1887

Chapter 55 : Serological and Molecular Diagnosis of Fungal Infections

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Serological and Molecular Diagnosis of Fungal Infections , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818722/9781555818715_CH55-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818722/9781555818715_CH55-2.gif

Abstract:

Analysis of the signs and symptoms of disease, in conjunction with an evaluation of available epidemiologic information and the results of modern imaging procedures, can often provide a presumptive clinical diagnosis of a fungal infection. However, the clinical presentation of many mycotic diseases is nonspecific, and a presumptive diagnosis must therefore be confirmed by appropriate laboratory tests. A definitive diagnosis of fungal disease is usually based upon the isolation of the etiologic agent in culture and/or microscopic demonstration of the organism in histopathologic or other clinical specimens. Unfortunately, these laboratory methods are insensitive and often unsuccessful, despite repeated sampling efforts. In the absence of positive microscopy or culture, immunologic and molecular tests offer alternative laboratory procedures to aid in the diagnosis of a mycotic disease. Advances in molecular diagnostic methods and the commercial introduction of new antigen and antibody detection tests hold promise for an earlier and more specific diagnosis than previously possible. Antibody detection tests are often helpful for the diagnosis of fungal infections. For example, when acute- and convalescent-phase serum specimens are tested, seroconversion from negative to positive or a 4-fold rise in antibody titer is considered to be diagnostic.

Citation: Lindsley M. 2016. Serological and Molecular Diagnosis of Fungal Infections , p 503-534. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch55
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Examples of ID results observed when a seven-well agar gel pattern is used. (A) Band of identity (patient 2); (B) band of partial identity (patient 1); (C) band of nonidentity (patient 3). Ag, reference antigen; Ab, reference antiserum; 1 to 4, patient test sera. A standard reference band is shown midway between the antiserum-containing wells and the central antigen-containing wells in all three panels.

Citation: Lindsley M. 2016. Serological and Molecular Diagnosis of Fungal Infections , p 503-534. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch55
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Diagram displaying organization of the microtiter plates and results for the CF assay. Solid circles, 100% lysis; shaded circles, 30 to 90% lysis; open circles, 0% lysis. SC, serum control wells receiving buffer in place of antigen; H, column receiving mycelial histoplasmin antigen; Y, column receiving yeast antigen; B, column receiving antigen; C, column receiving coccidioidin antigen; P, column receiving yeast antigen; CC, cell control; CH, amount of complement required for 50% lysis of SRBC. (A) Patient plate. Patient 1 demonstrates serum that is positive for antibodies with a 1:16 titer against mycelial histoplasmin antigen and a 1:64 titer against yeast antigen. Patient 2 displays serum that contains an AC titer of 1:16. However, because antibodies to coccidioidin are present at a titer that is >2 dilutions beyond the AC titer, the patient CF result is AC 1:16, 1:128. (B) Control plate. Columns 1 to 9 depict the reactivity of the control sera to specific fungal antigens. Columns 10 to 12, rows A to F, depict the results of the back titration of complement in CH units (5, 2.5, or 1.25) in the presence of fungal antigens or the VBD buffer control. Columns 11 and 12, row H, depict the cell control wells that receive SRBC only.

Citation: Lindsley M. 2016. Serological and Molecular Diagnosis of Fungal Infections , p 503-534. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch55
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818722.ch55
1. Palmer DF, Kaufman L, Kaplan W, Cavalaro JJ. 1977. Serodiagnosis of Mycotic Diseases. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, IL.
2. Gade W, Hinnefeld SW, Babcock LS, Gilligan P, Kelly W, Wait K, Greer D, Pinilla M, Kaplan RL. 1991. Comparison of the PREMIER cryptococcal antigen enzyme immunoassay and the latex agglutination assay for detection of cryptococcal antigens. J Clin Microbiol 29:16161619.[PubMed]
3. Tanner DC, Weinstein MP, Fedorciw B, Joho KL, Thorpe JJ, Reller L. 1994. Comparison of commercial kits for detection of cryptococcal antigen. J Clin Microbiol 32:16801684.[PubMed]
4. Temstet A, Roux P, Poirot JL, Ronin O, Dromer F. 1992. Evaluation of a monoclonal antibody-based latex agglutination test for diagnosis of cryptococcosis: comparison with two tests using polyclonal antibodies. J Clin Microbiol 30:25442550.[PubMed]
5. Gray LD, Roberts GD. 1988. Experience with the use of pronase to eliminate interference factors in the latex agglutination test for cryptococcal antigen. J Clin Microbiol 26:24502451.[PubMed]
6. Obayashi T , et al 1995. Plasma (1→3)-beta-d-glucan measurement in diagnosis of invasive deep mycosis and fungal febrile episodes. Lancet 345:1720.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
7. Takesue Y, Kakehashi M, Ohge H, Imamura Y, Murakami Y, Sasaki M, Morifuji M, Yokoyama Y, Kouyama M, Yokoyama T, Sueda T. 2004. Combined assessment of beta-d-glucan and degree of candida colonization before starting empiric therapy for candidiasis in surgical patients. World J Surg 28:625630.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
8. Kawazu M, Kanda Y, Nannya Y, Aoki K, Kurokawa M, Chiba S, Motokura T, Hirai H, Ogawa S. 2004. Prospective comparison of the diagnostic potential of real-time PCR, double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for galactomannan, and a (1→3)-beta-d-glucan test in weekly screening for invasive aspergillosis in patients with hematological disorders. J Clin Microbiol 42:27332741.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
9. Wright WF, Overman SB, Ribes JA. 2011. (1→3)-β-d-Glucan assay: a review of its laboratory and clinical application. Lab Med 42:679685.[CrossRef]
10. Kanda H, Kubo K, Hamasaki K, Kanda Y, Nakao A, Kitamura T, Fujita T, Yamamoto K, Mimura T. 2001. Influence of various hemodialysis membranes on the plasma (1→3)-beta-D-glucan level. Kidney Int 60:319323.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
11. Kato A, Takita T, Furuhashi M, Takahashi T, Maruyama Y, Hishida A. 2001. Elevation of blood (1→3)-beta- D-glucan concentrations in hemodialysis patients. Nephron 89:1519.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
12. Ogawa M, Hori H, Niiguchi S, Azuma E, Komada Y. 2004. False-positive plasma (1→3)-beta-D-glucan test following immunoglobulin product replacement in an adult bone marrow recipient. Int J Hematol 80:9798.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
13. Kanamori H, Kanemitsu K, Miyasaka T, Ameku K, Endo S, Aoyagi T, Inden K, Hatta M, Yamamoto N, Kunishima H, Yano H, Kaku K, Hirakata Y, Kaku M. 2009. Measurement of (1→3)-beta-D-glucan derived from different gauze types. Tohoku J Exp Med 217:117121.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
14. Aketagawa J, Tanaka S, Tamura H, Shibata Y, Saitô H. 1993. Activation of limulus coagulation factor G by several (1→3)-beta-D-glucans: comparison of the potency of glucans with identical degree of polymerization but different conformations. J Biochem 113:683686.[PubMed]
15. Saitô H, Yoshioka Y, Uehara N, Aketagawa J, Tanaka S, Shibata Y. 1991. Relationship between conformation and biological response for (1→3)-beta-D-glucans in the activation of coagulation factor G from limulus amebocyte lysate and host-mediated antitumor activity. Demonstration of single-helix conformation as a stimulant. Carbohydr Res 217:181190.[CrossRef]
16. Tamura H, Arimoto Y, Tanaka S, Yoshida M, Obayashi T, Kawai T. 1994. Automated kinetic assay for endotoxin and (1→3)-beta-D-glucan in human blood. Clin Chim Acta 226:109112.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
17. Marr KA, Balajee SA, McLaughlin L, Tabouret M, Bentsen C, Walsh TJ. 2004. Detection of galactomannan antigenemia by enzyme immunoassay for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis: variables that affect performance. J Infect Dis 190:641649.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
18. De Pauw B, Walsh TJ, Donnelly JP, Stevens DA, Edwards JE, Calandra T, Pappas PG, Maertens J, Lortholary O, Kauffman CA, Denning DW, Patterson TF, Maschmeyer G, Bille J, Dismukes WE, Herbrecht R, Hope WW, Kibbler CC, Kullberg BJ, Marr KA, Muñoz P, Odds FC, Perfect JR, Restrepo A, Ruhnke M, Segal BH, Sobel JD, Sorrell TC, Viscoli C, Wingard JR, Zaoutis T, Bennett JE European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group. 2008. Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group. Clin Infect Dis 46:18131821.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
19. Coleman RM, Kaufman L. 1972. Use of the immunodiffusion test in the serodiagnosis of aspergillosis. Appl Microbiol 23:301308.[PubMed]
20. Bardana EJ Jr, Gerber JD, Craig S, Cianciulli FD. 1975. The general and specific humoral immune response to pulmonary aspergillosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 112:799805.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
21. Guitard J, Sendid B, Thorez S, Gits M, Hennequin C. 2012. Evaluation of a recombinant antigen-based enzyme immunoassay for the diagnosis of noninvasive aspergillosis. J Clin Microbiol 50:762765.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
22. Rohrlich P, Sarfati J, Mariani P, Duval M, Carol A, Saint-Martin C, Bingen E, Latge JP, Vilmer E. 1996. Prospective sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serum galactomannan: early predictive value and clinical use in invasive aspergillosis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 15:232237.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
23. Verweij PE, Stynen D, Rijs AJ, de Pauw BE, Hoogkamp-Korstanje JA, Meis JF. 1995. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay compared with Pastorex latex agglutination test for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. J Clin Microbiol 33: 19121914.[PubMed]
24. Husain S, Clancy CJ, Nguyen MH, Swartzentruber S, Leather H, LeMonte AM, Durkin MM, Knox KS, Hage CA, Bentsen C, Singh N, Wingard JR, Wheat LJ. 2008. Performance characteristics of the platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay for detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:17601763.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
25. Verweij PE, Weemaes CM, Curfs JH, Bretagne S, Meis JF. 2000. Failure to detect circulating Aspergillus markers in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease and invasive aspergillosis. J Clin Microbiol 38:39003901.[PubMed]
26. Thornton CR. 2008. Development of an immunochromatographic lateral-flow device for rapid serodiagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:10951105.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
27. Wiederhold NP, Najvar LK, Bocanegra R, Kirkpatrick WR, Patterson TF, Thornton CR. 2013. Interlaboratory and interstudy reproducibility of a novel lateral-flow device and influence of antifungal therapy on detection of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. J Clin Microbiol 51:459465.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
28. White PL, Parr C, Thornton C, Barnes RA. 2013. Evaluation of real-time PCR, galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a novel lateral-flow device for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. J Clin Microbiol 51:15101516.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
29. Karthaus M, Buchheidt D. 2013. Invasive aspergillosis: new insights into disease, diagnostic and treatment. Curr Pharm Des 19:35693594.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
30. Lackner M, Lass-Flörl C. 2013. Up-date on diagnostic strategies of invasive aspergillosis. Curr Pharm Des 19:35953614.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
31. Marty FM, Koo S. 2009. Role of (1→3)-beta-D-glucan in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. Med Mycol 47(Suppl 1):S233S240.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
32. Karageorgopoulos DE, Vouloumanou EK, Ntziora F, Michalopoulos A, Rafailidis PI, Falagas ME. 2011. β-D-glucan assay for the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 52:750770.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
33. Gao X, Chen L, Hu G, Mei H. 2010. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the diagnostic value of combined serological tests. Ann Saudi Med 30:193197.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
34. Pazos C, Pontón J, Del Palacio A. 2005. Contribution of (1→3)-beta-D-glucan chromogenic assay to diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of invasive aspergillosis in neutropenic adult patients: a comparison with serial screening for circulating galactomannan. J Clin Microbiol 43:299305.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
35. Guarner J, Brandt ME. 2011. Histopathologic diagnosis of fungal infections in the 21st century. Clin Microbiol Rev 24:247280.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
36. Jensen HE, Halbaek B, Lind P, Krogh HV, Frandsen PL. 1996. Development of murine monoclonal antibodies for the immunohistochemical diagnosis of systemic bovine aspergillosis. J Vet Diagn Investig 8:6875.[CrossRef]
37. Pfister JR, Archer JR, Hersil S, Boers T, Reed KD, Meece JK, Anderson JL, Burgess JW, Sullivan TD, Klein BS, Wheat LJ, Davis JP. 2011. Non-rural point source blastomycosis outbreak near a yard waste collection site. Clin Med Res 9:5765.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
38. Roy M, Benedict K, Deak E, Kirby MA, McNiel JT, Sickler CJ, Eckardt E, Marx RK, Heffernan RT, Meece JK, Klein BS, Archer JR, Theurer J, Davis JP, Park BJ. 2013. A large community outbreak of blastomycosis in Wisconsin with geographic and ethnic clustering. Clin Infect Dis 57:655662.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
39. Saccente M, Woods GL. 2010. Clinical and laboratory update on blastomycosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 23:367381.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
40. Smith JA, Kauffman CA. 2010. Blastomycosis. Proc Am Thorac Soc 7:173180.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
41. Hurst SF, Kaufman L. 1992. Western immunoblot analysis and serologic characterization of Blastomyces dermatitidis yeast form extracellular antigens. J Clin Microbiol 30:30433049.[PubMed]
42. Klein BS, Jones JM. 1994. Purification and characterization of the major antigen WI-1 from Blastomyces dermatitidis yeasts and immunological comparison with A antigen. Infect Immun 62:38903900.[PubMed]
43. Klein BS, Kuritsky JN, Chappell WA, Kaufman L, Green J, Davies SF, Williams JE, Sarosi GA. 1986. Comparison of the enzyme immunoassay, immunodiffusion, and complement fixation tests in detecting antibody in human serum to the A antigen of Blastomyces dermatitidis. Am Rev Respir Dis 133:144148.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
44. Lambert RS, George RB. 1987. Evaluation of enzyme immunoassay as a rapid screening test for histoplasmosis and blastomycosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 136:316319.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
45. Turner S, Kaufman L. 1986. Immunodiagnosis of blastomycosis. Semin Respir Infect 1:2228.[PubMed]
46. Durkin M, Witt J, Lemonte A, Wheat B, Connolly P. 2004. Antigen assay with the potential to aid in diagnosis of blastomycosis. J Clin Microbiol 42:48734875.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
47. Connolly P, Hage CA, Bariola JR, Bensadoun E, Rodgers M, Bradsher RW Jr, Wheat LJ. 2012. Blastomyces dermatitidis antigen detection by quantitative enzyme immunoassay. Clin Vaccine Immunol 19:5356.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
48. Clancy CJ, Nguyen ML, Cheng S, Huang H, Fan G, Jaber RA, Wingard JR, Cline C, Nguyen MH. 2008. Immunoglobulin G responses to a panel of Candida albicans antigens as accurate and early markers for the presence of systemic candidiasis. J Clin Microbiol 46:16471654.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
49. Lain A, Elguezabal N, Amutio E, Fernandez de Larrinoa I, Moragues MD, Ponton J. 2008. Use of recombinant antigens for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis. Clin Dev Immunol 2008:721950. doi:721910.721155/722008/721950.[CrossRef].[PubMed] http://dx.doi.org/doi:721910.721155/722008/721950
50. Li FQ, Ma CF, Shi LN, Lu JF, Wang Y, Huang M, Kong QQ. 2013. Diagnostic value of immunoglobulin G antibodies against Candida enolase and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase for candidemia. BMC Infect Dis 13:253.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
51. Moragues MD, Ortiz N, Iruretagoyena JR, García-Ruiz JC, Amutio E, Rojas A, Mendoza J, Quindós G, Pontón-San Emeterio J. 2004. Evaluación de una nueva técnica comercializada (Candida albicans IFA IgG) para el diagnóstico de la candidiasis invasiva. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 22:8388.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
52. Zaragoza R, Peman J, Quindos G, Iruretagoyena JR, Cuetara MS, Ramirez P, Gomez MD, Camarena JJ, Viudes A, Ponton J Candida albicans Germ Tube Antibody Detection in Critically Ill Patients. 2009. Clinical significance of the detection of Candida albicans germ tube-specific antibodies in critically ill patients. Clin Microbiol Infect 15:592595.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
53. León C, Ruiz-Santana S, Saavedra P, Castro C, Ubeda A, Loza A, Martín-Mazuelos E, Blanco A, Jerez V, Ballús J, Alvarez-Rocha L, Utande-Vázquez A, Fariñas O. 2012. Value of β-D-glucan and Candida albicans germ tube antibody for discriminating between Candida colonization and invasive candidiasis in patients with severe abdominal conditions. Intensive Care Med 38:13151325.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
54. Pemán J, Zaragoza R. 2012. Combined use of nonculture-based lab techniques in the diagnosis and management of critically ill patients with invasive fungal infections. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 10:13211330.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
55. Bär W, Hecker H. 2002. Diagnosis of systemic Candida infections in patients of the intensive care unit. Significance of serum antigens and antibodies. Mycoses 45:2228.[PubMed]
56. Merz WG, Evans GL, Shadomy S, Anderson S, Kaufman L, Kozinn PJ, Mackenzie DW, Protzman WP, Remington JS. 1977. Laboratory evaluation of serological tests for systemic candidiasis: a cooperative study. J Clin Microbiol 5:596603.[PubMed]
57. Misaki H, Iwasaki H, Ueda T. 2003. A comparison of the specificity and sensitivity of two Candida antigen assay systems for the diagnosis of deep candidiasis in patients with hematologic diseases. Med Sci Monit 9:MT1MT7.[PubMed]
58. Sendid B, Tabouret M, Poirot JL, Mathieu D, Fruit J, Poulain D. 1999. New enzyme immunoassays for sensitive detection of circulating Candida albicans mannan and antimannan antibodies: useful combined test for diagnosis of systemic candidiasis. J Clin Microbiol 37:15101517.[PubMed]
59. Held J, Kohlberger I, Rappold E, Busse Grawitz A, Häcker G. 2013. Comparison of (1→3)-β-d-glucan, mannan/anti-mannan antibodies, and Cand-Tec Candida antigen as serum biomarkers for candidemia. J Clin Microbiol 51:11581164.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
60. Suzuki S. 1997. Immunochemical study on mannans of genus Candida. I. Structural investigation of antigenic factors 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 13b and 34. Curr Top Med Mycol 8:5770.[PubMed]
61. Mohr JF, Sims C, Paetznick V, Rodriguez J, Finkelman MA, Rex JH, Ostrosky-Zeichner L. 2011. Prospective survey of (1→3)-beta-D-glucan and its relationship to invasive candidiasis in the surgical intensive care unit setting. J Clin Microbiol 49:5861.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
62. Jaijakul S, Vazquez JA, Swanson RN, Ostrosky-Zeichner L. 2012. (1,3)-β-D-glucan as a prognostic marker of treatment response in invasive candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis 55:521526.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
63. Sims CR, Jaijakul S, Mohr J, Rodriguez J, Finkelman M, Ostrosky-Zeichner L. 2012. Correlation of clinical outcomes with β-glucan levels in patients with invasive candidiasis. J Clin Microbiol 50:21042106.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
64. Kaufman L, Reiss E,. 1992. Serodiagnosis of fungal diseases, p 506528. In Rose NR, de Macario EV, Fahey JL, Friedman H, Penn GM (ed), Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 4th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
65. Pappagianis D, Zimmer BL. 1990. Serology of coccidioidomycosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 3:247268.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
66. Abrams DI, Robia M, Blumenfeld W, Simonson J, Cohen MB, Hadley WK. 1984. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis in AIDS. N Engl J Med 310:986987.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
67. Dosanjh A, Theodore J, Pappagianis D. 1998. Probable false positive coccidioidal serologic results in patients with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Transplant 2:313317.[PubMed]
68. Smith CE, Saito MT, Simons SA. 1956. Pattern of 39,500 serologic tests in coccidioidomycosis. J Am Med Assoc 160:546552.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
69. Huppert M, Peterson ET, Sun SH, Chitjian PA, Derrevere WJ. 1968. Evaluation of a latex particle agglutination test for coccidioidomycosis. Am J Clin Pathol 49:96102.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
70. Drutz DJ, Catanzaro A. 1978. Coccidioidomycosis. Part I. Am Rev Respir Dis 117:559585.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
71. Cox RA, Magee DM. 1998. Protective immunity in coccidioidomycosis. Res Immunol 149:417428, 506–417.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
72. Kaufman L, Sekhon AS, Moledina N, Jalbert M, Pappagianis D. 1995. Comparative evaluation of commercial Premier EIA and microimmunodiffusion and complement fixation tests for Coccidioides immitis antibodies. J Clin Microbiol 33:618619.[PubMed]
73. Martins TB, Jaskowski TD, Mouritsen CL, Hill HR. 1995. Comparison of commercially available enzyme immunoassay with traditional serological tests for detection of antibodies to Coccidioides immitis. J Clin Microbiol 33:940943.[PubMed]
74. Zartarian M, Peterson EM, de la Maza LM. 1997. Detection of antibodies to Coccidioides immitis by enzyme immunoassay. Am J Clin Pathol 107:148153.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
75. Blair JE, Currier JT. 2008. Significance of isolated positive IgM serologic results by enzyme immunoassay for coccidioidomycosis. Mycopathologia 166:7782.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
76. Crum NF, Lederman ER, Stafford CM, Parrish JS, Wallace MR. 2004. Coccidioidomycosis: a descriptive survey of a reemerging disease. Clinical characteristics and current controversies. Medicine (Baltimore) 83:149175.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
77. Kuberski T, Herrig J, Pappagianis D. 2010. False-positive IgM serology in coccidioidomycosis. J Clin Microbiol 48:20472049.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
78. Blair JE, Mendoza N, Force S, Chang Y-H, Grys TE. 2013. Clinical specificity of the enzyme immunoassay test for coccidioidomycosis varies according to the reason for its performance. Clin Vaccine Immunol 20:9598.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
79. Johnson SM, Zimmermann CR, Pappagianis D. 1996. Use of a recombinant Coccidioides immitis complement fixation antigen-chitinase in conventional serological assays. J Clin Microbiol 34:31603164.[PubMed]
80. Durkin M, Connolly P, Kuberski T, Myers R, Kubak BM, Bruckner D, Pegues D, Wheat LJ. 2008. Diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis with use of the Coccidioides antigen enzyme immunoassay. Clin Infect Dis 47:e69e73.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
81. Harris JR, Lockhart SR, Debess E, Marsden-Haug N, Goldoft M, Wohrle R, Lee S, Smelser C, Park B, Chiller T. 2011. Cryptococcus gattii in the United States: clinical aspects of infection with an emerging pathogen. Clin Infect Dis 53:11881195.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
82. Goldman DL, Khine H, Abadi J, Lindenberg DJ, Pirofski LA, Niang R, Casadevall A. 2001. Serologic evidence for Cryptococcus neoformans infection in early childhood. Pediatrics 107:E66.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
83. Sekhon AS, Garg AK, Kaufman L, Kobayashi GS, Hamir Z, Jalbert M, Moledina N. 1993. Evaluation of a commercial enzyme immunoassay for the detection of cryptococcal antigen. Mycoses 36:3134.[PubMed]
84. Binnicker MJ, Jespersen DJ, Bestrom JE, Rollins LO. 2012. Comparison of four assays for the detection of cryptococcal antigen. Clin Vaccine Immunol 19:19881990.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
85. Jarvis JN, Percival A, Bauman S, Pelfrey J, Meintjes G, Williams GN, Longley N, Harrison TS, Kozel TR. 2011. Evaluation of a novel point-of-care cryptococcal antigen test on serum, plasma, and urine from patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. Clin Infect Dis 53:10191023.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
86. Lindsley MD, Mekha N, Baggett HC, Surinthong Y, Autthateinchai R, Sawatwong P, Harris JR, Park BJ, Chiller T, Balajee SA, Poonwan N. 2011. Evaluation of a newly developed lateral flow immunoassay for the diagnosis of cryptococcosis. Clin Infect Dis 53:321325.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
87. Klausner JD, Vijayan T, Chiller T. 2013. Sensitivity and specificity of a new cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. MLO Med Lab Obs 45:1620.[PubMed]
88. Gates-Hollingsworth MA, Kozel TR. 2013. Serotype sensitivity of a lateral flow immunoassay for cryptococcal antigen. Clin Vaccine Immunol 20:634635.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
89. Harris JR, Lindsley MD, Henchaichon S, Poonwan N, Naorat S, Prapasiri P, Chantra S, Ruamcharoen F, Chang LS, Chittaganpitch M, Mehta N, Peruski L, Maloney SA, Park BJ, Baggett HC. 2012. High prevalence of cryptococcal infection among HIV-infected patients hospitalized with pneumonia in Thailand. Clin Infect Dis 54:e43e50.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
90. Meya DB, Manabe YC, Castelnuovo B, Cook BA, Elbireer AM, Kambugu A, Kamya MR, Bohjanen PR, Boulware DR. 2010. Cost-effectiveness of serum cryptococcal antigen screening to prevent deaths among HIV-infected persons with a CD4+ cell count < or = 100 cells/microL who start HIV therapy in resource-limited settings. Clin Infect Dis 51:448455.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
91. Heiner DC. 1958. Diagnosis of histoplasmosis using precipitin reactions in agar gel. Pediatrics 22:616627.[PubMed]
92. Wiggins GL, Schubert JH. 1965. Relationship of histoplasmin agar-gel bands and complement-fixation titers in histoplasmosis. J Bacteriol 89:589596.[PubMed]
93. Negroni R, Robles AM, Arechavala AL, Iovannitti C, Helou S, Kaufman L. 1995. Chronic meningoencephalitis due to Histoplasma capsulatum. Usefulness of serodiagnostic procedures in diagnosis. Serodiagn Immunother Infect Dis 7:8489.[CrossRef]
94. Kwon-Chung J, Bennett JE. 1994. Medical Mycology. Lea and Febiger, Melvern, PA.
95. Wheat J, French ML, Kamel S, Tewari RP. 1986. Evaluation of cross-reactions in Histoplasma capsulatum serologic tests. J Clin Microbiol 23:493499.[PubMed]
96. Hill GB, Campbell CC. 1962. Commercially available histoplasmin sensitized latex particles in an agglutination test for histoplasmosis. Mycopathologia 18:160176.[PubMed]
97. Kaufman L, Kovacs JA, Reiss E,. 1997. Clinical immunomycology, p 585604. In Rose NR, de Macario EC, Folds JD, Lane HC, Nakamura RM (ed), Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
98. Zancopé-Oliveira RM, Bragg SL, Reiss E, Peralta JM. 1994. Immunochemical analysis of the H and M glycoproteins from Histoplasma capsulatum. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 1:563568.[PubMed]
99. Hamilton AJ. 1998. Serodiagnosis of histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis and penicilliosis marneffei; current status and future trends. Med Mycol 36:351364.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
100. Guimarães AJ, Pizzini CV, De Matos Guedes HL, Albuquerque PC, Peralta JM, Hamilton AJ, Zancopé-Oliveira RM. 2004. ELISA for early diagnosis of histoplasmosis. J Med Microbiol 53:509514.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
101. Guimarães AJ, Pizzini CV, De Abreu Almeida M, Peralta JM, Nosanchuk JD, Zancopé-Oliveira RM. 2010. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using purified, deglycosylated histoplasmin for different clinical manifestations of histoplasmosis. Microbiol Res(Pavia) 2:714.
102. Wheat LJ, Connolly-Stringfield P, Blair R, Connolly K, Garringer T, Katz BP, Gupta M. 1992. Effect of successful treatment with amphotericin B on Histoplasma capsulatum variety capsulatum polysaccharide antigen levels in patients with AIDS and histoplasmosis. Am J Med 92:153160.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
103. Wheat LJ, Garringer T, Brizendine E, Connolly P. 2002. Diagnosis of histoplasmosis by antigen detection based upon experience at the histoplasmosis reference laboratory. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 43:2937.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
104. Richardson RD, Warnock DW. 1997. Fungal Infection: Diagnosis and Management, 2nd ed. Blackwell Science, Malden, MA.
105. Connolly PA, Durkin MM, Lemonte AM, Hackett EJ, Wheat LJ. 2007. Detection of histoplasma antigen by a quantitative enzyme immunoassay. Clin Vaccine Immunol 14:15871591.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
106. Hage CA, Ribes JA, Wengenack NL, Baddour LM, Assi M, McKinsey DS, Hammoud K, Alapat D, Babady NE, Parker M, Fuller D, Noor A, Davis TE, Rodgers M, Connolly PA, El Haddad B, Wheat LJ. 2011. A multicenter evaluation of tests for diagnosis of histoplasmosis. Clin Infect Dis 53:448454.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
107. Zhang X, Gibson B Jr, Daly TM. 2013. Evaluation of commercially available reagents for diagnosis of histoplasmosis infection in immunocompromised patients. J Clin Microbiol 51:40954101.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
108. Theel ES, Jespersen DJ, Harring J, Mandrekar J, Binnicker MJ. 2013. Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for detection of Histoplasma capsulatum antigen from urine specimens. J Clin Microbiol 51:35553559.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
109. Brummer E, Castaneda E, Restrepo A. 1993. Paracoccidioidomycosis: an update. Clin Microbiol Rev 6:89117.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
110. Puccia R, Schenkman S, Gorin PA, Travassos LR. 1986. Exocellular components of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: identification of a specific antigen. Infect Immun 53:199206.[PubMed]
111. Camargo ZP, Unterkircher C, Travassos LR. 1989. Identification of antigenic polypeptides of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by immunoblotting. J Med Vet Mycol 27:407412.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
112. Bueno JP, Mendes-Giannini MJ, Del Negro GM, Assis CM, Takiguti CK, Shikanai-Yasuda MA. 1997. IgG, IgM and IgA antibody response for the diagnosis and follow-up of paracoccidioidomycosis: comparison of counterimmunoelectrophoresis and complement fixation. J Med Vet Mycol 35:213217.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
113. Restrepo-Moreno A, Schneidau JD Jr. 1967. Nature of the skin-reactive principle in culture filtrates prepared from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. J Bacteriol 93:17411748.[PubMed]
114. De Camargo Z, Unterkircher C, Campoy SP, Travassos LR. 1988. Production of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis exoantigens for immunodiffusion tests. J Clin Microbiol 26:21472151.[PubMed]
115. Perenha-Viana MC, Gonzales IA, Brockelt SR, Machado LN, Svidzinski TI. 2012. Serological diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis through a Western blot technique. Clin Vaccine Immunol 19:616619.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
116. Silveira-Gomes F, Marques-da-Silva SH. 2012. Effects of pretreating serum samples on the performance of a latex agglutination test for serodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol 19:386390.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
117. Samson RA, Yilmaz N, Houbraken J, Spierenburg H, Seifert KA, Peterson SW, Varga J, Frisvad JC. 2011. Phylogeny and nomenclature of the genus Talaromyces and taxa accommodated in Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium. Stud Mycol 70:159183.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
118. Wang YF, Cai JP, Wang YD, Dong H, Hao W, Jiang LX, Long J, Chan C, Woo PC, Lau SK, Yuen KY, Che XY. 2011. Immunoassays based on Penicillium marneffei Mp1p derived from Pichia pastoris expression system for diagnosis of penicilliosis. PLoS One 6:e28796.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
119. Stringer JR, Beard CB, Miller RF, Wakefield AE. 2002. A new name (Pneumocystis jiroveci) for Pneumocystis from humans. Emerg Infect Dis 8:891896.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
120. Edman JC, Kovacs JA, Masur H, Santi DV, Elwood HJ, Sogin ML. 1988. Ribosomal RNA sequence shows Pneumocystis carinii to be a member of the fungi. Nature 334:519522.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
121. Stringer JR, Cushion MT, Wakefield AE. 2001. New nomenclature for the genus Pneumocystis. J Eukaryot Microbiol 48(Suppl):184S189S.
122. Wakefield AE, Lindley AR, Ambrose HE, Denis CM, Miller RF. 2003. Limited asymptomatic carriage of Pneumocystis jiroveci in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J Infect Dis 187:901908.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
123. Ng VL, Yajko DM, Hadley WK. 1997. Extrapulmonary pneumocystosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 10:401418.[PubMed]
124. Telzak EE, Armstrong D,. 1994. Extrapulmonary infection and other unusual manifestations of Pneumocystis carinii, p 361380. In Walzer PD (ed), Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia, 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, NY.
125. Gill VJ, Evans G, Stock F, Parrillo JE, Masur H, Kovacs JA. 1987. Detection of Pneumocystis carinii by fluorescent-antibody stain using a combination of three monoclonal antibodies. J Clin Microbiol 25:18371840.[PubMed]
126. Kovacs JA, Gill V, Swan JC, Ognibene F, Shelhamer J, Parrillo JE, Masur H. 1986. Prospective evaluation of a monoclonal antibody in diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Lancet ii:13.
127. Amin MB, Mezger E, Zarbo RJ. 1992. Detection of Pneumocystis carinii. Comparative study of monoclonal antibody and silver staining. Am J Clin Pathol 98:1318.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
128. Kobayashi M, Moriki T, Uemura Y, Takehara N, Kubonishi I, Taguchi H, Miyoshi I. 1992. Immunohistochemical detection of Pneumocystis carinii in transbronchial lung biopsy specimens: antigen difference between human and rat Pneumocystis carinii. Jpn J Clin Oncol 22:387392.[PubMed]
129. Radio SJ, Hansen S, Goldsmith J, Linder J. 1990. Immunohistochemistry of Pneumocystis carinii infection. Mod Pathol 3:462469.[PubMed]
130. Helweg-Larsen J, Jensen JS, Benfield T, Svendsen UG, Lundgren JD, Lundgren B. 1998. Diagnostic use of PCR for detection of Pneumocystis carinii in oral wash samples. J Clin Microbiol 36:20682072.[PubMed]
131. Smulian AG, Linke MJ, Cushion MT, Baughman RP, Frame PT, Dohn MN, White ML, Walzer PD. 1994. Analysis of Pneumocystis carinii organism burden, viability and antigens in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in AIDS patients with pneumocystosis: correlation with disease severity. AIDS 8:15551562.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
132. Daly KR, Koch J, Levin L, Walzer PD. 2004. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serologic responses to Pneumocystis jiroveci. Emerg Infect Dis 10:848854.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
133. Fong S, Daly KR, Tipirneni R, Jarlsberg LG, Djawe K, Koch JV, Swartzman A, Roth B, Walzer PD, Huang L. 2013. Antibody responses against Pneumocystis jirovecii in health care workers over time. Emerg Infect Dis 19:16121619.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
134. Tipirneni R, Daly KR, Jarlsberg LG, Koch JV, Swartzman A, Roth BM, Walzer PD, Huang L. 2009. Healthcare worker occupation and immune response to Pneumocystis jirovecii. Emerg Infect Dis 15:15901597.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
135. Onishi A, Sugiyama D, Kogata Y, Saegusa J, Sugimoto T, Kawano S, Morinobu A, Nishimura K, Kumagai S. 2012. Diagnostic accuracy of serum 1,3-β-d-glucan for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, invasive candidiasis, and invasive aspergillosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Microbiol 50:715.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
136. Held J, Wagner D. 2011. β-d-Glucan kinetics for the assessment of treatment response in Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Clin Microbiol Infect 17:11181122.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
137. Roberts GD, Larsh HW. 1971. The serologic diagnosis of extracutaneous sporotrichosis. Am J Clin Pathol 56:597600.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
138. Walsh TJ, Chanock SJ. 1998. Diagnosis of invasive fungal infections: advances in nonculture systems. Curr Clin Top Infect Dis 18:101153.[PubMed]
139. Kaufman L, Turner LF, McLaughlin DW. 1989. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for zygomycosis. J Clin Microbiol 27:19791982.[PubMed]
140. Chandler FW, Kaplan W, Ajello L. 1980. Color Atlas and Text of the Histopathology of Mycotic Diseases. Year Book, Chicago, IL.
141. Jensen HE, Aalbaek B, Lind P, Krogh HV. 1996. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of systemic bovine zygomycosis by murine monoclonal antibodies. Vet Pathol 33:176183.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
142. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2008. Interpretive Criteria for Identification of Bacteria and Fungi by DNA Target Sequencing; Approved Guideline. CLSI document MM18-A. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
143. White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J,. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics, p 315322. In Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (ed), PCR Protocols. A Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
144. Gade L, Scheel CM, Pham CD, Lindsley MD, Iqbal N, Cleveland AA, Whitney AM, Lockhart SR, Brandt ME, Litvintseva AP. 2013. Detection of fungal DNA in human body fluids and tissues during a multistate outbreak of fungal meningitis and other infections. Eukaryot Cell 12:677683.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
145. Muñoz-Cadavid C, Rudd S, Zaki SR, Patel M, Moser SA, Brandt ME, Gómez BL. 2010. Improving molecular detection of fungal DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues: comparison of five tissue DNA extraction methods using panfungal PCR. J Clin Microbiol 48:21472153.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
146. Arunmozhi Balajee S, Hurst SF, Chang LS, Miles M, Beeler E, Hale C, Kasuga T, Benedict K, Chiller T, Lindsley MD. 2013. Multilocus sequence typing of Histoplasma capsulatum in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from cats living in non-endemic regions reveals a new phylogenetic clade. Med Mycol 51:345351.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
147. Springer J, Morton CO, Perry M, Heinz WJ, Paholcsek M, Alzheimer M, Rogers TR, Barnes RA, Einsele H, Loeffler J, White PL. 2013. Multicenter comparison of serum and whole-blood specimens for detection of Aspergillus DNA in high-risk hematological patients. J Clin Microbiol 51:14451450.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
148. White PL, Bretagne S, Klingspor L, Melchers WJ, McCulloch E, Schulz B, Finnstrom N, Mengoli C, Barnes RA, Donnelly JP, Loeffler J European Aspergillus PCR Initiative. 2010. Aspergillus PCR: one step closer to standardization. J Clin Microbiol 48:12311240.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
149. Hauser PM, Bille J, Lass-Flörl C, Geltner C, Feldmesser M, Levi M, Patel H, Muggia V, Alexander B, Hughes M, Follett SA, Cui X, Leung F, Morgan G, Moody A, Perlin DS, Denning DW. 2011. Multicenter, prospective clinical evaluation of respiratory samples from subjects at risk for Pneumocystis jirovecii infection by use of a commercial real-time PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 49:18721878.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
150. Monroy-Vaca EX, Armas YD, Illnait-Zaragozi MT, Torano G, Diaz R, Vega D, Alvarez-Lam I, Calderon EJ, Stensvold CR. 2014. Prevalence and genotype distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Cuban infants and toddlers with whooping cough. J Clin Microbiol 52:4551.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
151. Schell WA, Benton JL, Smith PB, Poore M, Rouse JL, Boles DJ, Johnson MD, Alexander BD, Pamula VK, Eckhardt AE, Pollack MG, Benjamin DK Jr, Perfect JR, Mitchell TG. 2012. Evaluation of a digital microfluidic real-time PCR platform to detect DNA of Candida albicans in blood. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31:22372245.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
152. Trovato L, Betta P, Romeo MG, Oliveri S. 2012. Detection of fungal DNA in lysis-centrifugation blood culture for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in neonatal patients. Clin Microbiol Infect 18:E63E65.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
153. Venkatesh M, Flores A, Luna RA, Versalovic J. 2010. Molecular microbiological methods in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 8:10371048.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
154. Binnicker MJ, Buckwalter SP, Eisberner JJ, Stewart RA, McCullough AE, Wohlfiel SL, Wengenack NL. 2007. Detection of Coccidioides species in clinical specimens by real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol 45:173178.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
155. Vucicevic D, Blair JE, Binnicker MJ, McCullough AE, Kusne S, Vikram HR, Parish JM, Wengenack NL. 2010. The utility of Coccidioides polymerase chain reaction testing in the clinical setting. Mycopathologia 170:345351.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
156. Mandhaniya S, Iqbal S, Sharawat SK, Xess I, Bakhshi S. 2012. Diagnosis of invasive fungal infections using real-time PCR assay in paediatric acute leukaemia induction. Mycoses 55:372379.[CrossRef].[PubMed]

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Commercially available antibody detection tests for fungal diseases

Citation: Lindsley M. 2016. Serological and Molecular Diagnosis of Fungal Infections , p 503-534. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch55
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Commercially available antigen detection tests for fungal diseases

Citation: Lindsley M. 2016. Serological and Molecular Diagnosis of Fungal Infections , p 503-534. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch55
Generic image for table
Untitled

Citation: Lindsley M. 2016. Serological and Molecular Diagnosis of Fungal Infections , p 503-534. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch55
Generic image for table
Untitled

Citation: Lindsley M. 2016. Serological and Molecular Diagnosis of Fungal Infections , p 503-534. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch55
Generic image for table

Citation: Lindsley M. 2016. Serological and Molecular Diagnosis of Fungal Infections , p 503-534. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch55