1887

Chapter 69 : Rabies Virus

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Rabies Virus, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818722/9781555818715_CH69-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818722/9781555818715_CH69-2.gif

Abstract:

Rabies virus (RABV) and RABV-related lyssaviruses are the causative agents of zoonotic viral encephalitis, with a case/fatality ratio approaching 1:1. These viruses are endemic in a number of terrestrial mammals and bat species throughout much of the world. Lyssaviruses (family , order , of which RABV is the type species) are characteristically bullet-shaped particles averaging 75 by 180 nm with a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome encoding five proteins. In genome order, these proteins are nucleoprotein (N), which tightly encapsulates the genome; phosphoprotein (P), which was formerly referred to as the nonstructural (NS) protein; matrix (M) protein; glycoprotein (G), the primary target of neutralizing antibodies, which is found spread over the surface of the virus; and polymerase (L), the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Genetically and antigenically more diverse in glycoprotein than in nucleoprotein, the different lyssavirus variants are each associated with a particular host species. The major reservoir of RABV in Asia is the dog, historically and currently the cause of most human rabies cases; wildlife, including foxes, coyotes, skunks, raccoons, and bats, carry RABV or RABV-related viruses in diverse geographic regions. Effective vaccines and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens consisting of active and passive vaccination have been available for some time, and where animal reservoirs of the virus have been controlled by vaccination and PEP is readily available, human rabies is no longer the well-known disease of antiquity. However, in Asia, where dog rabies persists, human rabies is not uncommon, with cases estimated to occur at a rate of over 50,000 a year. Elsewhere, human rabies is sporadic, generally resulting from the bite of an infected dog while a traveler is in a region where rabies is endemic or from an interaction with an infected animal when the possibility of virus transmission is not recognized. As RABV can infect all mammals, the virus may be transmitted between a reservoir species and humans by intermediate species that are not normally associated with rabies, such as cats. However, the more common cause of unrecognized infection is through contact with an infected bat. In such cases, the bite or scratch responsible for the infection may be so minor as to go unnoticed.

Citation: Hooper D. 2016. Rabies Virus, p 665-673. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch69
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Mouse NA cells infected with CVS-11. Cells were infected and stained as described for an RFFIT in the text.

Citation: Hooper D. 2016. Rabies Virus, p 665-673. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch69
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818722.ch69
1. Baltazard M, Ghodssi M. 1954. Prevention of human rabies; treatment of persons bitten by rabid wolves in Iran. Bull World Health Organ 10:797803.[PubMed]
2. Lakhanpal U, Sharma RC. 1985. An epidemiological study of 177 cases of human rabies. Int J Epidemiol 14:614617.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
3. Smith JS, Fishbein DB, Rupprecht CE, Clark K. 1991. Unexplained rabies in three immigrants in the United States. A virologic investigation. N Engl J Med 324:205211.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
4. Shankar SK, Mahadevan A, Sapico SD, Ghodkirekar MSG, Pinto RGW, Madhusudana SN. 2012. Rabies viral encephalitis with probable 25 year incubation period! Ann Indian Acad Neurol 15:221223.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
5. Pasteur L. 1885. Séance du 27 octobre 1885. Bull Acad Med, 2nd ser XIV:14311439.
6. Manning SE, Rupprecht CE, Fishbein D, Hanlon CA, Lumlertdacha B, Guerra M, Meltzer MI, Dhankhar P, Vaidya SA, Jenkins SR, Sun B, Hull HF Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2008. Human rabies prevention—United States, 2008: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR Recomm Rep 57(RR-3):128.[PubMed]
7. Krebs JW, Long-Marin SC, Childs JE. 1998. Causes, costs, and estimates of rabies postexposure prophylaxis treatments in the United States. J Public Health Manag Pract 4:5662.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
8. Wilde H. 2007. Failures of post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. Vaccine 25:76057609.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
9. Willoughby RE Jr, Tieves KS, Hoffman GM, Ghanayem NS, Amlie-Lefond CM, Schwabe MJ, Chusid MJ, Rupprecht CE. 2005. Survival after treatment of rabies with induction of coma. N Engl J Med 352:25082514.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. Recovery of a patient from clinical rabies—California, 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 61:6165.
11. Hooper DC, Morimoto K, Bette M, Weihe E, Koprowski H, Dietzschold B. 1998. Collaboration of antibody and inflammation in clearance of rabies virus from the central nervous system. J Virol 72:37113719.[PubMed]
12. Phares TW, Kean RB, Mikheeva T, Hooper DC. 2006. Regional differences in blood-brain barrier permeability changes and inflammation in the apathogenic clearance of virus from the central nervous system. J Immunol 176:76667675.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
13. Roy A, Hooper DC. 2007. Lethal silver-haired bat rabies virus infection can be prevented by opening the blood-brain barrier. J Virol 81:79937998.[CrossRef]
14. Hooper DC, Phares TW, Fabis MJ, Roy A. 2009. The production of antibody by invading B cells is required for the clearance of rabies virus from the central nervous system. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e535.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2004. Investigation of rabies infections in organ donor and transplant recipients—Alabama, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 53:586589.[PubMed]
16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004. Update: investigation of rabies infections in organ donor and transplant recipients—Alabama, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 53:615616.[PubMed]
17. Johnson N, Brookes SM, Fooks AR, Ross RS. 2005. Review of human rabies cases in the UK and in Germany. Vet Rec 157:715.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
18. Vora NM, Basavaraju SV, Feldman KA, Paddock CD, Orciari L, Gitterman S, Griese S, Wallace RM, Said M, Blau DM, Selvaggi G, Velasco-Villa A, Ritter J, Yager P, Kresch A, Niezgoda M, Blanton J, Stosor V, Falta EM, Lyon GM III, Zembower T, Kuzmina N, Rohatgi PK, Recuenco S, Zaki S, Damon I, Franka R, Kuehnert MJ Transplant-Associated Rabies Virus Transmission Investigation Team. 2013. Raccoon rabies virus variant transmission through solid organ transplantation. JAMA 310:398407.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
19. Dean DJ, Abelseth MK. 1973. Laboratory techniques in rabies: the fluorescent antibody test. Monogr Ser World Health Organ 23:7384.[PubMed]
20. WHO Expert Committee on Rabies. 1992. WHO Expert Committee on Rabies, 8th report. WHO Technical Report Series no. 824. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
21. Warrilow D, Harrower B, Smith IL, Field H, Taylor R, Walker C, Smith GA. 2003. Public health surveillance for Australian bat lyssavirus in Queensland, Australia, 2000–2001. Emerg Infect Dis 9:262264.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
22. Smith J,. 1999. Rabies virus, p 10991106. In Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, Tenover FC, Yolken RH (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
23. Dyer JL, Niezgoda M, Orciari LA, Yager PA, Ellison JA, Rupprecht CE. 2013. Evaluation of an indirect rapid immunohistochemistry test for the differentiation of rabies virus variants. J Virol Methods 190:2933.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
24. Perrin P, Gontier C, Lecocq E, Bourhy H. 1992. A modified rapid enzyme immunoassay for the detection of rabies and rabies-related viruses: RREID-Lyssa. Biologicals 20:5158.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
25. Jayakumar R, Thirumurugan G, Nachimuthu K, Padmanaban VD. 1996. Detection of rabies virus antigen in animals by avidin-biotin dot ELISA. Zentralbl Bakteriol 285:8285.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
26. Katayama S, Yamanaka M, Ota S, Shimizu Y. 1999. A new quantitative method for rabies virus by detection of nucleoprotein in virion using ELISA. J Vet Med Sci 61:411416.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
27. Arai YT, Yamada K, Kameoka Y, Horimoto T, Yamamoto K, Yabe S, Nakayama M, Tashiro M. 1997. Nucleoprotein gene analysis of fixed and street rabies virus variants using RT-PCR. Arch Virol 142:17871796.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
28. Heaton PR, McElhinney LM, Lowings JP. 1999. Detection and identification of rabies and rabies-related viruses using rapid-cycle PCR. J Virol Methods 81:6369.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
29. Kulonen K, Fekadu M, Whitfield S, Warner CK. 1999. An evaluation of immunofluorescence and PCR methods for detection of rabies in archival Carnoy-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain tissue. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 46:151155.[PubMed]
30. Nadin-Davis SA, Huang W, Wandeler AI. 1996. The design of strain-specific polymerase chain reactions for discrimination of the raccoon rabies virus strain from indigenous rabies viruses of Ontario. J Virol Methods 57:114.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
31. Sabouraud A, Smith JS, Orciari LA, de Mattos C, de Mattos C, Rohde R. 1999. Typing of rabies virus isolates by DNA enzyme immunoassay. J Clin Virol 12:919.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
32. Sacramento D, Bourhy H, Tordo N. 1991. PCR technique as an alternative method for diagnosis and molecular epidemiology of rabies virus. Mol Cell Probes 5:229240.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
33. Warner CK, Whitfield SG, Fekadu M, Ho H. 1997. Procedures for reproducible detection of rabies virus antigen mRNA and genome in situ in formalin-fixed tissues. J Virol Methods 67:512.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
34. Fischer M, Wernike K, Freuling CM, Müller T, Aylan O, Brochier B, Cliquet F, Vázquez-Morón S, Hostnik P, Huovilainen A, Isaksson M, Kooi EA, Mooney J, Turcitu M, Rasmussen TB, Revilla-Fernández S, Smreczak M, Fooks AR, Marston DA, Beer M, Hoffmann B. 2013. A step forward in molecular diagnostics of lyssaviruses—results of a ring trial among European laboratories. PLoS One 8:e58372.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
35. Nadin-Davis SA. 1998. Polymerase chain reaction protocols for rabies virus discrimination. J Virol Methods 75:18.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
36. Prosniak M, Zborek A, Scott GS, Roy A, Phares TW, Koprowski H, Hooper DC. 2003. Differential expression of growth factors at the cellular level in virus-infected brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:67656770.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
37. Wacharapluesadee S, Tepsumethanon V, Supavonwong P, Kaewpom T, Intarut N, Hemachudha T. 2012. Detection of rabies viral RNA by TaqMan real-time RT-PCR using non-neural specimens from dogs infected with rabies virus. J Virol Methods 184:109112.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
38. Chai Q, He WQ, Zhou M, Lu H, Fu ZF. 2014. Enhancement of blood-brain barrier permeability and reduction of tight junction protein expression are modulated by chemokines/cytokines induced by rabies virus infection. J Virol 88:46984710.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
39. Zhao P, Zhao L, Zhang K, Feng H, Wang H, Wang T, Xu T, Feng N, Wang C, Gao Y, Huang G, Qin C, Yang S, Xia X. 2012. Infection with street strain rabies virus induces modulation of the microRNA profile of the mouse brain. Virol J 9:159.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
40. Li J, Ertel A, Portocarrero C, Barkhouse DA, Dietzschold B, Hooper DC, Faber M. 2012. Postexposure treatment with the live-attenuated rabies virus (RV) vaccine TriGAS triggers the clearance of wild-type RV from the central nervous system (CNS) through the rapid induction of genes relevant to adaptive immunity in CNS tissues. J Virol 86:32003210.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
41. Pulmanausahakul R, Li J, Schnell MJ, Dietzschold B. 2008. The glycoprotein and the matrix protein of rabies virus affect pathogenicity by regulating viral replication and facilitating cell-to-cell spread. J Virol 82:23302338.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
42. Dietzschold B, Gore M, Casali P, Ueki Y, Rupprecht CE, Notkins AL, Koprowski H. 1990. Biological characterization of human monoclonal antibodies to rabies virus. J Virol 64:30873090.[PubMed]
43. Champion JM, Kean RB, Rupprecht CE, Notkins AL, Koprowski H, Dietzschold B, Hooper DC. 2000. The development of monoclonal human rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies as a substitute for pooled human immune globulin in the prophylactic treatment of rabies virus exposure. J Immunol Methods 235:8190.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
44. Hanlon CA, DeMattos CA, DeMattos CC, Niezgoda M, Hooper DC, Koprowski H, Notkins A, Rupprecht CE. 2001. Experimental utility of rabies virus-neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies in post-exposure prophylaxis. Vaccine 19:38343842.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
45. Prosniak M, Faber M, Hanlon CA, Rupprecht CE, Hooper DC, Dietzschold B. 2003. Development of a cocktail of recombinant-expressed human rabies virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for postexposure prophylaxis of rabies. J Infect Dis 188:5356.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
46. Sloan SE, Hanlon C, Weldon W, Niezgoda M, Blanton J, Self J, Rowley KJ, Mandell RB, Babcock GJ, Thomas WD Jr, Rupprecht CE, Ambrosino DM. 2007. Identification and characterization of a human monoclonal antibody that potently neutralizes a broad panel of rabies virus isolates. Vaccine 25:28002810.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
47. Müller T, Dietzschold B, Ertl H, Fooks AR, Freuling C, Fehlner-Gardiner C, Kliemt J, Meslin FX, Franka R, Rupprecht CE, Tordo N, Wanderler AI, Kieny MP. 2009. Development of a mouse monoclonal antibody cocktail for post-exposure rabies prophylaxis in humans. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e542.[CrossRef]
48. Warner C, Fekadu M, Whitfield S, Shaddock J. 1999. Use of anti-glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies to characterize rabies virus in formalin-fixed tissues. J Virol Methods 77:6974.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
49. Morimoto K, Hooper DC, Carbaugh H, Fu ZF, Koprowski H, Dietzschold B. 1998. Rabies virus quasispecies: implications for pathogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:31523156.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
50. Murphy FA. 1977. Rabies pathogenesis. Arch Virol 54:279297.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
51. Dietzschold B, Li J, Faber M, Schnell M. 2008. Concepts in the pathogenesis of rabies. Future Virol 3:481490.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
52. Morimoto K, Hooper DC, Spitsin S, Koprowski H, Dietzschold B. 1999. Pathogenicity of different rabies virus variants inversely correlates with apoptosis and rabies virus glycoprotein expression in infected primary neuron cultures. J Virol 73:510518.[PubMed]
53. Wiktor TJ, Macfarlan RI, Foggin CM, Koprowski H. 1984. Antigenic analysis of rabies and Mokola virus from Zimbabwe using monoclonal antibodies. Dev Biol Stand 57:199211.[PubMed]
54. Cliquet F, Aubert M, Sagné L. 1998. Development of a fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation test (FAVN test) for the quantitation of rabies-neutralising antibody. J Immunol Methods 212:7987.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
55. Briggs DJ, Smith JS, Mueller FL, Schwenke J, Davis RD, Gordon CR, Schweitzer K, Orciari LA, Yager PA, Rupprecht CE. 1998. A comparison of two serological methods for detecting the immune response after rabies vaccination in dogs and cats being exported to rabies-free areas. Biologicals 26:347355.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
56. Péharpré D, Cliquet F, Sagné E, Renders C, Costy F, Aubert M. 1999. Comparison of visual microscopic and computer-automated fluorescence detection of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. J Vet Diagn Invest 11:330333.[CrossRef]
57. Bracci L, Ballas SK, Spreafico A, Neri P. 1997. Molecular mimicry between the rabies virus glycoprotein and human immunodeficiency virus-1 GP120: cross-reacting antibodies induced by rabies vaccination. Blood 90:36233628.[PubMed]

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Primer and probe sets for PCR for rabies N protein mRNA

Citation: Hooper D. 2016. Rabies Virus, p 665-673. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch69
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Primer and probe sets for QRT-PCR for RABV strains

Citation: Hooper D. 2016. Rabies Virus, p 665-673. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch69
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Selected laboratory (fixed) strains of rabies virus

Citation: Hooper D. 2016. Rabies Virus, p 665-673. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch69

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error