Chapter 5 : The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Tales of Mold-Ripened Cheese

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The history of cheese manufacture is a “natural history” in which animals, microorganisms, and the environment interact to yield human food. Part of the fascination with cheese both scientifically and culturally stems from its ability to assume amazingly diverse flavors as a result of seemingly small details in preparation. These details have been discovered empirically and independently by a variety of human populations and, in many cases, have been propagated over hundreds of years.

Citation: Marcellino N, Benson D. 2014. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Tales of Mold-Ripened Cheese, p 95-131. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0005-12

Key Concept Ranking

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
Soft Cheese
Scanning Electron Microscopy
Microbial Ecology
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Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Scanning electron micrographs of Bethlehem cheese during ripening. (A) Micrograph of cheese at day 2 of ripening showing multilateral budding yeasts embedded within the cheese surface. Buds and bud scars are clearly visible. Bar, 1 μm. (B) Micrograph of the cheese surface at day 6 showing sporangia and hyphae of the zygomycete . Bar, 10 µm. (C) At day 59, the V shapes of coryneform bacteria can be distinguished at a high magnification beneath a mass of fungal debris on the cheese rind. Bar, 1 µm. Panels A and B are reproduced with permission from reference . doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0005-2012.f1

Citation: Marcellino N, Benson D. 2014. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Tales of Mold-Ripened Cheese, p 95-131. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0005-12
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

The yeast-like fungus . (A) on the rind of a 10-day-old Tomme de Savoie. (B) Light micrograph of arthrospores and septate hyphae of a wild-type strain isolated from a 4-day-old Bethlehem cheese. Bar, 10 µm. (C) Scanning electron micrograph of the surface of a Reblochon ripening shelf showing cylindrical arthrospores and bacteria. Bar, 5 µm. Reproduced with permission from reference (micrograph by Romain Briandet, UMR-UBHM, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique et Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Industries Agricoles et Alimentaires, Massy, France). doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0005-2012.f2

Citation: Marcellino N, Benson D. 2014. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Tales of Mold-Ripened Cheese, p 95-131. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0005-12
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Schema for proteolysis in Camembert cheese. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0005-2012.f3

Citation: Marcellino N, Benson D. 2014. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Tales of Mold-Ripened Cheese, p 95-131. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0005-12
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Challenges for the cheesemaker. (A) Scanning electron micrograph of a cheese mite. Left unchecked, cheese mites can lead to a 25% reduction in the weight of a ripened cheese. Photograph by William R. McManus, generously provided and used with permission of William R. McManus and Donald J. McMahon, Utah State University. (B) Spoilage of a cheese by contamination and invasion of the rind by the fungal genus . (C) Scanning electron micrograph of the zygomycete showing sporangia among collapsed hyphae. When the fragile outer membrane, the peridium (arrowhead), of the sporangium breaks open, hundreds to thousands of spores can be released, contaminating a cheese cave overnight. Bar, 10 µm. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0005-2012.f4

Citation: Marcellino N, Benson D. 2014. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Tales of Mold-Ripened Cheese, p 95-131. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0005-12
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