1887

Chapter 70 : Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818722/9781555818715_CH70-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818722/9781555818715_CH70-2.gif

Abstract:

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first pathogenic human retrovirus to be discovered. It was isolated in 1979 from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a patient with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) (1). Following years of research to find a retroviral agent involved in ATLL, Yoshida and Yamamato isolated a retrovirus from an ATLL patient in 1986 that they named adult T-cell leukemia virus. Soon, the similarities between HTLV-1 and adult T-cell leukemia virus were confirmed, and the name HTLV-1 was chosen. Shortly thereafter, the closely related virus HTLV-2 was isolated from the splenic cells of an individual with hairy cell T-cell leukemia (2).

Citation: Caruso B, Massoud R, Jacobson S. 2016. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2, p 674-681. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch70
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Representative examples of HTLV-1-positive and HTLV-2-positive WB patterns. WB patterns can also demonstrate indeterminate reactivity, and two examples of this are shown here (IND-1 and -2). This can complicate the interpretation of results.

Citation: Caruso B, Massoud R, Jacobson S. 2016. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2, p 674-681. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch70
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818722.ch70
1. Poiesz BJ, Ruscetti FW, Gazdar AF, Bunn PA, Minna JD, Gallo RC. 1980. Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:74157419.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
2. Kalyanaraman VS, Sarngadharan MG, Robert-Guroff M, Miyoshi I, Golde D, Gallo RC. 1982. A new subtype of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-II) associated with a T-cell variant of hairy cell leukemia. Science 218:571573.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
3. Nejmeddine M, Negi VS, Mukherjee S, Tanaka Y, Orth K, Taylor GP, Bangham CR. 2009. HTLV-1-Tax and ICAM-1 act on T-cell signal pathways to polarize the microtubule-organizing center at the virological synapse. Blood 114:10161025.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
4. Nagai M, Brennan MB, Sakai JA, Mora CA, Jacobson S. 2001. CD8(+) T cells are an in vivo reservoir for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. Blood 98:18581861.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
5. Lal RB, Owen SM, Rudolph DL, Dawson C, Prince H. 1995. In vivo cellular tropism of human T-lymphotropic virus type II is not restricted to CD8+ cells. Virology 210:441447.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
6. de Thé G, Kazanji M. 1996. An HTLV-I/II vaccine: from animal models to clinical trials? J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 13(Suppl 1):S191S198.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
7. Verdonck K, González E, Van Dooren S, Vandamme AM, Vanham G, Gotuzzo E. 2007. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: recent knowledge about an ancient infection. Lancet Infect Dis 7:266281.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
8. Cooper SA, van der Loeff MS, Taylor GP. 2009. The neurology of HTLV-1 infection. Pract Neurol 9:1626.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
9. Ureta-Vidal A, Angelin-Duclos C, Tortevoye P, Murphy E, Lepère JF, Buigues RP, Jolly N, Joubert M, Carles G, Pouliquen JF, de Thé G, Moreau JP, Gessain A. 1999. Mother-to-child transmission of human T-cell-leukemia/lymphoma virus type I: implication of high antiviral antibody titer and high proviral load in carrier mothers. Int J Cancer 82:832836.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
10. Fujino T, Nagata Y. 2000. HTLV-I transmission from mother to child. J Reprod Immunol 47:197206.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
11. Manns A, Wilks RJ, Murphy EL, Haynes G, Figueroa JP, Barnett M, Hanchard B, Blattner WA. 1992. A prospective study of transmission by transfusion of HTLV-I and risk factors associated with seroconversion. Int J Cancer 51:886891.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
12. Kajiyama W, Kashiwagi S, Ikematsu H, Hayashi J, Nomura H, Okochi K. 1986. Intrafamilial transmission of adult T cell leukemia virus. J Infect Dis 154:851857.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
13. Proietti FA, Carneiro-Proietti AB, Catalan-Soares BC, Murphy EL. 2005. Global epidemiology of HTLV-I infection and associated diseases. Oncogene 24:60586068.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
14. Uchiyama T, Yodoi J, Sagawa K, Takatsuki K, Uchino H. 1977. Adult T-cell leukemia: clinical and hematologic features of 16 cases. Blood 50:481492.[PubMed]
15. Blattner WA, Nomura A, Clark JW, Ho GY, Nakao Y, Gallo R, Robert-Guroff M. 1986. Modes of transmission and evidence for viral latency from studies of human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I in Japanese migrant populations in Hawaii. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:48954898.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
16. Manns A, Blattner WA. 1991. The epidemiology of the human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I and type II: etiologic role in human disease. Transfusion 31:6775.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
17. Gessain A, Barin F, Vernant JC, Gout O, Maurs L, Calender A, de Thé G. 1985. Antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus type-I in patients with tropical spastic paraparesis. Lancet ii:407410.
18. Kitajima I, Osame M, Izumo S, Igata A. 1988. Immunological studies of HTLV-I associated myelopathy. Autoimmunity 1:125131.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
19. World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. 1989. Scientific Group on HTLV-I Infections and Associated Diseases: Report. World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila Philippines.
20. Araujo A, Hall WW. 2004. Human T-lymphotropic virus type II and neurological disease. Ann Neurol 56:1019.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
21. Jacobson S, Lehky T, Nishimura M, Robinson S, McFarlin DE, Dhib-Jalbut S. 1993. Isolation of HTLV-II from a patient with chronic, progressive neurological disease clinically indistinguishable from HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Ann Neurol 33:392396.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
22. Lehky TJ, Flerlage N, Katz D, Houff S, Hall WH, Ishii K, Monken C, Dhib-Jalbut S, McFarland HF, Jacobson S. 1996. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II-associated myelopathy: clinical and immunologic profiles. Ann Neurol 40:714723.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
23. Fujiyama C, Fujiyoshi T, Matsumoto D, Tamashiro H, Sonoda S. 1995. Evaluation of commercial HTLV-1 test kits by a standard HTLV-1 serum panel. Bull World Health Organ 73:515521.[PubMed]
24. Stanley J. 2002. Essentials of Immunology and Serology. Delmar Thomson Learning, Clifton Park, NY.
25. Anushka S, Balram P, Mathai J, Shanumugam J. 2012. Serological evidence of HTLV-1 infection among voluntary blood donors and cancer patients from Kerala State. J Int Med Sci Acad 25:8586.
26. Thorstensson R, Albert J, Andersson S. 2002. Strategies for diagnosis of HTLV-I and -II. Transfusion 42:780791.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
27. Vrielink H, Reesink H, Habibuw M, Schuller M, van der Meer C, Lelie P. 1999. Comparison of four HTLV-I and HTLV-I + II ELISAs. Vox Sang 76:187191.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
28. Vrielink H, Reesink HW. 2004. HTLV-I/II prevalence in different geographic locations. Transfus Med Rev 18:4657.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
29. Andrade RG, Ribeiro MA, Namen-Lopes MS, Silva SM, Basques FV, Ribas JG, Carneiro-Proietti AB, Martins ML. 2010. Evaluation of the use of real-time PCR for human T cell lymphotropic virus 1 and 2 as a confirmatory test in screening for blood donors. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 43:111115.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
30. Couroucé AM, Pillonel J, Saura C. 1999. Screening of blood donations for HTLV-I/II. Transfus Med Rev 13:267274.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
31. Verdonck K, González E, Maldonado F, Agapito D, Van Dooren S, Vandamme AM, Silva-Santisteban A, Vanham G, Clark D, Gotuzzo E. 2009. Comparison of three ELISAs for the routine diagnosis of human T-lymphotropic virus infection in a high-prevalence setting in Peru. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 103:420422.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
32. Abbaszadegan MR, Jafarzadeh N, Sankian M, Varasteh A, Mahmoudi M, Sadeghizadeh M, Khatami F, Mehramiz N. 2008. Truncated MTA-1: a pitfall in ELISA-based immunoassay of HTLV-1 infection. J Biomed Biotechnol 2008:846371.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
33. Berini CA, Susana Pascuccio M, Bautista CT, Gendler SA, Eirin ME, Rodriguez C, Pando MA, Biglione MM. 2008. Comparison of four commercial screening assays for the diagnosis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2. J Virol Methods 147:322327.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
34. Jacob F, Santos-Fortuna EL, Azevedo RS, Caterino-de-Araujo A. 2007. Performances of HTLV serological tests in diagnosing HTLV infection in high-risk population of São Paulo, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 49:361364.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
35. Yao K, Hisada M, Maloney E, Yamano Y, Hanchard B, Wilks R, Rios M, Jacobson S. 2006. Human T lymphotropic virus types I and II Western blot seroindeterminate status and its association with exposure to prototype HTLV-I. J Infect Dis 193:427437.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
36. Yanagihara R, Garruto RM, Miller MA, Leon-Monzon M, Liberski PP, Gajdusek DC, Jenkins CL, Sanders RC, Alpers MP. 1990. Isolation of HTLV-I from members of a remote tribe in New Guinea. N Engl J Med 323:993994.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
37. Delaporte E, Monplaisir N, Louwagie J, Peeters M, Martin-Prével Y, Louis JP, Trebucq A, Bedjabaga L, Ossari S, Honoré C. 1991. Prevalence of HTLV-I and HTLV-II infection in Gabon, Africa: comparison of the serological and PCR results. Int J Cancer 49:373376.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
38. Garin B, Gosselin S, de Thé G, Gessain A. 1994. HTLV-I/II infection in a high viral endemic area of Zaire, Central Africa: comparative evaluation of serology, PCR, and significance of indeterminate Western blot pattern. J Med Virol 44:104109.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
39. Gessain A, Mathieux R. 1995. HTLV-I “indeterminate” Western blot patterns observed in sera from tropical regions: the situation revisited. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 9:316319.[PubMed]
40. Caterino-de-Araujo A, de los Santos-Fortuna E, Meleiro MC, Suleiman J, Calabrò ML, Favero A, De Rossi A, Chieco-Bianchi L. 1998. Sensitivity of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests in relation to Western blot in detecting human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II infection among HIV-1 infected patients from São Paulo, Brazil. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 30:173182.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
41. Mangano AM, Remesar M, del Pozo A, Sen L. 2004. Human T lymphotropic virus types I and II proviral sequences in Argentinian blood donors with indeterminate Western blot patterns. J Med Virol 74:323327.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
42. Medrano FJ, Soriano V, Calderón EJ, Rey C, Gutiérrez M, Bravo R, Leal M, González-Lahoz J, Lissen E. 1997. Significance of indeterminate reactivity to human T-cell lymphotropic virus in Western blot analysis of individuals at risk. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 16:249252.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
43. Busch MP, Switzer WM, Murphy EL, Thomson R, Heneine W. 2000. Absence of evidence of infection with divergent primate T-lymphotropic viruses in United States blood donors who have seroindeterminate HTLV test results. Transfusion 40:443449.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
44. Roberts BD, Foung SK, Lipka JJ, Kaplan JE, Hadlock KG, Reyes GR, Chan L, Heneine W, Khabbaz RF. 1993. Evaluation of an immunoblot assay for serological confirmation and differentiation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II. J Clin Microbiol 31:260264.[PubMed]
45. Sabino EC, Zrein M, Taborda CP, Otani MM, Ribeiro-Dos-Santos G, Sáez-Alquézar A. 1999. Evaluation of the INNO-LIA HTLV I/II assay for confirmation of human T-cell leukemia virus-reactive sera in blood bank donations. J Clin Microbiol 37:13241328.[PubMed]
46. Zrein M, Louwagie J, Boeykens H, Govers L, Hendrickx G, Bosman F, Sablon E, Demarquilly C, Boniface M, Saman E. 1998. Assessment of a new immunoassay for serological confirmation and discrimination of human T-cell lymphotropic virus infections. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 5:4549.[PubMed]
47. Mullis KB, Faloona FA. 1987. Specific synthesis of DNA in vitro via a polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction. Methods Enzymol 155:335350.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
48. Defer C, Coste J, Descamps F, Voisin S, Lemaire JM, Maniez M, Couroucé AM Retrovirus Study Group of the French Society of Blood Transfusion. 1995. Contribution of polymerase chain reaction and radioimmunoprecipitation assay in the confirmation of human T-lymphotropic virus infection in French blood donors. Transfusion 35:596600.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
49. Gallego S, Mangano A, Gastaldello R, Sen L, Medeot S. 2004. Usefulness of a nested-polymerase chain reaction for molecular diagnosis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I/II. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 99:377380.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
50. Kira J, Koyanagi Y, Yamada T, Itoyama Y, Goto I, Yamamoto N, Sasaki H, Sakaki Y. 1991. Increased HTLV-I proviral DNA in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy: a quantitative polymerase chain reaction study. Ann Neurol 29:194201.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
51. Nagai M, Usuku K, Matsumoto W, Kodama D, Takenouchi N, Moritoyo T, Hashiguchi S, Ichinose M, Bangham CR, Izumo S, Osame M. 1998. Analysis of HTLV-I proviral load in 202 HAM/TSP patients and 243 asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers: high proviral load strongly predisposes to HAM/TSP. J Neurovirol 4:586593.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
52. Demontis MA, Hilburn S, Taylor GP. 2013. Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 viral load variability and long-term trends in asymptomatic carriers and in patients with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1-related diseases. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 29:359364.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
53. Matsuzaki T, Nakagawa M, Nagai M, Usuku K, Higuchi I, Arimura K, Kubota H, Izumo S, Akiba S, Osame M. 2001. HTLV-I proviral load correlates with progression of motor disability in HAM/TSP: analysis of 239 HAM/TSP patients including 64 patients followed up for 10 years. J Neurovirol 7:228234.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
54. Olindo S, Lézin A, Cabre P, Merle H, Saint-Vil M, Edimonana Kaptue M, Signate A, Césaire R, Smadja D. 2005. HTLV-1 proviral load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells quantified in 100 HAM/TSP patients: a marker of disease progression. J Neurol Sci 237:5359.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
55. Castro GM, Balangero MC, Maturano E, Mangeaud A, Gallego SV. 2013. Development and validation of a real-time PCR assay for a novel HTLV-1 tax sequence detection and proviral load quantitation. J Virol Methods 189:383387.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
56. Rosadas C, Cabral-Castro MJ, Vicente AC, Peralta JM, Puccioni-Sohler M. 2013. Validation of a quantitative real-time PCR assay for HTLV-1 proviral load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Virol Methods 193:536541.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
57. Rafatpanah H, Fathimoghadam F, Shahabi M, Eftekharzadeh I, Hedayati-Moghaddam M, Valizadeh N, Tadayon M, Shamsian SA, Bidkhori H, Miri R, Bazarbachi A. 2013. No evidence of HTLV-II infection among immunoblot indeterminate samples using nested PCR in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran. Iran J Basic Med Sci 16:229234.[PubMed]
58. Santos TJ, Costa CM, Goubau P, Vandamme AM, Desmyter J, Van Doren S, Mota RM, de Castro Costa FB, Oliveira AC, Barreto V, Gomes AF, Carneiro-Proietti AB, de Bruin VM, de Sousa FC, Oriá RB. 2003. Western blot seroindeterminate individuals for human T-lymphotropic virus I/II (HTLV-I/II) in Fortaleza (Brazil): a serological and molecular diagnostic and epidemiological approach. Braz J Infect Dis 7:202209.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
59. Grassi MF, Olavarria VN, Kruschewsky RA, Yamano Y, Jacobson S, Taylor GP, Martin F, Galvão-Castro B. 2013. Utility of HTLV proviral load quantification in diagnosis of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy requires international standardization. J Clin Virol 58:584586.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
60. Kamihira S, Yamano Y, Iwanaga M, Sasaki D, Satake M, Okayama A, Umeki K, Kubota R, Izumo S, Yamaguchi K, Watanabe T. 2010. Intra- and inter-laboratory variability in human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 proviral load quantification using real-time polymerase chain reaction assays: a multi-center study. Cancer Sci 101:23612367.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
61. Pinheiro LB, Coleman VA, Hindson CM, Herrmann J, Hindson BJ, Bhat S, Emslie KR. 2012. Evaluation of a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction format for DNA copy number quantification. Anal Chem 84:10031011.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
62. Brunetto GS, Massoud R, Leibovitch EC, Caruso B, Johnson K, Ohayon J, Fenton K, Cortese I, Jacobson S. 2014. Digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) for the precise quantification of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 proviral loads in peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid of HAM/TSP patients and identification of viral mutations. J Neurovirol 20:341351.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
63. Kamihira S, Dateki N, Sugahara K, Hayashi T, Harasawa H, Minami S, Hirakata Y, Yamada Y. 2003. Significance of HTLV-1 proviral load quantification by real-time PCR as a surrogate marker for HTLV-1-infected cell count. Clin Lab Haematol 25:111117.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
64. Silva MT, Harab RC, Leite AC, Schor D, Araújo A, Andrada-Serpa MJ. 2007. Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral load in asymptomatic carriers, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, and other neurological abnormalities associated with HTLV-1 infection. Clin Infect Dis 44:689692.[CrossRef].[PubMed]
65. Estes MC, Sevall JS. 2003. Multiplex PCR using real time DNA amplification for the rapid detection and quantitation of HTLV I or II. Mol Cell Probes 17:5968.[PubMed].[CrossRef]
66. Waters A, Oliveira AL, Coughlan S, de Venecia C, Schor D, Leite AC, Araújo AQ, Hall WW. 2011. Multiplex real-time PCR for the detection and quantitation of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 proviral load: addressing the issue of indeterminate HTLV results. J Clin Virol 52:3844.[CrossRef].[PubMed]

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Viral target regions and reference materials for quantification of HTLV-1 and -2 by qPCR

Citation: Caruso B, Massoud R, Jacobson S. 2016. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2, p 674-681. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch70

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error