acid bacteria used as starters or secondary cultures used for flavor development

Citation: Johnson M. 2014. Mesophilic and Thermophilic Cultures Used in Traditional Cheesemaking, p 73-94. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0004-12

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