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Chapter 7 : Immunoglobulin Quantification and Viscosity Measurement

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Immunoglobulin Quantification and Viscosity Measurement, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Quantification of intact serum immunoglobulins has proven useful in the evaluation of patients with suspected immunodeficiency disorders, lymphocyte and plasma cell neoplastic diseases, allergic conditions, and some chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Since the advent of quantitative immunoglobulin assays nearly 50 years ago (1), increasingly robust analytical methods have been developed. The armamentarium of intact immunoglobulin assays was first substantively expanded by the development of immunoglobulin light-chain measurements in which the light chains are bound to heavy chains (intact immunoglobulins). The last decade has seen the development of both free (unbound) immunoglobulin light-chain assays and heavy/light-chain (HLC) or junctional epitope assays, the latter of which allows for individual measurements of IgGκ, IgGλ, IgAκ, IgAλ, IgMκ, and IgMλ (2, 3). Despite these advances in immunoglobulin and light-chain quantification methods, there remain technical complexities that can influence accuracy and, in turn, proper clinical application. Equally important, even with robust assays, is the need for thorough understanding of the clinical indications for, and limitations to, immunoglobulin and related measurements.

Citation: Warren J. 2016. Immunoglobulin Quantification and Viscosity Measurement, p 65-73. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch7
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Serum protein electrophoresis: densitometric display of serum proteins separated by agarose gel electrophoresis using a pH 8.6 buffer. Capillary zone electrophoresis is liquid based; thus, no permanent gel is produced.

Citation: Warren J. 2016. Immunoglobulin Quantification and Viscosity Measurement, p 65-73. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Schematic of an intact immunoglobulin G molecule. Antigen binding occurs between light and heavy chains in the N-terminal variable-hypervariable binding regions. IgG possesses an antigen-binding valence of 2. Monomeric immunoglobulin molecules, whether the heavy chains are gamma, alpha, mu, delta, or epsilon, possess the same general structure. Individual immunoglobulin molecules include either kappa lambda light chains, .

Citation: Warren J. 2016. Immunoglobulin Quantification and Viscosity Measurement, p 65-73. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

The serum free-light-chain (sFLC) assay is based on purified polyclonal antibodies that specifically bind epitopes that are accessible on free light chains but hidden (and inaccessible) in intact immunoglobulin molecules.

Citation: Warren J. 2016. Immunoglobulin Quantification and Viscosity Measurement, p 65-73. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

The heavy-light chain (HLC) assay, a junctional epitope assay, is based on purified polyclonal antibodies that specifically bind unique epitopes that occur where heavy and light chains are structurally apposed. Antibodies specifically bind IgGκ, IgGλ, IgAκ, IgAλ, IgMκ, and IgMλ (six reagents).

Citation: Warren J. 2016. Immunoglobulin Quantification and Viscosity Measurement, p 65-73. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch7
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Characteristics of immunoglobulins

Citation: Warren J. 2016. Immunoglobulin Quantification and Viscosity Measurement, p 65-73. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch7
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Characteristics of IgG subclasses

Citation: Warren J. 2016. Immunoglobulin Quantification and Viscosity Measurement, p 65-73. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch7

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