1887

Chapter 29 : Functional Assays for B Cells and Antibodies

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Functional Assays for B Cells and Antibodies, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818722/9781555818715_CH29-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818722/9781555818715_CH29-2.gif

Abstract:

The primary cells of the adaptive immune system are T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. These lymphocytes assist the host in eliminating both intracellular pathogens (T cells and NK cells) and extracellular pathogens (B cells) through B cell-T cell interactions, as well as interactions with other cells and molecules of the innate immune system. B cells recognize foreign antigen by the B-cell receptor (BCR), a membrane-bound immunoglobulin generated through a complex genetic recombination process (1). The BCR recognizes conformational protein antigens as well as nonprotein antigens. Two types of B cells have been described based on expression of cell surface molecules and function. B1 (CD5) B cells are thought to be a more “natural” type of B cell which respond to T-cell-independent forms of antigen (i.e., bacterial polysaccharides) (2, 3). B2 B cells respond to T-cell-dependent antigens, such as the classic protein antigens tetanus and diphtheria toxoids. Both classes of B cells respond to BCR binding of antigen by proliferation, differentiation into antibody-secreting plasma cells, and formation of memory B cells.

Citation: Nahm M, Burton R. 2016. Functional Assays for B Cells and Antibodies, p 280-289. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch29
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Assay plate layout.

Citation: Nahm M, Burton R. 2016. Functional Assays for B Cells and Antibodies, p 280-289. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch29
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818722.ch29
1. Kindt TJ, Goldsby RA, Osborne BA, Kuby J. 2007. Immunology, 6th ed. WH Freeman, New York, NY.
2. Martin F, Kearney JF. 2001. B1 cells: similarities and differences with other B cell subsets. Curr Opin Immunol 13:195201.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
3. McHeyzer-Williams MG. 2003. B cells as effectors. Curr Opin Immunol 15:35461.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
4. Buckley RH, Dees SC, O'Fallon WM. 1968. Serum immunoglobulins. I. Levels in normal children and in uncomplicated childhood allergy. Pediatrics 41:600611.[PubMed]
5. Weber-Mzell D, Kotanko P, Hauer AC, Goriup U, Haas J, Lanner N, Erwa W, Ahmaida IA, Haitchi-Petnehazy S, Stenzel M, Lanzer G, Deutsch J. 2004. Gender, age and seasonal effects on IgA deficiency: a study of 7293 Caucasians. Eur J Clin Investig 34:224228.[CrossRef]
6. Buckley RH. 2002. Immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency: fact or fancy? Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2:356360.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
7. Maguire GA, Kumararatne DS, Joyce HJ. 2002. Are there any clinical indications for measuring IgG subclasses? Ann Clin Biochem 39:374377.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
8. Nahm MH, Blaese RM, Crain MJ, Briles DE. 1986. Patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome have normal IgG2 levels. J Immunol 137:34843487.[PubMed]
9. Carneiro-Sampaio MM, Grumach AS, Manissadjian A. 1991. Laboratory screening for the diagnosis of children with primary immunodeficiencies. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 1:195200.[PubMed]
10. Balmer P, North J, Baxter D, Stanford E, Melegaro A, Kaczmarski EB, Miller E, Borrow R. 2003. Measurement and interpretation of pneumococcal IgG levels for clinical management. Clin Exp Immunol 133:364369.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
11. Fleisher TA, Oliveira JB. 2004. Functional and molecular evaluation of lymphocytes. J Allergy Clin Immunol 114:227234; quiz 35.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
12. Noroski LM, Shearer WT. 1998. Screening for primary immunodeficiencies in the clinical immunology laboratory. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 86:237245.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
13. Wernette CM, Frasch CE, Madore D, Carlone G, Goldblatt D, Plikaytis B, Benjamin W, Quataert SA, Hildreth S, Sikkema DJ, Kayhty H, Jonsdottir J, Nahm MH. 2003. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantitation of human antibodies to pneumococcal polysaccharides. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:514519.[PubMed]
14. Park S, Nahm MH. 2011. Older adults have a low capacity to opsonize pneumococci due to low IgM antibody response to pneumococcal vaccinations. Infect Immun 79:314320.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
15. Simell B, Nurkka A, Ekstrom N, Givon-Lavi N, Kayhty H, Dagan R. 2012. Serum IgM antibodies contribute to high levels of opsonophagocytic activities in toddlers immunized with a single dose of the 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol 19:16181623.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
16. Pickering JW, Martins TB, Greer RW, Schroder MC, Astill ME, Litwin CM, Hildreth SW, Hill HR. 2002. A multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay for antibodies to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides. Am J Clin Pathol 117:589596.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
17. Zhang X, Simmerman K, Yen-Lieberman B, Daly TM. 2013. Impact of analytical variability on clinical interpretation of multiplex pneumococcal serology assays. Clin Vaccine Immunol 20:957961.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
18. Hill HR, Pickering JW. 2013. Reference laboratory agreement on multianalyte pneumococcal antibody results: an absolute must! Clin Vaccine Immunol 20:955956.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
19. Shearer WT, Rosenblatt HM, Gelman RS, Oyomopito R, Plaeger S, Stiehm ER, Wara DW, Douglas SD, Luzuriaga K, McFarland EJ, Yogev R, Rathore MH, Levy W, Graham BL, Spector SA. 2003. Lymphocyte subsets in healthy children from birth through 18 years of age: the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group P1009 study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 112:973980.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
20. Agematsu K, Futatani T, Hokibara S, Kobayashi N, Takamoto M, Tsukada S, Suzuki H, Koyasu S, Miyawaki T, Sugane K, Komiyama A, Ochs HD. 2002. Absence of memory B cells in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Clin Immunol 103:3442.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
21. Piqueras B, Lavenu-Bombled C, Galicier L, Bergeron-van der Cruyssen F, Mouthon L, Chevret S, Debré P, Schmitt C, Oksenhendler E. 2003. Common variable immunodeficiency patient classification based on impaired B cell memory differentiation correlates with clinical aspects. J Clin Immunol 23:385400.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
22. Warnatz K, Denz A, Drager R, Braun M, Groth C, Wolff-Vorbeck G, Eibel H, Schlesier M, Peter HH. 2002. Severe deficiency of switched memory B cells (CD27+IgMIgD) in subgroups of patients with common variable immunodeficiency: a new approach to classify a heterogeneous disease. Blood 99:15441551.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
23. Thiel A, Scheffold A, Radbruch A. 2004. Antigen-specific cytometry—new tools arrived! Clin Immunol 111:155161.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
24. Folds JD, Schmitz JL. 2003. Clinical and laboratory assessment of immunity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111:S702S711.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
25. Scott MG, Nahm MH. 1984. Mitogen-induced human IgG subclass expression. J Immunol 133:24542460.[PubMed]
26. Aguilar P, Renoult E, Jarrosson L, Kolopp-Sarda MN, Mathieu CP, Faure GC, Kessler M, Bene MC, Kohler C, Kennel De March A. 2003. Anti-HBs cellular immune response in kidney recipients before and 4 months after transplantation. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:11171122.[PubMed]
27. Sonobe MH, Trezena AG, Guilhen FB, Takano VL, Fratelli F, Sakauchi D, Morais JF, Prado SMA, Higashi HG. 2007. Determination of low tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin titers in sera by a toxin neutralization assay and a modified toxin-binding inhibition test. Braz J Med Biol Res 40:6976.[PubMed]
28. Stab V, Nitsche S, Niezold T, Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann M, Wiechers A, Tippler B, Hannaman D, Ehrhardt C, Überla K, Grunwald T, Tenbusch M. 2013. Protective efficacy and immunogenicity of a combinatory DNA vaccine against influenza A virus and the respiratory syncytial virus. PLoS One 8:e72217. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072217.[CrossRef].[PubMed] http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072217
29. Langermann S, Palaszynski S, Barnhart M, Auguste G, Pinkner JS, Burlein J, Barren P, Koenig S, Leath S, Jones CH, Hultgren SJ. 1997. Prevention of mucosal Escherichia coli infection by FimH-adhesin-based systemic vaccination. Science 276:607611.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
30. Romero-Steiner S, Spear W, Brown N, Holder P, Hennessy T, Gomez De Leon P, Carlone GM. 2004. Measurement of serum bactericidal activity specific for Haemophilus influenzae type b by using a chromogenic and fluorescent metabolic indicator. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:8993.[PubMed]
31. Burton RL, Nahm MH. 2006. Development and validation of a fourfold multiplexed opsonization assay (MOPA4) for pneumococcal antibodies. Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:10041009.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
32. Seidel UJ, Schlegel P, Lang P. 2013. Natural killer cell mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in tumor immunotherapy with therapeutic antibodies. Frontiers Immunol 4:76.
33. Fusco PC, Perry JW, Liang SM, Blake MS, Michon F, Tai JY. 1997. Bactericidal activity elicited by the beta C protein of group B streptococci contrasted with capsular polysaccharides. Adv Exp Med Biol 418:841845.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
34. Vermont C, van den Dobbelsteen G. 2002. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B: laboratory correlates of protection. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 34:8996.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
35. Zollinger WD, Mandrell RE. 1983. Importance of complement source in bactericidal activity of human antibody and murine monoclonal antibody to meningococcal group B polysaccharide. Infect Immun 40:257264.[PubMed]
36. Santos GF, Deck RR, Donnelly J, Blackwelder W, Granoff DM. 2001. Importance of complement source in measuring meningococcal bactericidal titers. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 8:616623.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
37. Granoff DM, Welsch JA, Ram S. 2009. Binding of complement factor H (fH) to Neisseria meningitidis is specific for human fH and inhibits complement activation by rat and rabbit sera. Infect Immun 77:764769.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
38. Lin JS, Park MK, Nahm MH. 2001. Chromogenic assay measuring opsonophagocytic killing capacities of antipneumococcal antisera. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 8:528533.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
39. Mountzouros KT, Howell AP. 2000. Detection of complement-mediated antibody-dependent bactericidal activity in a fluorescence-based serum bactericidal assay for group B Neisseria meningitidis. J Clin Microbiol 38:28782884.[PubMed]
40. Rodriguez T, Lastre M, Cedre B, del Campo J, Bracho G, Zayas C, Taboada C, Diaz M, Sierra G, Perez O. 2002. Standardization of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B colorimetric serum bactericidal assay. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9:109114.[PubMed]
41. Romero-Steiner S, Libutti D, Pais LB, Dykes J, Anderson P, Whitin JC, Keyserling HL, Carlone GM. 1997. Standardization of an opsonophagocytic assay for the measurement of functional antibody activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae using differentiated HL-60 cells. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 4:415422.[PubMed]
42. Jansen WT, Vakevainen-Anttila M, Kayhty H, Nahm M, Bakker N, Verhoef J, Snippe H, Verheul AF. 2001. Comparison of a classical phagocytosis assay and a flow cytometry assay for assessment of the phagocytic capacity of sera from adults vaccinated with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 8:245250.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
43. Martinez JE, Romero-Steiner S, Pilishvili T, Barnard S, Schinsky J, Goldblatt D, Carlone GM. 1999. A flow cytometric opsonophagocytic assay for measurement of functional antibodies elicited after vaccination with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 6:581586.[PubMed]
44. Bogaert D, Sluijter M, De Groot R, Hermans PW. 2004. Multiplex opsonophagocytosis assay (MOPA): a useful tool for the monitoring of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Vaccine 22:40144020.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
45. Kim KH, Yu J, Nahm MH. 2003. Efficiency of a pneumococcal opsonophagocytic killing assay improved by multiplexing and by coloring colonies. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:616621.[PubMed]
46. Nahm MH, Briles DE, Yu X. 2000. Development of a multi-specificity opsonophagocytic killing assay. Vaccine 18:27682771.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
47. Fleck RA, Romero-Steiner S, Nahm MH. 2005. Use of HL-60 cell line to measure opsonic capacity of pneumococcal antibodies. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 12:1927.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
48. Romero-Steiner S, Frasch C, Concepcion N, Goldblatt D, Kayhty H, Vakevainen M, Laferriere C,. Wauters D, Nahm MH, Schinsky MF, Plikaytis BD, Carlone GM. 2003. Multilaboratory evaluation of a viability assay for measurement of opsonophagocytic antibodies specific to the capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:10191024.[PubMed]
49. Bergeron MG, Simard P, Provencher P. 1987. Influence of growth medium and supplement on growth of Haemophilus influenzae and on antibacterial activity of several antibiotics. J Clin Microbiol 25:650655.[PubMed]
50. Butch AW, Macke KA, Scott MG, Inkster M, Nahm MH. 1989. Mitogen-induced human IgG subclass expression. II. IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses are preferentially stimulated by a combination of Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I and pokeweed mitogen. Hum Immunol 24:207218.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
51. James SP,. 2004. Measurement of basic immunological characteristics of human mononuclear cells, p 7.10.17.10.6. In Coligan JE, Kruisgeek AM, Margulies DH, Shevach EM, Strober W (ed), Current Protocols in Immunology. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

B-cell markers used in flow cytometry

Citation: Nahm M, Burton R. 2016. Functional Assays for B Cells and Antibodies, p 280-289. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Associations with humoral or B-lymphocyte deficiencies

Citation: Nahm M, Burton R. 2016. Functional Assays for B Cells and Antibodies, p 280-289. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

activators of B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin production

Citation: Nahm M, Burton R. 2016. Functional Assays for B Cells and Antibodies, p 280-289. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Pneumococcal target strains for the MOPA

Citation: Nahm M, Burton R. 2016. Functional Assays for B Cells and Antibodies, p 280-289. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch29

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error