Chapter 7 : The Microfloras and Sensory Profiles of Selected Protected Designation of Origin Italian Cheeses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

The Microfloras and Sensory Profiles of Selected Protected Designation of Origin Italian Cheeses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818593/9781555815868_Chap07-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818593/9781555815868_Chap07-2.gif


To understand and appreciate the great cheeses of Sicily and other parts of Italy which we enjoy today, along with the microbes associated with them, it is necessary to review the historical context surrounding the rich and deep origins of these products. The Archestrato of Gela (4th century BCE) describes Sicilian cheeses as “the best and more flavorful than caseus of Lesbo and Creta.” Many Roman writers, including Cato the Elder (234–149 BCE), Varro (ca. 116–27 BCE), Columella, and Pliny the Elder, described the cheesemaking process, the quality, and the culinary uses of cheese. Cheesemaking was well known among the Romans, who spread the knowledge of cheesemaking during the Empire period, as evidenced by use of the word , the root for casein, the principal milk protein that is coagulated to make cheese. The Romans improved the cheesemaking techniques of the Greeks when they introduced the use of cow's milk, which was uncommon at that time, since cows were used primarily to work the land and not for milk production. The Romans produced dairy products from sheep, goats, and cows, which they consumed fresh or aged. Milk left in wicker baskets spontaneously coagulated, or coagulation was quickened by continuous mixing with fig branches or the addition of fig juice or wild thistle seeds. In addition to thistle and fig, the Romans used saffron and vinegar. This composition was called . According to the Edict of Diocletian, milk was at that time inexpensive, approximately the same cost as a low-quality wine. In the summer, though, it was difficult to find because flocks were relocated for the transhumance toward mountain grazing.

Citation: Licitra G, Carpino S. 2014. The Microfloras and Sensory Profiles of Selected Protected Designation of Origin Italian Cheeses, p 151-165. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0007-2012

Key Concept Ranking

Lactic Acid Fermentation
Soft Cheese
Lactic Acid Bacteria
Hard Cheese
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Columella LIM, . 1977. L’arte dell’agricoltura, p 498 ( Carena C , ed). Einaudi, Turin, Italy.
2. Naso I . 1990. Formaggi del Medioevo. La «Summa lacticiniorum» di Pantaleone da Confidenza. Il Segnalibro, Turin, Italy.
3. Montanari M . 1992. Alimentazione e cultura nel medioevo. Laterza, Rome, Italy.
4. McSweeney PLH,, Fox PF,, Lucey JA,, Jordan KN,, Cogan TM . 1993. Contribution of the indigenous microflora to the maturation of Cheddar cheese. Int Dairy J 3 : 613634.
5. Beresford TP,, Fitzsimons NA,, Brennan NL,, Cogan TM . 2001. Recent advances in cheese microbiology. Int Dairy J 11 : 259274.
6. Callon C,, Millet L,, Montel MC . 2004. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from AOC Salers cheese. J Dairy Res 71 : 231244.[PubMed]
7. Crow V,, Curry B,, Hayes M . 2001. The ecology of non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) and their use as adjuncts in New Zealand Cheddar. Int Dairy J 11 : 275283.
8. Carpino S,, Mallia S,, La Terra S,, Melilli C,, Licitra G,, Acree TE,, Barbano DM,, Van Soest PJ . 2004. Composition and aroma compounds of Ragusano cheese: native pasture and total mixed rations. J Dairy Sci 87 : 816830.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
9. McMahon DJ,, Fife RL,, Oberg CJ . 1999. Water partitioning in mozzarella cheese and its relationship to cheese meltability. J Dairy Sci 82 : 13611369.
10. Kuo MI,, Gunasekaran S . 2003. Effect of frozen storage on physical properties of pasta filata and non-pasta filata mozzarella cheeses. J Dairy Sci 86 : 11081117.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
11. Kuo MI,, Gunasekaran S,, Johnson M,, Chen C . 2001. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of water mobility in pasta filata and non-pasta filata mozzarella. J Dairy Sci 84 : 19501958.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
12. Joshi NS,, Muthukumarappan K,, Dave RI . 2004. Effect of calcium on microstructure and meltability of part skim mozzarella cheese. J Dairy Sci 87 : 19751985.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
13. Kosikowski FV,, Mistry VV, . 1997. Origins and principles, p 379. In Kosikowski FV (ed), Cheese and Fermented Milk Foods, vol 1. FV Kosikowski, Westport, CT.
14. Licitra G,, Portelli G,, Campo P,, Longombardo G,, Farina G,, Carpino S,, Barbano DM . 1998. Technology to produce Ragusano cheese: a survey. J Dairy Sci 81 : 33433349.
15. Fox PF,, McSweeney PLH,, Cogan TM,, Guinee TP . 2004. Cheese: Chemistry, Physics, and Microbiology, 3rd ed. Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
16. Tuminello L,, Caccamo M,, Licitra G . 2006. Qualitative analysis of Sicilian traditional cheeses microstructure by scanning electron microscope (SEM). J Dairy Sci 89(Suppl 1): 140.
17. Campo P,, Licitra G . 2006. I Formaggi Storici Siciliani. CoRFiLaC, Ragusa, Italy.
18. Licitra G,, Ogier JC,, Parayre S,, Pediliggieri C,, Carnemolla TM,, Falentin H,, Madec MN,, Carpino S,, Lortal S . 2007. Variability of bacterial biofilms of the “tina” wood vats used in the Ragusano cheese-making process. Appl Environ Microbiol 73 : 69806987.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
19. Randazzo CL,, Torriani S,, Akkermans ADL,, de Vos WM,, Vaughan EE . 2002. Diversity, dynamics and activity of bacterial communities during production of an artisanal Sicilian cheese as evaluated by 16S rRNA analysis. Appl Environ Microbiol 68 : 18821892.[PubMed]
20. Lortal S,, Di Blasi A,, Madec MN,, Pediliggieri C,, Tuminello L,, Tanguy G,, Fauquant J,, Lecuona Y,, Campo P,, Carpino S,, Licitra G . 2009. Tina wooden vat biofilm: a safe and highly efficient lactic acid bacteria delivering system in PDO Ragusano cheese making. Int J Food Microbiol 132 : 18.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
21. Coppola R,, Succi M,, Sorrentino E,, Iorizzo M,, Grazia L . 2003. Survey of lactic acid bacteria during the ripening of caciocavallo cheese produced in Molise. Lait 83 : 211222.
22. Dolci P,, Alessandria V,, Rantsiou K,, Rolle L,, Zeppa G,, Cocolin L . 2008. Microbial dynamics of Castelmagno PDO, a traditional Italian cheese, with a focus on lactic acid bacteria ecology. Int J Food Microbiol 122 : 302311.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
23. Mucchetti G,, Neviani E (ed). 2006. Microbiologia e tecnologia lattiero-casearia: qualità e sicurezza. Tecniche Nuove, Milan, Italy.
24. Bottazzi V,, Arrizza S,, Ledda A . 1978. Impiego di colture di fermenti lattici nella produzione del Fiore Sardo. Sci Tecnol Latt Cas 29 : 160168.
25. Piredda G,, Pirisi A,, Scintu MF,, Addis M,, Ledda A,, Chianese L . 1998. Fiore Sardo hard uncooked ewe's milk cheese, p 170–173. In Flamant JC, Gabiña D, Espejo Díaz M (ed), Basis of the Quality of Typical Mediterranean Animal Products. EAAP publication no 90. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
26. Ledda A,, Scintu MF,, Pirisi A,, Sanna S,, Mannu L . 1994. Caratterizzazione tecnologica di ceppi di lattococchi e di enterococchi per la produzione di formaggio pecorino Fiore Sardo. Sci Tecnol Latt Cas 45 : 443456.
27. Mannu L,, Comunian R,, Scintu MF . 2000. Mesophilic lactobacilli in Fiore Sardo cheese: PCR-identification and evolution during cheese ripening. Int Dairy J 10 : 383389.
28. Mannu L,, Comunian R,, Daga E,, Paba A,, Demuro PP,, Scintu MF . 2006. Isolation and characterization of natural microflora of Fiore Sardo cheese (PDO). Sci Tecnol Latt Cas 57 : 19.
29. Demarigny Y,, Beuvier E,, Dasen A,, Duboz G . 1996. Influence of raw milk microflora on the characteristics of Swiss-type cheeses. I. Evolution of microflora during ripening and characterization of facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli. Lait 76 : 371387.
30. Williams AG,, Banks JM . 1997. Proteolytic and other hydrolytic enzyme activities in non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) isolated from Cheddar cheese manufactured in the United Kingdom. Int Dairy J 7 : 763774.
31. Bouton Y,, Guyot P,, Grappin R . 1998. Preliminary characterization of microflora of Comté cheese. J Appl Microbiol 85 : 123131.[PubMed]
32. Randazzo CL,, Vaughan EE,, Caggia C . 2006. Artisanal and experimental Pecorino Siciliano cheese: microbial dynamics during manufacture assessed by culturing and PCR-DGGE analyses. Int J Food Microbiol 109 : 18.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
33. Giraffa G,, De Vecchi P,, Rossetti L . 1998. Note: identification of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus and subspecies lactis dairy isolates by amplified rDNA restriction analysis. J Appl Microbiol 85 : 918924.[PubMed]
34. Vernile A,, Giammanco G,, Spano G,, Thomas P,, Beresford TP,, Fox PF,, Massa S . 2008. Genotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Pecorino Siciliano cheese. Dairy Sci Technol 88 : 619629.
35. Coppola R,, Nanni M,, Iorizzo M,, Sorrentino A,, Sorrentino E,, Chiavari C,, Grazia L . 2000. Microbiological characteristics of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese during the cheesemaking and the first months of the ripening. Lait 80 : 479490.
36. Gala E,, Landi S,, Solieri L,, Nocetti M,, Pulvirenti A,, Giudici P . 2008. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria population in ripened Parmigiano Reggiano cheese. Int J Food Microbiol 125 : 347351.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
37. Gatti M,, De Dea Lindner J,, De Lorentiis A,, Bottari B,, Santarelli M,, Bernini V,, Neviani E . 2008. Dynamics of whole and lysed bacterial cells during Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production and ripening. Appl Environ Microbiol 74 : 61616167.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
38. Dìaz-Muñiz I,, Banavara DS,, Budinich MF,, Rankin SA,, Dudley EG,, Steele JL . 2006. Lactobacillus casei metabolic potential to utilize citrate as an energy source in ripening cheese: a bioinformatics approach. J Appl Microbiol 101 : 872882.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
39. Coppola R,, Nanni M,, Iorizzo M,, Sorrentino A,, Sorrentino E,, Grazia L . 1997. Survey of lactic acid bacteria isolated during the advanced stages of the ripening of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese. J Dairy Res 64 : 305310.
40. Jack F,, Paterson A . 1992. Texture of hard cheeses. Food Sci Technol 3 : 160164.
41. Bottazzi V . 1998. Vita dei Microbi nel Formaggio Grana. Mofin s.r.l., Novara, Italy.
42. De Angelis M,, Corsetti A,, Tosti N,, Rossi J,, Corbo MR,, Gobbetti M . 2001. Characterization of non-starter lactic acid bacteria from Italian ewe cheeses based on phenotypic, genotypic, and cell wall protein analyses. Appl Environ Microbiol 67 : 20112020.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
43. Fox PF,, McSweeney PLH . 1996. Proteolysis in cheese during ripening. Food Rev Int 12 : 457509.


Generic image for table

Traditional Italian PDO cheeses

Citation: Licitra G, Carpino S. 2014. The Microfloras and Sensory Profiles of Selected Protected Designation of Origin Italian Cheeses, p 151-165. In Donnelly C (ed), Cheese and Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0007-2012

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error