1887

Chapter 66 : Viral Agents of Gastroenteritis

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Viral Agents of Gastroenteritis, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818722/9781555818715_CH66-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818722/9781555818715_CH66-2.gif

Abstract:

The healthy human enteric tract is populated by a complex community of microbiota in synergistic balance with its host. Infection with a pathogenic virus can cause intestinal damage, inflammation, and diarrhea that alter the gut environment. The ability to diagnose pathogenic viruses rapidly and accurately is important in providing appropriate patient care and in controlling virus spread.

Citation: Parra G, Green K. 2016. Viral Agents of Gastroenteritis, p 639-647. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch66
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Rotavirus genome and genotype distribution. (A) Representation of rotavirus virion, proteins, and double-stranded RNA gene segments. Proteins are color coded, and genes used for typing are highlighted with corresponding colors. The rotavirus virion was modeled using crystal coordinates from VP2, VP6, VP7, and VP4 proteins (PDBs: 3IYU and 3N09) and visualized in Chimera. (B) Global incidence of the most predominant rotavirus strains in humans according to genotype. Numbers represent the percentage of total strains included ( = 16,474). (Adapted from reference .)

Citation: Parra G, Green K. 2016. Viral Agents of Gastroenteritis, p 639-647. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch66
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Representation of the RT-PCR genotyping strategy for human rotaviruses based on amplicon sizing. Genotype-specific primers annealing at different regions of the VP7 gene produce different-sized amplicons, which allows the genotype identification after electrophoresis of the PCR products. The molecular size marker (100-bp ladder) is shown in the first lane. (Primers were designed using reference strains and adapted from references and .)

Citation: Parra G, Green K. 2016. Viral Agents of Gastroenteritis, p 639-647. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch66
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Norovirus genome and capsid genotype distribution. (A) Schematic representation of the norovirus positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome (~7.5 to 7.6 kb) showing three of the major target regions for norovirus identification and characterization (regions A, C, and D) (30 ). The ORFs; the virus protein, genome-linked (VPg); and the poly(A) tail are indicated. (B) Prevalence of norovirus capsid genotypes in humans. Numbers represent the percentage of total number of strains tested ( = 2,968). (Adapted from reference .)

Citation: Parra G, Green K. 2016. Viral Agents of Gastroenteritis, p 639-647. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch66
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Adenovirus proteins and genome. (A) Capsid of adenovirus showing the three major external proteins: penton (pink), hexon (light gray), and fiber (shaft domain: gray; knob domain: navy blue). The three external loops of the hexon are indicated by yellow, green, and light blue. The model was visualized using Chimera and the structural coordinates from adenovirus type 5 (PDB: 3IYN) and adenovirus type 2 (PDB: 1QIU). (B) Schematic representation of the adenovirus double-stranded DNA genome (34 to 37 kbp) showing the position of the penton, hexon, and fiber genes used for molecular characterization.

Citation: Parra G, Green K. 2016. Viral Agents of Gastroenteritis, p 639-647. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch66
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818722.ch66
1. Estes M, Greenberg HB,. 2013. Rotaviruses, p 13471401. In Knipe DM, Howley PM, Cohen JI, Griffin DE, Lamb RA, Martin MA, Racaniello VR, Roizman B (ed), Fields Virology, 6th ed, vol 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
2. Mihalov-Kovács E, Gellért Á, Marton S, Farkas SL, Fehér E, Oldal M, Jakab F, Martella V, Bányai K. 2015. Candidate new rotavirus species in sheltered dogs, Hungary. Emerg Infect Dis 21:660663.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
3. Matthijnssens J, Ciarlet M, McDonald SM, Attoui H, Bányai K, Brister JR, Buesa J, Esona MD, Estes MK, Gentsch JR, Iturriza-Gómara M, Johne R, Kirkwood CD, Martella V, Mertens PP, Nakagomi O, Parreño V, Rahman M, Ruggeri FM, Saif LJ, Santos N, Steyer A, Taniguchi K, Patton JT, Desselberger U, Van Ranst M. 2011. Uniformity of rotavirus strain nomenclature proposed by the Rotavirus Classification Working Group (RCWG). Arch Virol 156:13971413.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
4. Trojnar E, Sachsenröder J, Twardziok S, Reetz J, Otto PH, Johne R. 2013. Identification of an avian group A rotavirus containing a novel VP4 gene with a close relationship to those of mammalian rotaviruses. J Gen Virol 94:136142.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
5. Santos N, Hoshino Y. 2005. Global distribution of rotavirus serotypes/genotypes and its implication for the development and implementation of an effective rotavirus vaccine. Rev Med Virol 15:2956.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
6. Matthijnssens J, Ciarlet M, Heiman E, Arijs I, Delbeke T, McDonald SM, Palombo EA, Iturriza-Gómara M, Maes P, Patton JT, Rahman M, Van Ranst M. 2008. Full genome-based classification of rotaviruses reveals a common origin between human Wa-like and porcine rotavirus strains and human DS-1-like and bovine rotavirus strains. J Virol 82:32043219.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
7. Lopman BA, Payne DC, Tate JE, Patel MM, Cortese MM, Parashar UD. 2012. Post-licensure experience with rotavirus vaccination in high and middle income countries; 2006 to 2011. Curr Opin Virol 2:434442.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
8. Lopman BA, Curns AT, Yen C, Parashar UD. 2011. Infant rotavirus vaccination may provide indirect protection to older children and adults in the United States. J Infect Dis 204:980986.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
9. Glass RI, Parashar U, Patel M, Gentsch J, Jiang B. 2014. Rotavirus vaccines: successes and challenges. J Infect 68(Suppl 1):S9S18.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
10. Gouvea V, Glass RI, Woods P, Taniguchi K, Clark HF, Forrester B, Fang ZY. 1990. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and typing of rotavirus nucleic acid from stool specimens. J Clin Microbiol 28:276282.[PubMed]
11. Das BK, Gentsch JR, Cicirello HG, Woods PA, Gupta A, Ramachandran M, Kumar R, Bhan MK, Glass RI. 1994. Characterization of rotavirus strains from newborns in New Delhi, India. J Clin Microbiol 32:18201822.[PubMed]
12. Gentsch JR, Glass RI, Woods P, Gouvea V, Gorziglia M, Flores J, Das BK, Bhan MK. 1992. Identification of group A rotavirus gene 4 types by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 30:13651373.[PubMed]
13. Gouvea V, Santos N, Timenetsky MC. 1994. Identification of bovine and porcine rotavirus G types by PCR. J Clin Microbiol 32:13381340.[PubMed]
14. Iturriza-Gómara M, Kang G, Gray J. 2004. Rotavirus genotyping: keeping up with an evolving population of human rotaviruses. J Clin Virol 31:259265.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
15. Parra GI, Espinola EE. 2006. Nucleotide mismatches between the VP7 gene and the primer are associated with genotyping failure of a specific lineage from G1 rotavirus strains. Virol J 3:35.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
16. Fujii Y, Shimoike T, Takagi H, Murakami K, Todaka-Takai R, Park Y, Katayama K. 2012. Amplification of all 11 RNA segments of group A rotaviruses based on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Microbiol Immunol 56:630638.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
17. Bennett A, Bar-Zeev N, Jere KC, Tate JE, Parashar UD, Nakagomi O, Heyderman RS, French N, Iturriza-Gomara M, Cunliffe NA. 2015. Determination of a viral load threshold to distinguish symptomatic versus asymptomatic rotavirus infection in a high-disease-burden African population. J Clin Microbiol 53:19511954.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
18. Freeman MM, Kerin T, Hull J, McCaustland K, Gentsch J. 2008. Enhancement of detection and quantification of rotavirus in stool using a modified real-time RT-PCR assay. J Med Virol 80:14891496.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
19. Eing BR, May G, Baumeister HG, Kühn JE. 2001. Evaluation of two enzyme immunoassays for detection of human rotaviruses in fecal specimens. J Clin Microbiol 39:45324534.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
20. Payne DC, Vinjé J, Szilagyi PG, Edwards KM, Staat MA, Weinberg GA, Hall CB, Chappell J, Bernstein DI, Curns AT, Wikswo M, Shirley SH, Hall AJ, Lopman B, Parashar UD. 2013. Norovirus and medically attended gastroenteritis in U.S. children. N Engl J Med 368:11211130.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
21. Becker-Dreps S, Bucardo F, Vilchez S, Zambrana LE, Liu L, Weber DJ, Peña R, Barclay L, Vinjé J, Hudgens MG, Nordgren J, Svensson L, Morgan DR, Espinoza F, Paniagua M. 2014. Etiology of childhood diarrhea after rotavirus vaccine introduction: a prospective, population-based study in Nicaragua. Pediatr Infect Dis J 33:11561163.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
22. Patel MM, Widdowson MA, Glass RI, Akazawa K, Vinjé J, Parashar UD. 2008. Systematic literature review of role of noroviruses in sporadic gastroenteritis. Emerg Infect Dis 14:12241231.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
23. Green KY,. 2013. Caliciviridae: the noroviruses, p 582608. In Knipe HP, Howley PM, Cohen JI, Griffin DE, Lamb RA, Martin MA, Racaniello VR, Roizman B (ed), Fields Virology, 6th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
24. Kroneman A, Vega E, Vennema H, Vinjé J, White PA, Hansman G, Green K, Martella V, Katayama K, Koopmans M. 2013. Proposal for a unified norovirus nomenclature and genotyping. Arch Virol 158:20592068.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
25. Hoa Tran TN, Trainor E, Nakagomi T, Cunliffe NA, Nakagomi O. 2013. Molecular epidemiology of noroviruses associated with acute sporadic gastroenteritis in children: global distribution of genogroups, genotypes and GII.4 variants. J Clin Virol 56:185193.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
26. Bull RA, Tanaka MM, White PA. 2007. Norovirus recombination. J Gen Virol 88:33473359.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
27. Atmar RL, Bernstein DI, Harro CD, Al-Ibrahim MS, Chen WH, Ferreira J, Estes MK, Graham DY, Opekun AR, Richardson C, Mendelman PM. 2011. Norovirus vaccine against experimental human Norwalk virus illness. N Engl J Med 365:21782187.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
28. Richardson C, Bargatze RF, Goodwin R, Mendelman PM. 2013. Norovirus virus-like particle vaccines for the prevention of acute gastroenteritis. Expert Rev Vaccines 12:155167.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
29. Vinjé J. 2015. Advances in laboratory methods for detection and typing of norovirus. J Clin Microbiol 53:373381.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
30. Green SM, Lambden PR, Deng Y, Lowes JA, Lineham S, Bushell J, Rogers J, Caul EO, Ashley CR, Clarke IN. 1995. Polymerase chain reaction detection of small round-structured viruses from two related hospital outbreaks of gastroenteritis using inosine-containing primers. J Med Virol 45:197202.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
31. Jiang X, Huang PW, Zhong WM, Farkas T, Cubitt DW, Matson DO. 1999. Design and evaluation of a primer pair that detects both Norwalk- and Sapporo-like caliciviruses by RT-PCR. J Virol Methods 83:145154.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
32. Vinjé J, Hamidjaja RA, Sobsey MD. 2004. Development and application of a capsid VP1 (region D) based reverse transcription PCR assay for genotyping of genogroup I and II noroviruses. J Virol Methods 116:109117.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
33. Parra GI, Azure J, Fischer R, Bok K, Sandoval-Jaime C, Sosnovtsev SV, Sander P, Green KY. 2013. Identification of a broadly cross-reactive epitope in the inner shell of the norovirus capsid. PLoS One 8:e67592. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067592.[CrossRef].[PubMed] http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067592
34. Oka T, Wang Q, Katayama K, Saif LJ. 2015. Comprehensive review of human sapoviruses. Clin Microbiol Rev 28:3253.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
35. Svraka S, Vennema H, van der Veer B, Hedlund KO, Thorhagen M, Siebenga J, Duizer E, Koopmans M. 2010. Epidemiology and genotype analysis of emerging sapovirus-associated infections across Europe. J Clin Microbiol 48:21912198.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
36. Hansman GS, Ishida S, Yoshizumi S, Miyoshi M, Ikeda T, Oka T, Takeda N. 2007. Recombinant sapovirus gastroenteritis, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis 13:786788.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
37. Mikula C, Springer B, Reichart S, Bierbacher K, Lichtenschopf A, Hoehne M. 2010. Sapovirus in adults in rehabilitation center, upper Austria. Emerg Infect Dis 16:11861187.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
38. Khare R, Espy MJ, Cebelinski E, Boxrud D, Sloan LM, Cunningham SA, Pritt BS, Patel R, Binnicker MJ. 2014. Comparative evaluation of two commercial multiplex panels for detection of gastrointestinal pathogens by use of clinical stool specimens. J Clin Microbiol 52:36673673.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
39. van Maarseveen NM, Wessels E, de Brouwer CS, Vossen AC, Claas EC. 2010. Diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis by simultaneous detection of Adenovirus group F, Astrovirus, Rotavirus group A, Norovirus genogroups I and II, and Sapovirus in two internally controlled multiplex real-time PCR assays. J Clin Virol 49:205210.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
40. Nakata S, Honma S, Numata K, Kogawa K, Ukae S, Adachi N, Jiang X, Estes MK, Gatheru Z, Tukei PM, Chiba S. 1998. Prevalence of human calicivirus infections in Kenya as determined by enzyme immunoassays for three genogroups of the virus. J Clin Microbiol 36:31603163.[PubMed]
41. Hansman GS, Guntapong R, Pongsuwanna Y, Natori K, Katayama K, Takeda N. 2006. Development of an antigen ELISA to detect sapovirus in clinical stool specimens. Arch Virol 151:551561.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
42. Appleton H, Higgins PG. 1975. Letter: viruses and gastroenteritis in infants. Lancet 1:1297.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
43. Madeley CR, Cosgrove BP. 1975. Letter: 28 nm particles in faeces in infantile gastroenteritis. Lancet 2:451452.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
44. De Benedictis P, Schultz-Cherry S, Burnham A, Cattoli G. 2011. Astrovirus infections in humans and animals—molecular biology, genetic diversity, and interspecies transmissions. Infect Genet Evol 11:15291544.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
45. Bosch A, Pintó RM, Guix S. 2014. Human astroviruses. Clin Microbiol Rev 27:10481074.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
46. Gough RE, Collins MS, Borland E, Keymer LF. 1984. Astrovirus-like particles associated with hepatitis in ducklings. Vet Rec 114:279.[PubMed]
47. Li L, Diab S, McGraw S, Barr B, Traslavina R, Higgins R, Talbot T, Blanchard P, Rimoldi G, Fahsbender E, Page B, Phan TG, Wang C, Deng X, Pesavento P, Delwart E. 2013. Divergent astrovirus associated with neurologic disease in cattle. Emerg Infect Dis 19:13851392.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
48. Herrmann JE, Taylor DN, Echeverria P, Blacklow NR. 1991. Astroviruses as a cause of gastroenteritis in children. N Engl J Med 324:17571760.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
49. Quan PL, Wagner TA, Briese T, Torgerson TR, Hornig M, Tashmukhamedova A, Firth C, Palacios G, Baisre-De-Leon A, Paddock CD, Hutchison SK, Egholm M, Zaki SR, Goldman JE, Ochs HD, Lipkin WI. 2010. Astrovirus encephalitis in boy with X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Emerg Infect Dis 16:918925.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
50. Naccache SN, Peggs KS, Mattes FM, Phadke R, Garson JA, Grant P, Samayoa E, Federman S, Miller S, Lunn MP, Gant V, Chiu CY. 2015. Diagnosis of neuroinvasive astrovirus infection in an immunocompromised adult with encephalitis by unbiased next-generation sequencing. Clin Infect Dis 60:919923.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
51. Finkbeiner SR, Li Y, Ruone S, Conrardy C, Gregoricus N, Toney D, Virgin HW, Anderson LJ, Vinjé J, Wang D, Tong S. 2009. Identification of a novel astrovirus (astrovirus VA1) associated with an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis. J Virol 83:1083610839.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
52. Finkbeiner SR, Allred AF, Tarr PI, Klein EJ, Kirkwood CD, Wang D. 2008. Metagenomic analysis of human diarrhea: viral detection and discovery. PLoS Pathog 4:e1000011. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000011.[CrossRef].[PubMed] http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000011
53. Guix S, Bosch A, Pintó RM. 2005. Human astrovirus diagnosis and typing: current and future prospects. Lett Appl Microbiol 41:103105.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
54. Saito K, Ushijima H, Nishio O, Oseto M, Motohiro H, Ueda Y, Takagi M, Nakaya S, Ando T, Glass R , et al 1995. Detection of astroviruses from stool samples in Japan using reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification. Microbiol Immunol 39:825828.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
55. Matsui M, Ushijima H, Hachiya M, Kakizawa J, Wen L, Oseto M, Morooka K, Kurtz JB. 1998. Determination of serotypes of astroviruses by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and homologies of the types by the sequencing of Japanese isolates. Microbiol Immunol 42:539547.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
56. Noel JS, Lee TW, Kurtz JB, Glass RI, Monroe SS. 1995. Typing of human astroviruses from clinical isolates by enzyme immunoassay and nucleotide sequencing. J Clin Microbiol 33:797801.[PubMed]
57. Rovida F, Campanini G, Sarasini A, Adzasehoun KM, Piralla A, Baldanti F. 2013. Comparison of immunologic and molecular assays for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal viral infections. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 75:110111.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
58. Rowe WP, Huebner RJ, Gilmore LK, Parrott RH, Ward TG. 1953. Isolation of a cytopathogenic agent from human adenoids undergoing spontaneous degeneration in tissue culture. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 84:570573.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
59. Wold WS, Ison MG,. 2013. Adenoviruses, p 17331767. In Knipe DM, Howley PM, Cohen JI, Griffin DE, Lamb RA, Martin MA, VR, Roizman B (ed), Fields Virology 6th ed, vol 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
60. Lion T. 2014. Adenovirus infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Clin Microbiol Rev 27:441462.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
61. Sumida SM, Truitt DM, Lemckert AA, Vogels R, Custers JH, Addo MM, Lockman S, Peter T, Peyerl FW, Kishko MG, Jackson SS, Gorgone DA, Lifton MA, Essex M, Walker BD, Goudsmit J, Havenga MJ, Barouch DH. 2005. Neutralizing antibodies to adenovirus serotype 5 vaccine vectors are directed primarily against the adenovirus hexon protein. J Immunol 174:71797185.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
62. Heim A, Ebnet C, Harste G, Pring-Akerblom P. 2003. Rapid and quantitative detection of human adenovirus DNA by real-time PCR. J Med Virol 70:228239.[CrossRef].[PubMed]

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Common viral agents of gastroenteritis identified in stool

Citation: Parra G, Green K. 2016. Viral Agents of Gastroenteritis, p 639-647. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch66

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error