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Chapter 105 : Immune Thrombocytopenia

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Immune Thrombocytopenia, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by a platelet count of <100,000/μl in the absence of any underlying cause. The incidence of newly diagnosed ITP in adults ranges from 1.6 to 3.9 per 100,000 person-years. The female-to-male ratio ranges from 1.2 to 1.9. The general consensus is that the diagnosis is one of exclusion based on patient clinical history, physical examination, review of medication history, and performance of a complete blood count with review of the peripheral blood smear. One can classify the illness based on duration: (i) newly diagnosed with a duration of up to 3 months, (ii) persistent ITP of 3 months to 1 year, or (iii) chronic ITP of >1 year (1).

Citation: Kickler T. 2016. Immune Thrombocytopenia, p 995-997. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch105
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

The general outline of the MAIPA. Murine monoclonal antibody, such as antibody to glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, is added to the autoantibody-sensitized platelets and the mixture is lysed. The trimolecular complex is captured by goat anti-mouse antibody, enzyme-labeled anti-human antibody is added, and the results are read by adding the appropriate substrate.

Citation: Kickler T. 2016. Immune Thrombocytopenia, p 995-997. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch105
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References

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1. Provan D, Stasi R, Newland AC, Blanchette VS, Bolton-Maggs P, Bussel JB, Chong BH, Cines DB, Gernsheimer TB, Godeau B, Grainger J, Greer I, Hunt BJ, Imbach PA, Lyons G, McMillan R, Rodeghiero F, Sanz MA, Tarantino M, Watson S, Young J, Kuter DJ. 2010. International consensus report on the investigation and management of primary immune thrombocytopenia. Blood 115:168186.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
2. Cines DB, Bussel JB, Liebman HA, Luning Prak ET. 2009. The ITP syndrome: pathogenic and clinical diversity. Blood 113:65116521.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
3. McMillan R. 2009. Antiplatelet antibodies in chronic immune thrombocytopenia and their role in platelet destruction and defective platelet production. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 23:11631175.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
4. Semple JW. 2009. Infections, antigen-presenting cells, T cells, and immune tolerance: their role in the pathogenesis of immune thrombocytopenia. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 23:11771192.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
5. Glanz J, France E, Xu S, Hayes T, Hambidge S. 2008. A population-based, multisite cohort study of the predictors of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in children. Pediatrics 121:e506e512. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-1129.[CrossRef].[PubMed] http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1542/peds.2007-1129
6. Rodeghiero F, Stasi R, Gernsheimer T, Michel M, Provan D, Arnold DM, Bussel JB, Cines DB, Chong BH, Cooper N, Godeau B, Lechner K, Mazzucconi MG, McMillan R, Sanz MA, Imbach P, Blanchette V, Kühne T, Ruggeri M, George JN. 2009. Standardization of terminology, definitions and outcome criteria in immune thrombocytopenic purpura of adults and children: report from an international working group. Blood 113:23862393.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
7. Kiefel V, Santoso S, Weisheit M, Müeller-Eckhardt C. 1987. Monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA): a new tool for the identification of platelet-reactive antibodies. Blood 70:17221726.[PubMed]
8. Neunert C, Lim W, Cohen A, Solberg L, Crowther MA American Society of Hematology. 2011. Evidence based practice guidelines of immune thrombocytopenia. Blood 174:41904207.

Tables

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TABLE 1

International ITP Working Group consensus recommendations for the diagnosis of ITP in children and adults ( )

Citation: Kickler T. 2016. Immune Thrombocytopenia, p 995-997. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch105

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