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Chapter 67 : Arboviruses

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Arboviruses, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) represent a diverse amalgam of more than 500 animal viruses that are grouped together because of their ability to replicate in both vertebrates and arthropods. While more than 150 arboviruses are known to cause human illness or infection, the list of the most medically important viruses is considerably shorter (Table 1) (1–3). Because of the vast number of agents that potentially should be considered in a differential diagnosis, the use of epidemiologic, ecologic, and clinical data to guide the choice and interpretation of clinical laboratory diagnostic tests is essential. Most arboviruses are transmitted seasonally in specific geographic locations or ecological habitats. The patient's history of travel, activities, and potential exposures to arthropods or habitats associated with arbovirus transmission provides vital data for selection of appropriate antigens and relevant diagnostic approaches. Knowledge of the patient's immunizations against yellow fever (YF), Japanese encephalitis (JE), or tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) viruses is also important for the proper interpretation of serological results. Although the laboratory diagnosis of arboviral infections still relies chiefly on serology, other approaches that directly detect viral antigen or genomic material and not antibodies are now routine.

Citation: Lanciotti R, Roehrig J. 2016. Arboviruses, p 648-657. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch67
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Characteristics of selected medically important arbovirus disease

Citation: Lanciotti R, Roehrig J. 2016. Arboviruses, p 648-657. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch67
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Selected arbovirus monoclonal antibodies for serologic and antigen detection assays

Citation: Lanciotti R, Roehrig J. 2016. Arboviruses, p 648-657. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch67

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