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Chapter 6 : The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses

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Abstract:

Traditional cheeses originate from complex systems that confer on them specific sensory characteristics (distinctiveness of the cheese). These characteristics are linked to various factors of biodiversity such as animal feed, the use of raw milk and its indigenous microflora, the cheese technology, and the ripening conditions, all in conjunction with the cheesemaker's and ripener's practices (know-how). In Europe, particularly in France, the preservation of traditional cheesemaking processes, of which some have a protected designation of origin, is vital for the farming and food industry in certain regions. In France, the production of raw milk cheese (excluding farmstead) represents 15% of the entire production of mature cheese, which is equivalent to approximately 170,000 metric tons.

Citation: Beuvier E, Duboz G. 2014. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses, p 133-150. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-12

Key Concept Ranking

Propionic Acid Fermentation
0.52598464
Raw Milk
0.5008434
Lactic Acid Bacteria
0.4522228
Hard Cheese
0.44840643
Propionic Acid Bacteria
0.4374572
0.52598464
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Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Ripening cellar of Comté cheese, Fromagerie Arnaud, Poligny, Jura, France. (Source: © Christian Slagmulder/INRA.) doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-2012.f1

Citation: Beuvier E, Duboz G. 2014. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses, p 133-150. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-12
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Beaufort cheese. (Source: © Gérard Grosclaude/INRA.) doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-2012.f2

Citation: Beuvier E, Duboz G. 2014. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses, p 133-150. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-12
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Figure 3

Mini-experimental cheesemaking plant at INRA in Poligny. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-2012.f3

Citation: Beuvier E, Duboz G. 2014. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses, p 133-150. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-12
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Figure 4

Distribution of physicochemical, microbiological, and flavor criteria (additional variables in italics and bold) in R (raw), P (pasteurized), MF (microfiltered) and P + bact (pasteurized plus microorganisms contained in retentate) milk using principal-component analysis. MesoLb, mesophilic lactobacilli; Entero, enterococci; PAB, propionibacteria; C2, acetic acid; C3, propionic acid; iC5, isovaleric acid; PTA, phosphotungstic acid-soluble N; CN, casein. Adapted from reference . doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-2012.f4

Citation: Beuvier E, Duboz G. 2014. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses, p 133-150. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-12
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Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Distribution of volatile compounds and flavor attributes (additional variables in italics and bold) in R and P Morbier-type semihard cheeses using principal-component analysis. C2, C3, and C5, acetic, propionic, and valeric acids, respectively. Adapted from reference . doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-2012.f5

Citation: Beuvier E, Duboz G. 2014. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses, p 133-150. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-12
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Figure 6

Influence of the level and origin of the raw milk microflora on the microbiological, biochemical, and sensory characteristics of Gruyère-type cheeses. MF, microfiltered; A, B, and C, dairies from which the microfloras reincorporated in the milk originated; Lb, lactobacilli; C3 and iC5, volatile fatty acids; NS, water-soluble nitrogen; NPT, phosphotungstic acid-soluble nitrogen. Adapted from reference . doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-2012.f6

Citation: Beuvier E, Duboz G. 2014. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses, p 133-150. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-12
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Figure 7

Addition of starter during the manufacture of Abondance cheese, Alpage Le Gouly, Abondance, France. (Source: © Eric Beuvier/INRA.) doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-2012.f7

Citation: Beuvier E, Duboz G. 2014. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses, p 133-150. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-12
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Image of Figure 8
Figure 8

Effect of the variation of the lactic starter culture on the taste characteristics of Comté. Cheeses a, b, and c were made with selected starters; cheeses A, B, and C were made with natural or wild starters. The size of the symbol illustrates the aromatic richness (that is to say, the number of aroma descriptors). Adapted from reference . doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-2012.f8

Citation: Beuvier E, Duboz G. 2014. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses, p 133-150. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-12
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Image of Figure 9
Figure 9

Evolution of the main microbial groups during ripening of Comté ( ). doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-2012.f9

Citation: Beuvier E, Duboz G. 2014. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses, p 133-150. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-12
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Image of Figure 10
Figure 10

Growth dynamics of the strains of and during the ripening of Comtés 1 and 2 ( ). Temperatures at the top are ripening temperatures. d, days. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-2012.f10

Citation: Beuvier E, Duboz G. 2014. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses, p 133-150. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-12
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Image of Figure 11
Figure 11

Growth dynamics of the strains of during the ripening of Comtés 1 and 2 ( ). Temperatures at the top are ripening temperatures. d, days. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-2012.f11

Citation: Beuvier E, Duboz G. 2014. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses, p 133-150. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-12
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Image of Figure 12
Figure 12

Thermophilic streptococci in hard cooked cheese. (Source: © Micheline Rousseau/INRA.) doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-2012.f12

Citation: Beuvier E, Duboz G. 2014. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses, p 133-150. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-12
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Image of Figure 13
Figure 13

Thermophilic lactobacilli in hard cooked cheese after molding but before salting. (Source: © Micheline Rousseau/INRA.) doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-2012.f13

Citation: Beuvier E, Duboz G. 2014. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses, p 133-150. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0006-12
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