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Chapter 13 : The Classical Pathway of Complement

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The Classical Pathway of Complement, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Complement evolved in parallel with coagulation as part of the primordial explosion of life in the Cambrian era. Remnants of this connection still exist in vertebrate animals as well as invertebrates. A classic example is the horseshoe crab, , still sought after by scientists today to test substances for traces of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin). The system used by the crabs had a molecule that recognized bacteria or other invaders that got into the hemolymph of the crab. An enzyme triggered by the first molecule induced local coagulation that served to trap the microbes so that they could be destroyed by phagocytes in the animal's circulation.

Citation: Giclas P. 2016. The Classical Pathway of Complement, p 129-132. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch13
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Schematic for the complement pathways of activation. The pathway initiators are shown at the top of each, with the components in sequence of their participation. Note the inclusion of the calcium- and magnesium-requiring steps as well as typical activators for each pathway. MBL, mannan-binding lectin.

Citation: Giclas P. 2016. The Classical Pathway of Complement, p 129-132. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch13
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References

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1. Nesargikar PN, Spiller B, Chavez R. 2012. The complement system: history, pathways, cascade and inhibitors. Eur J Microbiol Immunol 2:103111.[CrossRef]
2. Donaldson VH, Evans RR. 1963. A biochemical abnormality in hereditary angioneurotic edema: absence of serum inhibitor of C′ 1-esterase. Am J Med 35:3744.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
3. Ziccardi RJ. 1983. The first component of human complement (C1): activation and control. Springer Semin Immunopathol 6:213230.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
4. Law SK, Dodds AW. 1997. The internal thioester and the covalent binding properties of the complement proteins C3 and C4. Protein Sci 6:263274.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
5. Gadjeva M, Dodds AW, Taniguchi-Sidle A, Willis AC, Isenman DE, Law SK. 1998. The covalent binding reaction of complement component C3. J Immunol 161: 985990.[PubMed]
6. Isenman M. 1984. The molecular basis for the difference in immune hemolysis activity of the Chido and Rodgers isotypes of human complement component C4. J Immunol 132:30193027.[PubMed]
7. Gigli I, Sorvillo J, Halbwachs-Mecarelli L. 1985. Regulation and deregulation of the fluid-phase classical pathway C3 convertase. J Immunol 135:440444.[PubMed]
8. Kao AH, Navratil JS, Ruffing MJ, Liu CC, Hawkins D, McKinnon KM , et al 2010. Erythrocyte C3d and C4d for monitoring disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 62:837844.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
9. Batal I, Liang K, Bastacky S, Kiss LP, McHale T, Wilson NL , et al 2012. Prospective assessment of C4d deposits on circulating cells and renal tissues in lupus nephritis: a pilot study. Lupus 21:1326.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
10. Giclas P,. 2006. Analysis of complement in the clinical laboratory, p 115117. In Detrick B, Hamilton RG, Folds JD (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
11. Harbeck RJ, Giclas PC. 1991. Diagnostic Immunology Laboratory Manual. Raven Press, NY.

Tables

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TABLE 1

Interpretation of CH50 and AH50 test results

Citation: Giclas P. 2016. The Classical Pathway of Complement, p 129-132. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch13

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